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j)£ J)0l|J JS>trij}tttnS, for their various and matchless excellences, have won the admiration and vcnei 
ation of the wise and good of all ages and countries that have been blessed with their light. 

Study the Holy Scriptures. Therein are contained the words of eternal life. They have Gktd fc 
their author, salvation for their end, and truth without any mixture of error for their matter. 

The Scriptures contain, independently of a divine origin, more true sublimity, more exquisite beauty 
purer morality, more important history, and finer strains both of poetry and eloquence, than could h 
collected within the same compass from all other books that were ever composed in any age or in an; 
The two parts of which the Scriptures consist (the Old and New Testaments) are connected by a chain of com 
positions {the prophecies) which bear no resemblance in form or style to any that can be produced from the store- 
of Grecian, Indian, Persian, or even Arabian, learning. The antiquity of these compositions no man doubts, an< 
the unstrained application of them to events long subsequent to their publication is a solid ground of belief tha 
they were genuine predictions, and consequently inspired. 

The intimate connection between the Old and New Testament is thus strongly marked. The writings of the 
Old and New Testaments are to be considered as one work, written, it is true, by different persons at different times 
but dictated by the same spirit. They relate the uniform conduct of God to his people, and the divine proceedings 
ander the new dispensation bear a strict conformity to those under the Old ; they are parallel, and therefore refer- 
ence is frequently made to rites, ceremonies, circumstances and events that are exactly similar in both, and may be 
justly styled " Books that are medicines of the soul, not to read which is the cause of all evils." 

But the Holy Scriptures, notwithstanding their superlative excellence, are in many places " hard to be under- 
stood, and " hard to be interpreted," which the ignorant and unstable of all ages and countries are apt " to wrest tc 
their own destruction," " deceived themselves, and deceiving others." 2 Pet. 3 : 16 ; Heb. 5:11; 2 Tim. 3 : 13. " Ye 
do err," said our blessed Lord, " not knowing THE SCRIPTURES." Matt. 22 : 29. 
The real difficulties of Scripture originate from sundry causes : 

1. The ancient languages in which they were written — the Hebrew of the Old Testament and Greek of the 
New — have long, very long since, ceased to be spoken. But a living language abounds in niceties of construction 
which expire with it and are irretrievably lost. Like the life-blood, they cannot be transfused into another language. 

2. The Oriental phraseology, imagery, manners and customs differ widely from those of our age and country. 
end are apt to he misunderstood. 

3. The miscellaneous form of the sacred books, detached from each other, without apparent connection or con- 
tinuity, and seldom with any express reference to each other. 

4. The history, laws and customs of God's chosen people, the Jews, and of the several heathen or foreign 
nations with whom they were connected by alliance or by vassalage, are all blended together, and intermingled 
with the prophecies relative to both. These prophecies are often obscure and enigmatical, and this was wiselj 
Ordered, lest a clearer exposure might prove detrimental to the prophets themselves, and also to the people for whos< 
information they were intended. 

5. Times and seasons are not critically marked in Scripture by reference to any fixed or established era or 
sturdard of computation, but by a vague and indefinite measure of time, generations, reigns, priesthoods, etc. 

6. The want of a correct standard text. — The Hebrew and Greek Scriptures do not accurately agree or critically 
correspond in all points, and the variations create no small embarrassment to the translator, the commentator, the 
chronologer and the historian in selecting the best or the most unexceptionable readings throughout. 



7. The imperfections of all the received translations. — The authorized translation, under the auspices of King 
James I., published in 1611, is unquestionably superior to all its predecessors. It is not sufficiently close and uni 
form in rendering the originals; and though a good popular translation, in the main, of admirable plainness and 
simplicity of style, yet it is not calculated to convey precise and critical information in difficult and mysterious 
passages, of the prophecies especially and poetical parts of Scripture ; even in the Gospels, those perfect models oi 
historical narration, mistranslations occur, originating from ignorance of or inattention to the peculiar force of the 
Greek article. 

1. Scripture is its own best interpreter. The same incidents, the same sentiments and the same expressions and 
phrases are frequently repeated in the same or in different books. What is obscure and unintelligible, perhaps, in 
one passage, is frequently cleared up satisfactorily either by the context or by parallel passages in the same or ir 
different books. The New Testament especially is the noblest comment on the Old, of " the spirit " always, of " the 
later " often. 2 Cor. 3 : 6. 

2. The collations of Hebrew manuscripts and the ancient versions, the Greek of the Septuagint, the Latin Vul 
gate, the Chaldee Targums or Paraphrases, the Syriac Version, the Arabic, etc., all furnish copious sources of cor 
rection and emendation of the received texts. The most valuable sources, indeed, are the ancient versions, framed 
from manuscripts of a much earlier date than any of the present, few if any of which can boast an antiquity of 
more than fifteen hundred years. 

8. In addition to the Chaldee Targums, we find that the Jewish historians and antiquaries Philo and Josephus, 
and the Rabbinical comments, often furnish valuable explanations of the languages, rites and customs and of the litem 
and figurative interpretation of Holy Writ. 

4. Within the last three centuries, and especially in the course of the present, the learned languages have beeu 
more skillfully studied, and large accessions have been made to the general fund of sacred literature in all its vari 
ous branches by the researches of the learned and the discoveries of travelers in all quarters of the globe, During 
the past six years nearly five thousand square miles of Palestine have been surveyed, accurate maps of the country 
made, and the sites of three-fourths of the cities and towns mentioned in the Bible determined in accordance with 
scriptural readings. Photographs have been taken of ancient cities, ruins, mountains and places of great interest 
to the Christian world. 

"Many run to and fro " in quest of information with restless curiosity, and " labor unabashed " to " increase 
knowledge" in general and "scriptural knowledge" in particular. And we are assured by the unerring word oi 
prophecy that " it shall be increased until the time of the end," or full disclosure of the PROVIDENTIAL 
HISTORY of mankind. 

The paramount excellence, therefore, the importance and the difficulty, of the ORIGINAL SCRIPTURES. 
have given birth to a greater number and variety of helps, expositions, commentaries, concordances, etc., than an;y 
other books that ever were written in any age or in any language. But amidst all the endless variety oi scriptural 
helps we may search in vain for a history of the Bible which shall be plain* and clear even to the unlearned, and 
yet concise, correct and critical ; competent to arrange all the scattered events in a regular and lucid chronological 
and geographical order; to trace the connection between the Old and the New Testaments throughout; competent tc 
expound the mysteries and precepts of both intelligibly, rationally and faithfully; evangelical, but not sectarian; 
without adding to or diminishing from the Word of God ; to unfold and interpret the whole grand and compre- 
hensive scheme of " the prophetic argument" from Genesis to Revelations, all admirably linked and closely con- 
nected together, subsisting in THE DIVINE MIND " before the foundation of the world " (1 Pet. 1 : 20 ; Rev. 13 
8), and gradually revealed to mankind at sundry times and divers modes and by degrees during the patriarchal 
Mosaical and Christian dispensations as they were able to bear it (Heb. 1:1); competent to solve real difficulties ano 
reconcile apparent dissonances, resulting from the obscurity of the original text, or from inaccurate translations ; to 
silence skeptics, infidels and scoffers by exposing the weakness and inconclusiveness of their objections and cavils; 
to defend the institutions of the primitive Church against schismatics and levelers; and in fine to copy as closely 
as possible the brevity and conciseness, yet simplicity and plainness, of gospel style; such a history of the Bible is 
altogether a desideratum in the annals of sacred literature, It has been our aim to present such concise scripture 
helps and illustrations to the study of the Holy Bible as will meet the wants of biblical students, teachers and Chris 
tian readers of all denominations. 


6 7 






The Bible is the word of God. In it he makes known to man 
his character and will. It is given by inspiration of the Holy 
Spirit, and is profitable to all, teaching men what to believe, 
showing them in what they are wrong, instructing them iu what is 
right. Although written by i;en ; God directed them what to 

how to write, that as a rule of faith and guide to practici it 
might be perfect. A knowledge oi this book is more to lie desired 
than fine gold, for in understanding, believing and obeying it there 
is great reward, both here and hereafter. 

Every person who can should have a Bible and read it daily, pray- 
ing God to teach him rightly to understand it, to believe and obey 
its precepts. It will be life to his soul and wisdom to salvation. 

In the study of this book of God it becomes us to inquire what 
is the thought, idea or truth which the writer or speaker desires to 
place before us. It is not what we can force by our ingenuity or 
aur fancy from his words, but what was " the mind of the Spirit " 
who inspired his pen. Some portions of the sacred word admit 
of more than one sense or one application ; but it may be taken as 
a general principle that the Spirit of God had some leading truth 
to make known in every passage, aud for this truth we should 
search as for hidden treasure, and when we have found it esteem it 
as a pearl of great price. 

It is admitted that the New Testament contains richer and fuller 
communications of the divine plan of redemption than all prior 
revelations ; therefore the Old Testament must be read in the light 
of the New, for the Old is prophetic of the New, and the New is 
but the fulfillment of the Old. By this plan we may " realize all the 
deep harmonies between the earlier and the later dispensation. In 
the light shed by prophecy, the two covenants seem no longer dis- 
united. The Old Testament, as it ' telleth of Christ that should 
some,' blends insensibly into the New, that ' telleth of Christ that 
is come,' and both are parts of one divine whole." 

The general diffusion of the Bible is the most effectual way to 
civilize and humanize mankind; to purify and exalt the general 
system of public morals; to give efficacy to the just precepts of 
international and municipal law ; to enforce the observance of pru- 
deuce, temperance, justice and fortitude; and to improve all the 
relations of social and domestic life. 

It is a grand subject for meditation to behold in our modern soci- 
eties the love of the holy doctrines of the gospel advancing with 
the progress of philosophy and of political institutions, so that the 
nations which are most advanced in civilization and in liberty are 
also the most religious, the most truly Christian. 

A despotic government may subsist, and perhaps prosperously too, 
without the Bible; a republic cannot. A republic cannot, like a 
despotic government, be sustained by force. She cannot, like the 
despot, tame her children into heartless submission by the bayonets 
of a mercenary army ; her bayonets are reserved for the invading 

Human laws labor under many imperfections. They extend to 
external actions only. They cannot reach that catalogue of secret 
crimes which are committed without any witness save the all-seeing 
tye of that Being whose presence is everywhere, and whose laws 
reach the hidden recesses of vice and carry their sanctions to the 


thoughts and intents of the heart. In this view, the doctrines if 

the Bible supply all the deficiencies of human lav..- and lend an 
essential aid to the administration of justice. 

Not only does the Bible inculcate, ■ ith sanctions of highest im 
port, a system of the purest morality, but in the person and cha* 
racter of our blessed Saviour it exhibits rible Qlusl 

that system. In him we have set before us — what, till the publica- 
tion of the gospel, the world had never seen — a model of feeling 
action adapted to all times, places and circumstances, and combining 
so much of wisdom, benevolence and holiness that none can fathom 
its sublimity, and yet presented in a form so simple that even a child 
may be made to understand and taught to love it. 

The Holy Scriptures are designed to satisfy the wants of the - 
by showing how man may be reconciled to God, aud so renew 
spiritual life; and they furnish the means for the culture oi 
intellectual and moral nature in harmony with the new state. 

One of the strongest desires of our nature is to know our.-. 
and our future destiny. In all the ages of which there are any 
records we find that thoughtful souls have felt this desire, and the 
only true source of knowledge and consolation that has been written 
and preserved for our use is that which has come down to us in the 
care of the Hebrew race. 

In this book we find an idea of the one God and of the divine 
purposes in the work of creation and providence ; of the fall and 
redemption of man. .Viewed as a whole, the several parts of the 
work, from Genesis to Revelation, depend upon and sustain each 
other, because they are all necessary to the completeness of the 

Divine wisdom must always select a proper instrument to do ite 
required work; and we may therefore believe that the proof of the 
divine origin of the Scriptures does not depend on the character oi 
fitness of any of the writers. 

There is a peculiar superhuman spirit appearing in the truths 
and precepts of this priceless record — in the purity and justice of 
its moral distinctions; its moral law, which is the only correct stand- 
ard in morals ; its account of the divine solicitude for the sins of 
men and the means used to promote upright conduct; its clear 
ideas of the mercy of the divine Father ; its wonderful analysis of 
the character of man, his state of sin and the change necessary to 
salvation; the peculiar character of redeemed souls; the certain 
punishment of wrong-doing ; its divine promises and their influence 
on the heart ; its consolations in trials and sufferings ; and its prep- 
aration for death. All of these truths and statements, which are 
above and beyond the reach of unaid< d human reason, combin 
stamp its divine origin and compel our reverence. 

The books composing the Holy Bible were written in different 
ages, from Moses to John (b. c. 1650 to a. d. 90 — a period of more 
than seventeen hundred years), by men who were specially prepared 
for the work by direct inspiration from the divine Source of all 

The several books bear a uniform and unvarying testimony ifi 
support of each other by quotations, by the express recognitions 
of the prophets, evangelists, apostles and the Lord Jesus himself t 
thus convincing us that in all ages, from that of Moses to the 






present, the best men - "eved in its Divine origin, and have 

aited accordingly. 

The Hebrews ware exceedingly careful about aiese writings, as 
a.: examination of their very complete system for their preser- 
vation and interpretation will show. 

There are references to the writing and reading of the law in 
&e Old Testament, in every age, beginning with Moses. It was 
read for instruction publicly in the desert of Sinai, at Kadesh, at 
"the crossing of Jordan, at the great assembly on Ebal and Gerizim, 
at Shiloh, at the dedication of Solomon's temple, the reform under 
Hezekiah, and more particularly in the case of the collection of 
the whole Old Testament by Ezra, who arranged it in the order 
that is still preserved. 

This settlement of the canon in its present form is dated from 
the close of the captivity in Babylon. 

While the Hebrews were in Assyria, captives, their language fell 
into disuse, being neglected for the Chaldsean in popular use. This 
made it necessary to appoint teachers of the law of Moses, whose 
duties were to preserve a knowledge of the Scriptures and the lan- 
guage in which they were written. Ezra was the chief of this class 
m the later years of the captivity. He returned to Jerusalem from 
Babylon with the exiles, whore he completed his great work of 
compiling, or rather arranging in chronological order, the sacred 
books, for which service he was called the second Moses, and was 
dignified with the title of scribe (in Hebrew sofer). 

When Nehemiah formed the Great Synagogue, the Scribes were 
recognized as a distinct order in the nation, and seats were given 
to a number of them in the general assembly among the ruling 
slders. i 

The work of this body of learned and devout men was : 1. To 
make the only copies of the sacred Scriptures that were allowed to 
be used ; 2. To count the letters in every book, and the number 
of times that each letter occurred in each book and in all the 
books ; 3. To read the " law " in public on the Sabbath and festi- 
val days ; 4. To lecture to their disciples (students of the law) on 
the meaning of the Holy Scriptures ; 5. To arrange the liturgy for 
public worship ; 6. To form the traditions ; 7. To protect the law 
by by-laws which directed how to copy, keep and interpret the 
holy writings ; 8. To correct any accidental errors in the original 
text ; and 9. To add to the sacred canon the books of the prophet* 
and of the poets. 

The writings were not added to the text of the Scriptures, but 
were put on the margin, near the text which they explained or 

Their rules may be judged of from two specimens: 1. Except 
every one do keep them (the Scriptures) whole and undefiled, 
without doubt he shall perish everlastingly ; and 2. Except a man 
believe them faithfully, he cannot be saved. 

This order of learned and devout men continued as a distinct 
class, from B.C. 458, the end of the captivity in Babylon, to B.C. 
SvO, when the order became extinct at the death of Simon the 

A parallel historical witness is found in the sect of the Samari- 
tans, who separated from the Jews after the captivity (being com- 
posed of Jews and Chaldseans), built a temple on Mount Gerizim, 
•imade a new creed, and copied the Pentateuch only out of the law 
for their own use. The mutual hatred between the Samaritans and 
Jews put it out of the case to suppose that there could have been a 
collusion between them to add to or change a single word or letter 
&f the sacred writings, and both parties strove to convince the 
fcorld that their particular copy of the law was the more ancient. 
They differ but in a very few particulars, which may all be 
accounted for chiefly as errors of the copyists. 

Succeeding the Scribes were certain teachers of the law who were 

called Sages, Wise Ones, Elders and Doctors (Tanaim). Tneii 
duties were almost identical with those of the Scribes whom they 

So from age to age, as society changed or new circumstances 
arose, the interpretations of the Scriptures were changed to suit. 
the new state of things. The writings of the Scribes were explained 
by the Doctors, and these by later teachers, when a vast mass of 
writings accumulated, which formed what is called the Talmud, 
The Talmud is composed of two parts, the Mishna, which is the" 
oral law, and the Gemara, the traditions. 

The Doctors were very important and influential in the natiosn 
It was among them that Joseph and Mary found the child 
Jesu3 explaining the simple truth of the Scripture in contrast to 
the misty and almost blind superstition of the commentators. The 
order c J < the Doctors continued as a distinct body from b. c. 200 
to A. d. 220. 

The Pharisees were a sect of patriotic and devout Jews, whose 
idea was to make Israel a nation of priests in fact, as well as it 
was in their law as written by Moses, and it was the duty of each 
member to strive, by religious study and preparation for the office 
of a Rabbi (teacher), to become a priest in spirit, although not of 
the house of Levi, believing that " God had given to all men alike 
the kingdoms, priesthood and holiness." They assumed the duty 
of special guardians of the Holy Scriptures. 

The Essenes were simply intensified Pharisees, adding to theii 
duties and professions the self-denial of a life of celibacy, and theii 
example and influence were most beneficial to the nation. They 
also were jealous custodians of the Scriptures. 

These various orders of learned men cared for the Holy Book& 
during a period of more than seven hundred years, ending about 
three hundred years after Christ. Since that time the Jews hav 
continued the care of their sacred writings with the same jealous 
watchfulness, believing that the Messiah has not yet appeared, ant' 
that his coming may possibly be near at hand. 

These writings so carefully preserved were in the Hebrew tongue, 
and it is interesting to know how they have been translated into 
other languages, and especially into English. 

The first translation from the Hebrew into any other language, 
that is recorded, was in Chaklee, which was made at the time the 
law was read to the king of Persia. The original of this has been 
lost. The oldest which has been preserved is that which was made 
at Alexandria in Egypt, b. c. 260, and is called the Septuagint 
from a supposition that it was made by seventy translators. 

The next in order of time was made by Onkelos, in Chaldee 3 
A. D. 150. The same author, whose name in Greek was Aquila, 
also translated the Old Testament into Greek, A. D. 160. This work 
was evidently intended to correct the errors of the Septuagint, 
which was made by several persons, some of whom were not equal 
to the task ; besides, the state of public opinion at the rime per- 
mitted the translators to give the general sense of the original 
instead of following the literal text. 

The Septuagint was also corrected by Theodotion, and about the 
same time (second century) Symmachus made a version in Greek 
for the use of the Ebionites, which is correct, pure and elegant in , 
style and diction. 

In the time of the Apostles there were many copies of the Gos- 
pels for the use of the Church in the different cities, in the lan- 
guages of the localities — Greek, Latin, Hebrew, Syriac, Coptic, 
Ethiopic and Arabic — but the authors of these works are now 

The Ethiopic version was written in the sacred Jeez, the dialect 
of Axum, in the fourth century. The Coptic and Memphitic ver- 
sions were made soon after, and the Coptic is now in use in Egypt. 


s j 









The Syriac (called Peshito, single, literal) was made from the 
Hebrew and Greek about A. d. 200, and had become almost obso- 
lete as early as the fourth century The work included the whole 
Bible, with the Apocrypha. 

Paul of Tela made a version of the Septuagint at Alexandria, 
A.D. 617, which was extremely literal, every Greek word being 
eadered by one in Syriac. 

The Thebaic version in the common dialect of Egypt was made 
n the third century, but soon fell into disuse, especially among 
scholars, who preferred the more elegant Coptic. 

The Gothic version was made about a. d. 383, by Ulphilas. 
There is a copy of the original edition in Upsal, Sweden. 

The great works of Origen consumed twenty-eight years of his 
life, and consist of homilies and commentaries, written with every 
evidence of scholarship and untiring research, extended into all 
Bible lands. He first arranged four versions on the same page for 
comparison of the text of each with the others as to correctness, 
as follows : 

1. Septuagint ; 2. Aquila ; 3. Symmachus ; 4. Theodotion. After- 
ward he added two others, making what is known as the Hexapla 
(six parts). Some portions of the Gospels were in eight versions. 
The whole work comprised nearly fifty volumes folio, of which 
only a very few pages are in existence now. 
The Veneto Greek version is dated a. d. 875. 
Tertullian (born a. d. 160, died 245) describes a Latin version 
>f the Gospels which had influence to a great degree on the popu- 
lar speech, elevating it to a high standard of excellence. 

It is only possible that the Old Testament had been translated 
uto Latin before the crucifixion, but there is no record of such a 
fact, although indirect evidence may be seen in the similarity of 
style of the Old and New Testaments as thev are found in the ver- 
sion which was used before Jerome's was made. 

The extensive influence of the Scriptures in the early ages may 
be gathered from the remark, so often repeated, that the whole 
Bible could be gathered from the writings of the early centuries, 
so copious were their quotations. 

The great scholar who above all others succeeded in making the 
jnost valuable version of the Scriptures in the Latin tongue was 
Jerome, whose name as written in Latin was Eusebius Hieronymus 
Sophronius (born a. d. 329 at Stridon, died 420 at Bethlehem). 
He was a student and a traveler from his youth, and a patient 
gatherer of knowledge serviceable in his great undertaking in all 
parts of the Christian world. His version was for more than 
qight centuries the great bulwark of the Church in the west of 
Europe, as the Septuagint was of the Church in the east. His 

Christopher Sower printed a Bible in German at Germantown, 
Pa., in 1743, which was the first Bible printed in America next to 
Eliot's Bible in the Indian language. 

The first recorded translation of the Bible in the English tongue 
was the work of Caedmon, who rendered tne whole Bible, fron 
Genesis to Revelation, into alliterative verse, a. d. 680. @ m aftei 
this Aldhelm, Bishop of Sherborne, rendered the Psalms into 
verse. Bede translated John's Gospel (a. d. 735 , and Alfred the 
Great (died a.d. 901) wrote or published the lour chapters of 
laws from the book of Exodus, because he desired that "all l 
born youth ot his kingdom should be able to read the English 
Scriptures" (as well as be educated generally). He had a book 
of extracts from the Psalms and other books made for use in his 

The oldest version of the Anglo-Saxon Gospels is called the 
Durham Book, of which a specimen copy is now extant, dated 
a. d. 688. 

The Normans were no friends to education in thi tongue 

and did not translate the Scriptures, but tried to educate the peo- 
ple in religious matters by the use of miracle-plays and pictures. 
Only a few works on the Scriptures are dated in tln-ir age, of which 
we have still remaining three versions of the Gospel, and the 
Ormulum, a metrical paraphrase of the Gospel history in allitera- 
tive verse. 

In the thirteenth century there occurred a religious revival, 
when the Bible was translated into Norman-French. 

The reformer Wyclifle (born 1324, died 1384) rendered into 
English almost the entire Bible, " So that for Cristen men may 
some dele know the text of the Gospel, with the comyn sentence of 
olde holie doctores." This great work was an important element 
in opening the way for the Reformation. 

Tindale devoted his whole life and his great learning and emi- 
nent abilities that "a boy that driveth a plough" might know more 
of the Scrijjtures than the great body of the clergy then knew 
(a. d. 1520). He said that " The properties of the Hebrew tongue 
agree a thousand times more with English than with the Latin.' 
This work of translating the Bible into English was bitterly 
opposed by the Roman Catholics as long as they had any powej 
in England or influence in Europe, and their wishes were seconded 
by King Henry VIII., who threw Tindale into prison, when, aftei 
several years of confinement, he was condemned to death by tin. 
Emperor Charles V., and was put to death at Villefort, near Brua 
sels, in 1536, and his body burned to ash< s, 

Tindale's idea was that every part of the Scriptures had ODe 
sense only, and he kept that always in view, translating from the 

n of 

work has not come down to us entire, for -the present Vulgate [ original Hebrew and Greek. Even his enemies have admitted that 
(Douay Bible) has in it the work of many hands. 

The tran^t^^f^the BjbJ^ iiiJ3^rmn^y ^^f^^lf 
of Weissenbjii^kabt)!y«/^ jeS(r AipiifJir^in JD 1 !?*^"! '«&i 
the Life of Jesus, the Psalms, Canticles and Genesis. 

Luther's version was made by the assistance of Melancthon, 
Aurogallus, Bugenhagen, Jonas and Creuziger, although the 
greater part of the work was done by himself, from A. D. 1522, 
when the New Testament appeared, to 1534, when the whole Bible, 
including the Apocrypha, was published. 

There are also versions in Low German (1533), Danish (1550), 
Swedish (1526), Icelandic (1540), by Thorlak Skuleson (1644), 
Dutch (1648) and Pomeranian (1588). 

The Reformed Church of Switzerland published a translation in 

his work was excellent. Its language is pure, appropriate and 
clear to the understanding. Evidences of great learning and 
research give it a pre-eminent position among the enduring monu- 
ments of human intelligence and skill. Tindale has been justly 
honored with the title of the father of our Engli-h authorized 

It is mournfully interesting to record in memory of his learned 
and faithful assistants that one of them, John Fry, was burned at 
the stake for heresy, on account of his share in this work of trans- 
lation, at Smithfield, London, in 1552, and another, the Monk 
William Roye, was put to death for the same offence, in Portugal, 
in 1553, while a third, Miles Coverdale, a priest, barely escaped 
death, and even while in prison, for this same matter, edited an 

the Swiss dialect of all the canonical Books of the Old and New : edition of the Bible in 1535, which was dedicated to the king of 

Testaments as early as 1531; another in 1665, and the Synod of [England. In his preface Coverdale declared that he "had net 

Dort one in 1637. |changed so much as one word for the benefit of any sect, but had 

The Vulgate was translated into German at Leipsic in 1527. )with a clear conscience purely aud faithfully translated out of the 





ingoing luterprefeM; having only before his eyes the manifest 
truth of Scriptures." This was the first edition of the entire Bible 
th&t was printed in English, and was also the first authorized ver- 
sions It was published in six volumes, folio, with marginal notes 
and cross-references, and illustrated with many wood-cuts. 

Lord Cromwell, secretary to Henry the Eighth, vicar-general m 
Jmrch affairs, favored this edition, and by the king's authority 
published a decree, commanding " every person or proprietary of 
avery parish church within the realm should, before the first of 
August, 1536, provide a book of the whole Bible, both in Latin 
and English, and lay it in the choir, for every man that would to 
fook ard read therein." 

Tindale's version was edited by the martyr John Rogers, who 
prudently assumed the name of Thomas Matthewe as a disguise, 
because of the enemies of Tindale, whose intimate friend he was. 
This edition followed Tindale's version as far as the end of Chroni- 
cles, and that of Rogers for the rest. Many wood-cuts embellished 
both the Old and New Testaments, the book of Revelation having 
oae to each chapter. 

Cranraer presented a copy of it to Lord Cromwell in 1558, ask- 
ing his intercession with the king for the royal authority, which 
was granted. A royal proclamation also informed the people that 
it had pleased the king to permit and command that the Bible, 
printed in the English language, should be used for instruction in 
every parish church- 

The Roman party still opposed the printing of the Bible in 
English with all their might, and especially its free distribution 
and use by the people, but the friends of the Reformation were 
encouraged, and the people all over England attended in crowds 
to hear the book read. 

Henry the Eighth sanctioned an edition, and asked permission 
irom Francis the First to print it in France, and this having been 
granted, the work was forwarded under the care of Coverdale, 
tan til the enterprize was defeated by the Inquisition, and the whole 
edition of 2500 copies was ordered to be burned. A few copies 
were saved, with the type and presses, and the work was completed 
m England in 1539. 

Henry the Eighth's supremacy and freedom in church matters 
from the Pope of Rome was settled by Parliament in 1534, the 
year in which the Church of England was established, and from 
that time the work of translating and printing the Bible in the 
English language has been a powerful aid in the work of the great 

Although the Roman party, led by Gardner, Bishop of Win- 
chester, opposed the measure, both in public and in private, yet the 
king favored it, on account partly of the great influence of Queen 
&nn Bullen. An edition was printed by Whitchurch and Graf- 
ton, with a frontispiece of great beauty, designed by Holbein. 

A corrected reprint of Matthew^'s Bible was issued by Richard 
Taverner in 1539, under the patronage of Lord Cromwell, to whom 
the king granted the exclusive privilege of printing English Bibles 
for five years. 

After the death of Lord Cromwell, in 1540, the Roman pa<y 
gained such strength that Parliament was influenced to pass a law 
abolishing Tindale's version, because it was said to have been " full 
of errors and to produce many evils, heresies and mischiefs, destruc- 
tive of the harmony and peace of the realm." Under this act 
Grafton was imprisoned, fined a large sum, and released only under 
a heavy bond that he would not print or sell English Bibles. 

The king's proclamation also prohibited the having or reading 
Wycliffe's, Tindale's and Coverdale's versions. 

"Under Edward the Sixth the restrictions against having and 
leading the Bible in English were removed, and it was ordered 

that parsons and others in the chuMh eervic® s&oulA have the 
Scriptures in both Latin and English, with the paraphrase of 
Erasmus in English, and also that the mass should hr gsu<~ in 

The Liturgy was completed and established by act ol Parlia- 
ment in 1549. 

Romanism was restored to power by law under Queen Mary in 
1553, John Rogers was burned at the stake, and many Pimestanf 
scholars and divines were driven into exile, when they went to 
Geneva, where they entered into the spirit of translation with an 
increased vigor in 1539. 

An edition of the whole Bible (omitting the Apocrypha) war 
printed at Geneva in 1560, in English, which is called the Geneva 
Bible, and it held the popular favor for sixty years, only giving 
way to the authorized version of King James. A Bible Diction 
ary was added to it in 1578. A curious feature in it was ar> 
attempt to give the Hebrew names of persons in English letters 
as Heva for Eve, Izhak for Isaac, Jeremidhu for Jeremiah. 

Matthew Parker, Archbishop of Canterbury, published the 
"Bishoja's Bible" in 1568, in one volume folio, in which there wer*. 
a number of wood-cuts, maps and copper-plate engravings of inter 
esting places and things, both in the Old and the New Testament* 
and the Apocrypha. 

At length, in 1582, the Roman Church yielded to the populai 
demand for the Scriptures in English, and issued the Douaj 
(doo-a) version, translated from the Latin Vulgate, and not frorr 
the original Greek. The historian Fuller said that " the Douaj 
Bible was a translation which needed to be translated," and alsc 
that " its editors by all means labored to suppress the light of truth 
under one pretence or another." 

The Old Testament was translated by William Allen (Cardinal} 
Gregory Martin and Richard Briston, and published at Douay in 
1610, the New Testament having been published at Rheims in 
1582. The notes were supplied by Thomas Worthington, and the 
whole has continued until the present time in favor and authority 
in the Roman Church as its standard version in English. 

King James the First, in 1604, on the motion in Hampton Court 
Conference having been made by Dr. John Reynolds, a Puritan, 
selected fifty-four scholars and divines, cf whom forty-seven served 
in making a new translation. 

There were among them men of various parties, as of the High 
Church, Andrews, Barlow, Montague, Overal and Saravia; of the 
Puritans, Reynolds, Chaderton and Livlie ; and of those who were 
of no church party, Henry Saville and John Boyse. These men 
were all distinguished for piety and eminent learning in Oriental 

There were no records of the meetings of the translators pre* 
served, so far as known, but their rules for proceeding with theis 
work were published. 

When each company had met together to examine and agree 
upon the readings of the text, " one of the party would read tho 
translation, while the others held in their hands some version of 
the Scriptures in either one of the learned tongues, and if any error 
or fault was noticed 'they spoke ; if not, he read on." The work 
was completed in three years. The introduction and argument of 
each book were written by Thomas Biison, Bishop of Winchester 
and Dr. Smith. The preface was the work of Dr. Miles Smithy 
who was afterward Bishop of Gloucester. In this ho says, " We, 
bu ; lding upon their foundation that went before us, and being 
holpen by their labors, do endeavor to make better that which 
they left so good, no man, we are sure, hath cause to mistake us. 
They, we persuade ourselves, if they were alive, would thank us '" 
And he also said that " it was their aim, isot feo make a new trans 



io ETC, 


i H2 


?ation, nor yet tc make of a bad one a good one, but to make a 
good one better, or out of many good ones one principal good one." 

Tbe work was completed and published in 1611, with the follow- 
ing tille : 

" The Holy Bible, conteyning the Old Testament and the New, 

newly translated out of the Originall Tongues, and with the former 

Translations diligently compared aud revised by his Majestie's 

peciall Comandement. Imprinted at London, by Robert Barker, 

printer to the King's most excellent Majestic 1611." 

The only pay these men received for their long and faithful ser- 
yice was thirty pounds to each one of the six editors who made the 
Jast revision, by the Company of Stationers. The king would not 
pay out of his own treasury, and only gave a shadowy promise of 
1000 marks (about $4000), by an invitation to the archbishops 
and bishops to collect money from those willing to contribute ; but 
siothing came of 

The Authorized Version, published under the sanction of King 
James the First in 1611, from which this Bible is a copy, without 
change, except in a few cases of orthography, such as original for 
"originall," as it stands in the title of 1611, has been everywhere 
commended for its faithfulness to the original Hebrew and Greek 
Scriptures, its pure and forcible English, its plain but dignified 
fcrms of expression, and ite idiom, true to the genius of our tongue, 
as all that can be desired. 

Its chief value to the English-speaking world is its pure Eng- 
lish, which dates from a time before the introduction of the vast 
number of words from the modern languages, which more often 
obscure the meaning than help to a clear idea of what is in the 
mind. Addison, the eminent critic, says, " The translators of the 
Bible were masters of the English style, far fitter for that work 
than any we see in our present writings." The best writers, from 
hat day to this, have clothed their choicest thought in its pure 
3diom, so that its influence may be traced all through English 

Of the manuscripts it may be said that there is not the least 
question as to the antiquity of any one of the specimens. They 
have lain hidden from sight for several centuries, and " in various 
out-of-the-way places, in different parts of the world. They 
were found in the dirty and neglected chambers and cells of the 
'monks. From the dusty and long-neglected cells of the monaste- 
iies mear the Natron Lakes, and at Thebes, Egypt ; from the for- 

gotten and long closed-up rooms in the Greek monasteries in Alba 
nia ; from the libraries on Mount Athos, whore it was noticed thai 
the ignorant monks had for ages used the almost priceless voli 
for .-cats; from the Crimea, and from Odessa, whei is ;. 

Bible Society which has collected valuable specimens from all over 
the Eastern World ; from the .Jews in China, Malabar and India 
from Mount Sinai ; and in they had been fi l 

gotten for centuries, and were in som< in i with th 

dust of a thousand years, putting the case beyond all possibili* 

f\l«^e-Mivld»fr^nAR)e<iinieJlt.< iYftlfceot go any farther, uu 
our reason is satisfied and our faith quickened. 

While the printing of the Bible is a means of making copie? 
that are as free from error in a thousand copies as in one, still thi- 
uniformity is not in itself a proof of correctness, i<>r the printec 
j text is but a copy of some ancient manuscript, and if there was ai 
error in that it is of course repeated in the printed text. So it 
has been the special object of some of the best scholars and critic* 
during the last half century, to collect ancient manuscripts, com 
| pare their readings, balance the probabilities in favor of one o: 
■ another text by every known guide in criticism, until, from th< 
.multitude of various readings, errors of copyists and additions b; 
I commentators have been cleared out, and a text left which i- 
'believed to be almost, if not exactly, as written by the authors, or 
at least such as was received by the Church and the scholars as tin- 
text in the early ages. The authority in matters of faith and doc- 
trine is not here a subject of discussion, it being the work of the 
preacher and theologian. 

We may now conclude that the best men in all ages, from th - 
time of Jeremiah to the present, a period of nearly twenty-foul 
centuries, have believed the Pentateuch to be a divinely-inspired 
history and code of laws, and have added from time to time othe: 
books which they believed w?re equally entitled to reverence, such 
as the Prophets, Psalms and the New Testament, wdiile they have 
at the same time, rejected many books that have been offered at 
having an equal claim to divine inspiration. Some of the rejectee 
works, such as those in the Apocrypha, are valuable as matters c.'- 
history, and as evidence of the literary standards of their age, bi. 
they seem to lack the internal evidence that they exe "he w°rk - 
the Divine mind0 1 VINE BlR^ 


Prior to the American Revolutionary war, the country was sup- 
plied with Bibles in the English language from England. At the 
time of American independence, but two editions of the Bible had 
been printed in the United States. The first was translated into the 
Indian language by John Eliot, and printed by Marmaduke John- 
son, Cambridge, Mass., 1661, small quarto. 

The first Bible printed in this country in a foreign language was 
that of Christopher Saur, in the German language, in Germantown. 
Penna., in 1743, quarto size, the type for which was obtained from 
Germany. One thousand copies were printed. 

The first Bible printed in English was published by Robert Aitken, 

Philadelphia, in 1782, 12mo size. 

The first folio and quarto editions in the English language were 
printed and published by Isaiah Thomas, at Worcester, Mass., in 

Isaac Collins also printed and published a quarto edition, bound 
in two vols., at Trenton, N. J., in the same year. 

William Young, printer, Philadelphia, published editions of the 
Bible in 1791-92, 18mo size. 

Hodge and Campbell, New York, printed a self-interpreting Bibh 
in forty numbers folio in 1792. The name of George Washington, 
President of the United States, heads the list of subscribers. 

Berriman & Co., Philadelphia, published editions of the Bible in 
1796, folio. 

John Thompson, Philadelphia, 1798, printed and published a 
beautiful edition folio (Hot Press) in forty numbers. 

Mathew Carey, 118 Market street, Philadelphia, published his 
first edition of the Bible, quarto, in 1801. He continued publishing 
Bibles with and without engravings, printing several editions an- 
nually until 1820. 

Samuel Etheridge published a quarto edition, with engravings, 
in Charlestown, Mass., in 1803. 

B. & J. Collins, New York, published the first stereotyped quart" 
edition of the Bible in this country in the year 1816. 



BlM' B 

The oldest version in any language of which there 
is a record is the Septuaginl, written in Greek, at Alex- 
andria, Egypt, b. c. 286-280. The oldest known copy 
of this version is written on thin vellum, contains the 
whole Bible, and is dated in the fifth century ; now in 
the British Museum, and is called 

GiLB ?\e -4* a C2s e o i c e i ttb n at 


This specimen is from a copy in the 






ibrary of Trinity College, Dublin, a palimpsest, and belongs 
to the sixth century. It is from the Gospel of Mat* 
thew, xix. 26. 

This specimen is from a copy of the Book of Genesis, 
written for Origen, in Greek, A. d. 185 to 255, and shows 
a very neat and clear text, as well as all the others. 

The Codex Alexandrinus. 


The Codex Valicanus is a manuscript in the Vatican 
Library, Borne; contains the whole Bible, except a few 
lost leaves, and belongs to the fourth century. 


NtocMe rAecT/N 


The oldest He- 
brew MS. known is 
dated a.d. 489; 
roll, and was found 
in the Karaite Syna- 
gogue in the Crimea. _ 

The specimen given * &' 

here is from a Pentateuch, written originally on a roll of leather, preserved in Odessa, and was 
brought from Darbend, in Daghestan. It was corrected in a. d. 580, and was therefore written before 
that time. The text is from Malachi iv. 6. 

The Codex Smaiiicus was found in the Convent on 
Mount Sinai, and belongs to the sixth century, but is a 
copy of one of an earlier date. Besides the Old and 
N'ew Testaments, it has the Gospel and Epistles of Barnabas and the Epistle of Hermas. 
Fragments of the Gospel are contained in a palimpsest MS. in a library at Wolfen-buttel, 
xermany, where the ancient Greek letters have been scraped off, and a modern text written 

As a specimen of the ancient Hebrew letter used about the time that Paul was a pupil of Gama- 
liel, here is a copy from a gravestone in the 
Crimea, of the year A. D. 6. This style of letter 

is like that on the coins of the Maccabees, 
139, and other coins down to A. D. 130. 

© c 




v -• 





1 \ • 



/ i 



U.-0. u 

r i. 

W &:> 



kl my^^l^^v2&ion 

u ;T\ 




2) { ^JKJT 

Jinupnv a 


( On a gravestone ai Sim* 
pheropol, Crimea.) 

" This is the grave of 
Buki, son of Isaac, tho 
priest ; may his rest be in 
Paradise ! [Died] at the 
time of the deliverance of 
Israel, in the year 702 of 
our captivity" (i.e. a.d. 6). 

over them, but not entirely obliterating the ancient writing. The first speci- 
nen is from Luke i. 6. The next is one which was found at the Convent on 
he Natron Lakes, Egypt, and is Luke xx. 9, 10, with a work of Severus of 

m ■ Jt" ' -*J B * £ 5 £ 

^<*M~J V ^ W" % %*J* ''""""■ & 

£**"* C\ A / * I ft, 5 S 

«fc % % J&. £ &'-■-% « 

w m n p 1%? u v 

Sk AIDiu 

Antioch over it. It is dated A. t>. 550. Both the specimens of writing are 
one examples of the art. The great price of writing material, skins, parch- 
ment, vellum or cloth and papyrus, caused the loss of many old books, whose 
letters were erased to make room for some new work, 

The oldest printed Hebrew Bible (Old Testament) was issued at Soncino, 
Italy, a. d. 1487, in folio. The Complutensian Polyglott was published at the 
expense of Cardinal Ximenes in 1514-1522, in 6 vols, folio, and sold at fifteen 
dollars. The last specimen on this page is Greek, from the text of John i. 1, 2, 
and is dated a. d. 995. The initial letter is in blue and red colors, and is very 





finely "illuminated." The first book printed was the Bible, in Latin; and 
the splendid pages of the Mazarin Vulgate, printed by Gutenberg and Faust 
in 1455, at Mainz, are not surpassed at this day as specimens of typography. 
And the style of the letter lias not been improved upon since that time for 
*>leeance of shape or distinctness, 




3433 &87 v, t, , T "^ ^ 

By Rev G. F. Maclear, D.D. 

4NTIPATER appointed his eldest son, Phasael, Governor of Judaea, 

l\ and conferred the tetrarchy of Galilee on his youngst son, Herod. 
i * Of the two sons thus appointed to prominent positions, the younger, 
Herod, soon began to display uncommon abilities, and the most unbounded 
ambition. Though only twenty-five years of age, the new governor of 
Galilee turned his energies at once to the efficient management of his 
province. Numerous robber-bands, which infested the confines of Syria, 
were resolutely attacked ; their chief, Hezekias, was put to death, and 
security was restored. Such decision won the praises of multitudes in the 
towns and cities of Syria. 

Two years later, B.C. 44, Coesar was assassinated at Rome, and Antipater 
addressed himself to the task of meeting the new situation, unexpected 
even by his sagacity. Cassius, the chief conspirator in tlue murder of 
Caesar, became pro-consul of Syria, and arriving in Judaea, enforced upon 
the country the enormous tribute of seven hundred talents of silver. 
Antipater commissioned Herod to collect the quota from Galilee, while 
Malichus, a powerful Jew, and an adherent of Hyrcanus, was directed to 
obtain the rest. Herod, with characteristic energy, employed himself in 
raising two hundred talents for Galilee, and so gained the favour of Cassius, 
while the people of Lydda, Gophna, and Emmaus, being backward in 
their contributions, were sold into slavery; but so incensed was the pro- 
consul at Malichus for his dilatoriness, that he would have put him to 
death, had it not been for the intervention of Antipater, who advanced 
one hundred talents on his account. Herod was now confirmed in the 
government of Ccele-Syria, and Cassius even promised him the kingdom 
of Judaea, if the arms of the Republic proved triumphant. 

An unexpected power appeared in the country, and Judaea became the 
victim cf the strife for empire between Rome and Parthia. While 
Antonius was wasting his time in the society of Cleopatra, Queen of 
Egypt, the Parthians, under Pacorus, having been bribed by Antigonus, 
advanced through Syria, and made themselves masters of Sidon, Ptolemais, 
and all the coast except Tyre. Hence a division of the Parthian forces 
marched against Jerusalem, and their leader, admitted within the walls, 
proposed to act as umpire between the rival claimants for the throne of 

Meanwhile the Parthians had obtained possession of Jerusalem. 
Antigonus was made king, and Hyrcanus and Phasael were delivered into 
his power. The latter, knowing his death was certain, beat out his brains 
against the walls of his prison. Thus Jerusalem was left in the hands of 
a foreign army, who committed the greatest excesses. 

Herod in the meantime had not been idle. On arriving at Rome he 
found Antonius at the summit of power. The triumvir received him with 
the utmost distinction, and introduced him to Octavius, who at once re- 
called the services which the Idumean had rendered to the great Julius. 
A Parthian campaign was at this time being diligently planned by An- 
tonius, and he found in Herod a useful ally. Within seven days, therefore, 
he procured a decree of the senate, nominating him king of Judaea, and 
Herod, successful beyond his most sanguine hopes, walked in procession 
between Octavius and Antonius, preceded by the consuls and other magis- 
trates, to the Capitol, where the usual sacrifices were offered, and the 
decree investing him with royal power was enrolled. 

Herod did not remain long at Rome. Everything depended on the 
celerity of his movements. The close of the week, therefore, saw him 
appointed king, and hurrying to Brundusium. Thence he took ship for 
Ptolemais, and arrived there after an absence of barely three months. 
Collecting a body of troops, he speedily won over all Galilee, where the 
recollection of his energy as governor was still fresh. Then he set out to 
attack Antigonus, who had unsuccessfully laid siege to Masada, in the 
hope of obtaining possession of Mariamne. Joppa next fell into his hands ; 
and having raised the siege of Masada, and liberated his relatives, he 

Sroceeded, in conjunction with the Roman general Silo, to lay siege to 
erusalem, b. c. 37, and recommenced the siege, aided by Sosius, at the 
head of 50,000 troops. 

But his progress was still slow. Forty days were spent in taking the 
first wall, fifteen in taking the second. Then the outer court of the Temple 
and the lower city were reduced. At last the signal for the assault was 
given, and an indiscriminate massacre ensued. Multitudes were cut down 
in the narrow streets, many more while crowded together in their houses. 
The fury of the legions was roused, and the massacre was only stayed by 
the repeated solicitations of Herod, who stood with a drawn sword before 
the entrance of the Holy of Holies, and threatened to cut down any one 
of the Roman soldiers who attempted to enter. 

Herod had now attained the highest object of his ambition. By Roman 
aid, and under the influence of Roman supremacy, he had become sole 
ruler of Palestine, and he maintained his power unchallenged until his 
death. The eventful year, B. c. 31, was drawing on. The rival potentates 
of Judaea and Egypt had long been watching and fencing with each other, 
when the battle of Actium ended all their intrigues, and both found them- 
selves obliged to petition for existence from the conqueror. Herod had 
raised a body of troops to assist Antonius, but the designs of Cleopatra 
had involved him in a war with Malchus, an Arabian orince. In the first 


campaign he had been signally defeated, owing to the unwillingness of the 
Jews to undertake a war against a nation with whom they had no quarrel, 
But in the spring of B.C. 31, a sudden earthquake convulsed the citi 
southern Palestine, and the Arabs, taking advantage of the consternation 
slew the Jewish ambassadors who had come to treat for peace, The 
of their barbarity roused the whole people, and enabled Herod to win a 
decisive victory over his foes at Philadelphia, and to gain something like 
popular favour from his subjects. Thus, successful beyond all hie < tpec- 
tations, Herod returned to Jerusalem with greater power secun d to him 
than he had ever enjoyed before. 

Herod's return to his capital was the signal for fresh cruelties. The 
secret orders entrusted to the guardian of Mariamne had been a second 
time divulged; she persisted in refusing the monarch's affecti in, and re- 
proached him bitterly with his trinity towards her family. At length, 
carried away by rage and jealousy, Herod executed not only Maria, 
guardian, Soemus, but his queen herself. Mariamne submitted to the axe 
of the executioner with calmness and intrepidity, B.C. 29, and showed h,-r- 
self in death worthy of the noble race of which she came The horrible 
reality of the deed, and a sense of his own loss, wrung his spirit to mad- 
ness. It was long before he recovered fully from the mental derangement 
which came on. 

By the tribute he paid to Rome year by year lie acknowledged the 
tenure on which he held his power. He filled Jerusalem with edifices 
built in the Greek taste. He inaugurated public exhibitions, and spectacles 
of all kinds. A theatre rose within, an amphitheatre without, the walls 
of Jerusalem. Quinquennial games were celebrated on a scale of the 
utmost magnificence. Shows of gladiators and combats of wild beasts 
were exhibited within the City of David itself. 

He had already built two castles in the southern part of Jerusalem, 
erected a palace on the impregnable bill of Sion, restored and enlargj 
Baris, and called it Antonia, in memory of his former patron. Be now 
converted other places into strong fortresses. South-western Gh 
needed a defence against Phoenicia, and his kingdom required a naval 
harbour and a maritime city. Thirty miles south of Mount Carmel a con- 
venient point offered itself for the latter purpose, at a spot called St 
Tower. This he converted into a magnificent city, called Csesarea, with a 
harbour equal in size to the Piraeus at Athens. West of Mount Tabor he 
built Gabatha; east of the Jordan he fortified the ancient Heshbon ; while 
Samaria, which had been destroyed by John Hyrcanus. rose once more 
from its ruins, not only considerably increased, but also adorned vith 3 
new and magnificent temple, and called Sebaste or Augusta^ in honour of 
the Roman Eniperor. 

While thus rebuilding the ruined cities of his kingdom, Herod re- 
peatedly endeavoured, by acts of munificence and liberality, to conciliate 
the good-will of his subjects. Thus, when in B.C. 24, the crops in Palestine 
failed for the second time, he not only opened his own private stores, but 
sent to Petronius, the Roman governor of Egypt, a personal friend, and 
obtained permission to export corn from that country, with which he not 
only supplied the wants of his own people, but was even able to send 
into Syria. In this way, and by remitting more than once a great part ol 
the heavy taxation, he earned for himself general gratitude, both from hie 
heathen and Jewish subjects. 

At length he resolved to take a step which should ingratiate himself 
with all classes. He determined to rival Solomon, and rebui Id the Temple 
Since the restoration of the second Temple by Zorobabel, that structure 
had fallen in many places into ruin, and had suffered much during the 
recent wars. He announced his intention, about the year B.C. 20, on the 
occasion of the Feast of the Passover. But his proposition roused the 
greatest mistrust, and he found himself obliged to proceed with the utmost 
caution, and to use every means to allay suspicion. Two years v 
in bringing together the materials, and vast preparations were made before 
a single stone 'of the old building was touched. At last, in the year B.C 
18, the foundations of the Temple of Zorobabel were removed, and on 
those laid centuries before by Solomon, the new pile arose, built of hard 
white stones of enormous size. Eighteen months were spent in building 
the Porch, the Holy Place, and the Holy of Holies. Eight years more 
elapsed before the courts and cloisters and other extensive and splendid 
buildinofs around the sacred structure were completed. 

On the highest level of the rocky platform of Moriah rose the Naos, or 
Temple proper, erected solely by priestly hands, divided, as in the days of 
Solomon, into a Holy Place and a Holy of Holies by a veil or curtain of 
the finest work. " No figures, no sculpture, as in Persian and Egyptian 
temples, adorned the front. Golden vines and clusters of grapes, the 
typical plant and fruit of Israel, ran along the wall; and the greater and 
lesser lights of heaven were wrought into the texture of the veil. The 
whole facade was covered with plates of gold, which, when, the <un shone 
upon them in the early day, sent back his rays with an added glory, so great 
that gazers standing on Olivet had to sliade their eyes when turning 
towards the Temple mount." 

The pavement was inlaid with marble of many colours. The 
beautiful gateways led into this court, of great height, and ornamented 






O F X H Ji J"i 

with the utmost skill. One of these, on the eastern side, looking towards 
the Mount of Olives, was known as "Solomon's Porch;" close by it was 
another, the pride of the Temple area, as one writer says, "more like the 
gopura of an Indian temple than anything we are acquainted with in 
architecture.'"' This, in all probability, was the one called the "Beautiful 
Gate" in the New Testament. 

The Sanctuary was completed in the year B.C. 16, the anniversary of 
Herod's inauguration, and was celebrated with a magnificent feast and the 
most lavish sacrifices. Immediately afterwards Herod undertook a jour- 
ney to Rome to fetch home his two sons, Alexander and Aristobulus. He 
was received with every mark of attention by Augustus, and returned to 
his capital about the spriu^ of B. c. 15. Agrippa was now on a visit to 
Asia, to inspect these provinces of the empire for his master. Herod 
thereupon invited him to visit Judaea. Agrippa consented, and escorted 
by Herod, passed through his new cities of Sebaste and Ca?sarea. 

Returning from Asia Minor, b. c. 14, Herod landed at his new port of 
Csesarea, and proceeding to Jerusalem, recounted the privileges he had 
secured for the nation, and remitted a fourth of the year's tribute. It 
might have been hoped that the close of his reign would make some atone- 
ment for the atrocities of earlier years; but a scene of bloodshed was now 
to be enacted far more awful than any which had darkened his reign, as 
if to show that the "spirit of the iujured Mariamne hovered over Herod's 
devoted house, and, involving the innocent as well as the guilty in the 
common ruin, designated the dwelling of her murderous husband as the 
perpetual scene of misery and bloodshed." 

On the return of the young princes, Alexander and Aristobulus, they 
were received by the populace with the utmost enthusiasm, in spite of their 
education in a foreign land. Their grace and beauty, their engaging man- 
ners, above all their descent from the ancient Asmonean line, made them 
objects of hope and joy on the part of the nation. But the keenest hatred 
of Pheroras and Salome was now aroused, and they began to whisper into 
Herod's ear that the young men were bent on avenging their mother's 
death. The king had given them in marriage, Alexander to Galphyra, 
the daughter of Archelaus, king of Cappadocia; Aristobulus to Mariamne, 
a daughter of Salome. Proud of the popularity his sons had acquired, 
Herod for some time refused to attach any credence to these vile insinu- 
ations. At length he adopted an expedient which led to the most 
disastrous results. By an earlier wife, named Doris, he had a son Anti- 
pater. After his alliance with the Asmonean princess he had put Doris 
away. Now he recalled her and her son, and made the young man a sort 
of spy over his two step-brothers. Cunning, ambitious, and unscrupulous, 
Antipater threw himself heart and soul into all the plots of Pheroras and 
Salome, and continued to make the two princes objects of more and more 
suspicion to their father. 

The arrival at Jerusalem of Archelaus, king of Cappadocia, and father- 
in-law 7 of Alexander, caused a temporary lull. This monarch succeeded 
in reinstating the young prince in his father's favour; but the reconciliation 
was only on the surface. His brother Pheroras, Salome, and, worst of all, 
Antipater, again filled Herod's mind with apprehensions and suspicions, 
and he determined once more to seek the advice of Augustus. Accord- 
ingly he set out for Rome in B. c. 8, and preferred his complaints against 
his sons before the emperor. Augustus advised that he should hold a 
court of arbitration, and recommended Berytus, in Phoenicia, as the place 
of meeting. There one hundred and fifty princes therefore assembled 
together, with Saturninus and Volumnius, the prefects of Syria. Before 
this tribunal Herod laid his complaints, pleaded his cause, and publicly 
accused his sons. After hearing the charge Saturninus advised that mercy 
should be extended towards the young men ; Volumnius and the majority 
urged their condemnation, and eventually they were strangled at Samaria, 
at the very same place where their father had celebrated his marriage with 
their mother. 

But the execution of those unfortunate princes did but little towards 
removing the elements of discord in Herod's household. Repeated dis- 
sensions had arisen between him and his brother Pheroras, who was at 
length ordered to retire to his own tetrarchy of Peraea. There he sickened 
and died, and his widow was accused of having poisoned him. The inves- 
tigation that ensued revealed a new and still more formidable conspiracy, 
which Antipater and Pherdras had formed against Herod's life. Antipater 
was absent at Rome, but he was allowed to returnto Cajsarea, and on 
reaching Jerusalem was instantly seized, and brought to trial before the 
Roman governor of Syria, Quintilius Varus. The charge was proved, and 
he was condemned to death, but bis execution was respited till the will of 
the emperor could be ascertained. 

Herod was now upwards of seventy years of age, and already felt the 
appr rich of his last mortal malady. Removing for change of air to Jericho, 
he re -solved to make the final alterations in his will. Passing over 
Archdaus and Philip, whom Antipater had accused of treachery, he 
nominated Antipas, a son by Malthace, a Samaritan, his successor in the 
kingdom; and left magnificent bequests to Cossar, to Caesar's wife Julia, to 
her sons, and to the members of his own family. 

Before Herod left for Jericho, and while he was still residing in the 
magnificent palace he had built on Zion, his fears and suspicions were still 
further increased by the visit to his capital of certain magi from the East, 
bearing the strange intelligence that they had seen in the East the star 
of a new-born King of the Jews, and had come to worship Him. 

The inquiry respecting an hereditary King of the Jews roused the alarm 

of the Idumean tyrant, and, hastily convening an assembly of the chie* 
priests and scribes, he inquired where, according to their prophetical books 
the long-expected Messiah was to be born. Without any hesitation they 
pointed to the words of the prophet Micah, which declared that Bethlehem, 
in Judaea, was the favoured spot. Concealing his wicked intentions, the 
monarch therefore bade the magi repair to Bethlehem, bidding them let 
him know as soon as they had found the young child, that he, too, might 
come and do Him reverence. 

Thus advised, the magi set out, and at Bethlehem they found "the 
young Child, and Mary his Mother, and they fell down and worshipped 
Him." For true it was that while Herod's blood-stained reign was dravmg 
near its close, and when, after a life of tyranny and unsurpation, he was sink- 
ing "into the jealous decrepitude of his savage old age," a lowly Virgin 
had at Bethlehem brought "forth her first-born Son, and wrapped Him 
in twaddling clothes, aud laid Him in a manger." The advent of this true 
King of kings, "in great humility," had moved all heaven to its centre; 
and while Herod's palaces were the scenes of jealousies, suspicion, and 
murders, and his subjects were groaning under the yoke of his iron rule, 
the heavenly song had floated over the hills of Bethlehem, and shepherds 
keeping watch over their flocks had heard the words, breaking the stillness 
of the night, " Glory to God in the highest, and on earth peace, good- 
will toward men." 

After they had offered their homage and their gifts to the heavenly 
Child, the magi would naturally have returned to Herod; but warned of 
God in a dream of peril awaiting them if they did so, they returned to 
their own land another way. Thus foiled, the jealousy of Herod assumed 
a more malignant aspect, and, unable to identify the royal Infant of the 
seed of David, he issued an edict that all the children of Bethlehem and 
its neighbourhood, from two years old and under, should be slain. 

"Herod's whole career was red with the blood of murder. He had 
massacred priests and nobles; he had decimated the Sanhedrin; he had 
caused the high priest, his brother-in-law, the young and noble Aristobulus, 
to be drowned in pretended sport before his eyes; he had ordered the 
strangulation of his favourite wife, the beautiful Asmonean princess 
Mariamne, though she seems to have been the only human being whom 
he passionately loved. His sons Alexander, Aristobulus, and Anti- 
pater; his uncle Joseph; Antigonus and Alexander, the uncle and 
father of his wife; his mother-in-law Alexandra ; his kinsman Cortobanus; 
his friends Dositheus and Gadias w r ere but a few of the multitudes who 
fell victims to his sanguinary, suspicious, and guilty terrors. His reign 
which was so cruel that, in the energetic language of the Jewish ambas- 
sadors to the Emperor Augustus, ' the survivors during his lifetime were 
even more miserable than the sufferers.' " 

Herod's disorder increased with the utmost violence. He lay in the 
magnificent palace which he had built for himself under the palm-tref 8 
of Jericho, racked with pain, and tormented with thirst. Still cherishing 
hopes of recovery, he now caused himself to be conveyed across the Jordan 
to Callirrhoe, not far from the Dead Sea, hoping to obtain relief from its 
warm bituminous springs. But the use of the waters produced no effect. 
He was conveyed back to Jericho, where he ordered the chiefs of the 
nation, under pain of death, to assemble. As they arrived they were 
shut up in the Hippodrome, and Herod charged Salome and Alexas, 
immediately upon his decease, to put them to death. Scarcely had he 
given these orders when a dispatch arrived from Rome, announcing the 
ratification by the emperor of the sentence pronounced upon Antipater, 
Thereupon the tyrant's desire for life instantly returned, but a paroxysm 
of racking pain coming on, he called for an apple and a knife, and in an 
unguarded moment tried to stab himself. His cousin Achiab stayed his 
hand, and Antipater, hearing the clamour from a neighbouring apart- 
ment, and thinking his father was dead, made a determined effort to escape 
by "bribing his guards. No sooner did Herod hear of this, than, though 
almost insensible, he raised himself on his elbow, and ordered one of the 
spearmen to dispatch his son on the spot. Thus Antipater paid the 
penalty of his life of treachery and hypocrisy. Herod now once more amen- 
ded his will, nominating his eldest son Archelaus as his successor on the 
throne, and appointing Herod Antipas tetrarch of Galilee and Peraea; 
Herod Phrlip, tetrarch of Auranitis, Trachonitis and Batanaea ; and Sa- 
lome mistress of Jarnnia, Azotus, and some other towns. 

Five days more of excruciating agony remained for the miserable 
monarch, and then, " choking as it were with blood, devising massacres in 
its very delirium, the soul of Herod passed forth into the night." Arche- 
laus at once assumed the direction of affairs at Jerusalem, and proceeded 
to give his father a magnificent funeral. First, clad in armour, advanced 
a numerous force of troops, with their generals and officers ; then followed 
five hundred of Herod's domestics and freedmen, bearing aromatic spices. 
Next came the body, covered with purple, with a diadem on the head, and 
a sceptre in the right hand, and lying on a bier of gold studded with 
precious stones. After the bier, which was surrounded by Herod's son. 
and relatives, came his body-guard; then his foreign mercenaries, men 
from Thrace, Germany, and Gaul, "whose stalwart and ruddy persons 
were at this time familiar in Jerusalem." In this order the procession 
advanced slow ly from Jericho to Herodium, not far from . Tekoa, a dis- 
tance of about twenty-five miles, where the late monarch had erected a 
fortress. Here, in the tower-crowned citadel to which he had given his 
name, and not far from the spot where He was born whom the Idumean 
kins: had sought to cut off with the innocents of Bethlehem,Herod was buried. 


io ETC, 

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moK§bfiWoWAW Sew testaments, 1 aMd SFthe apocSypha, 

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■»'* 7911 


Genesis hath chapters 50 

Exodus 40 

Leviticus 27 

Numbers 36 

Deuteronomy 34 

Joshua 24 

Judges 21 

Ruth 4 

I. Samuel 31 

II. Samuel 24 

I. Kings 22 

II. Kings 25 

I. Chronicles 29 

Matthew hath chapters . . . . 28 

Mark 16 

Luke 24 

John 21 

The Acts . 28 

The Epistle to the Romans . . .16 

I. Corinthians 16 

II. Corinthians 13 

Galatians 6 



II. Chronicles 


Nehemiah 13 

Esther 10 

Job 42 

Psalms 150 

Proverbs 31 


The Song of Solomon . . . 

Isaiah 66 

Jeremiah z 2 

Lamentations 5 

I Ezekiel 48 


Ephesians 6 

Philippians 4 


I. Thessalonians c 

II. Thessalonians 3 

I. Timothy 6 

II. Timothy 4 

Titus 3 

Philemon 1 

Daniel ......... 72 

Hosea 14 

Joel 2 

Amos Q 

Obadiah 1 

Jonah .4 

Micah .7 

Nahum 3 

Habakkuk 3 

Zephaniah 3 

Haggai 2 

Zechariah 14 

Malachi 4 

To the Hebrews 13 

The Epistle of James 5 

I. Peter 5 

II. Peter 3 

I. John „ 5 

II. John 1 

III. John , 1 

Jude . 1 

Revelation 22 





' 1 





Creation, i 

Formation of Man, 2 

The Fall, 3 

Death of Abel, 4 

Generations of Adam, 5 

The Ark, 6 

The Deluge, 7 

Waters assuaged, 8 

Death of Noah, 9 

Noah's generations, 10 

Babel built, 11 

Call of Abram 12 

,A.bram and Lot, 13 

Battle of the kings, 14 

Abram's faith 15 

Departure of Hagar 16 

Circumcision, 17 

Abraham and the angels, 18 

Destruction of Sodom, 19 

Abraham denieth Sarah, 20 

Isaac is born, 21 

Isaac offered up, 22 

Death of Sarah, 23 

Isaac and Rebecca meet, 24 

Abraham's death, 25 

Isaac blessed, 26 

Jacob and Esau, 27 

Jocob's vision and vow, 28 

Jacob marrieth Rachel, 29 

Birth of Joseph, 30 

Departure of Jacob, 31 

Jacob and the angel, 32 

Jacob and Esau meet, 23 

Shechemites slain, 34 

Jacob's altar at Beth-el, 35 

Generations of Esau 36 

Joseph sold by his brethren, 37 

Judah's incest, 38 

Joseph and his mistress, 39 

Pharaoh's butler, etc., 40 

Pharaoh's dreams, 41 

Joseph's brethren in Egypt, 42 

Joseph entertains his brethren 43 

, Joseph's policy to his brethren, 44 

Joseph known to his brethren, 45 

Jacob goeth into Egypt, 46 

Joseph presents his brethren, 47 

Joseph goeth to his father, 48 

Jacob blesseth his sons, 49 

Death of Joseph 50 


The Israelites oppressed, I 

Moses born, 2 

The burning bush, 3 

God's message to Pharaoh , 4 

The bondage of the Israelites, 5 

God's promise renewed, 6 

Moses goeth to Pharaoh , 7 



Plague of frogs, 8 

Plagues continued, 9 

Plagues continued, 10 

The Israelites borrow jewels, 11 

Passover instituted, 12 

Departure of the Israelites 13 

Egyptians drowned, 14 

The song of Moses, 15 

Manna and quails sent, 16 

Moses builds an altar, 17 

Moses meets his wife and sons i'J, 

God's message from Sinai, 19 

The ten commandments, 20 

Laws against murder, 21 

Laws against theft, etc., 22 

Laws against false witness, etc., 23 

Moses called into the mount 24 

Form of the ark, 25 

Curtains for the ark, 26 

Altar of burnt-offering, 27 

Aaron and his sons made priests, 28 

Priests consecrated, 29 

Ransom of souls, 30 

Moses receiveth the two tables, 31 

Golden calf. Tables broken, 32 

God talketh with Moses, 33 

Tables renewed, 34 

Free gifts for the Tabernacle, 35 

People's liberality restrained, 36 

Ark, Mercy-seat, etc., 37 

Sum of the offerings 38 

Holy garme-nts made, 39 

Tabernacle anointed, 40 


Burnt-offerings, I 

Meat-offerings, 2 

Peace-offerings, 3 

Sin-offerings, 4 

Trespass-offerings, 5 

Trespass-offerings, 6 

Law of trespass-offerings, 7 

Aaron and his sons consecrated, 8 

Aaron's sin-offering, 9 

Nadab and Abihu slain, 10 

Unclean beasts, 11 

Purifications, 12 

Law of leprosy, 13 

Law for the leper, 14 

Uncleanness of issues, 15 

Sin-offerings 16 

Blood forbidden, 17 

Unlawful marriages 18 

Repetition of laws, ; 19 

Denunciations for sins 20 

Priests' qualifications, 21 

Nature of sacrifices 22 

Feasts of the Lord, 23 

Shelomith's son, 24 

The Jubilee, 25 




Obedience required, 26 

Nature of vows,... 27 


The tribes numbered, I 

Order of the tribes, 2 

Levites appointed priests, 3 

The service of the Kohathites, 4 

Trial of jealousy, 5 

Law of the Nazarite, 6 

Offerings of the princes, 7 

Levites consecrated, 8 

Passover commanded, 9 

The Israelites' march, io 

The Israelites loathe manna 11 

Miriam's leprosy, 12 

Delegates search the land 13 

The people murmur at the report 14 

Sundry laws given, 15 

Korah, Dathan, etc., slain, 16 

Aaron's rod flourishelh, 17 

Portion of the priests and Levites,... 18 

Law of purification, 19 

Moses smiteth the rock, 20 

Brazen serpent appointed, 21 

Balak sends for Balaam, 22 

Balak's sacrifices, 23 

Balaam's prophecy, 24 

Zimri and Cozbi slain, 25 

Israel numbered, 26 

Death of Moses foretold, 27 

Offerings to be observed, 28 

Offerings at feasts, 29 

Vows not to be broken, 30 

Midianites spoiled, 31 

Reubenites and Gadites reproved, 32 

Tourneys of the Israelites, 33 

Borders of the land appointed, 34 

Cities of Refuge appointed, 35 

Gilead's inheritance retained, 36 


Moses rehearseth God's promise, I 

Story of the Edomites 2 

Moses prayeth to see Canaan, 3 

An exhortation to obedience, 4 

Ten Commandments, 5 

Obedience to the Law enjoined, 6 

Strange communion forbidden, 7 

God's mercies claim obedience, 8 

Israel's rebellion rehearsed, 9 

The Tables restored, 10 

An exhortation to obedience, 11 

Blood forbidden, 12 

Idolaters to be stoned 13 

Of meats, clean and unclean, 14 

Of the year of release, 15 

The feast of the Passover, 16 

The choice and duty of a king, 17 

10 ET C> 


The priests' portion, 18 

Cities of refuge appointed 19 

The priest's exhortation before battle, 20 

Expiation of uncertain murder, 21 

Of humanity toward brethren, 22 

Divers laws and ordinances, 23 

Of divorce 24 

Stripes must not exceed forty, 25 

Of the offering of first-fruits, 26 

The law to be written on stones, 27 

Blessings and curses declared, 28 

God's covenant with his people, 29 

Mercy promised to the penitent, 30 

Moses giveth Joshua a charge, 31 

The song of Moses, 32 

The majesty of God, 33 

Moses vieweth the land and dieth,... 34 


Joshua succeedeth Moses, I 

Rahab concealeth the spies, 2 

The waters of Jordan divided, 3 

Twelve stones for a memorial, 4 

Manna ceaseth, 5 

Jericho besieged and taken 6 

Achan's sin punished, 7 

Joshua taketh Ai, 8 

The craft of the Gibeonites, 9 

The sun and moon stand still, 10 

Divers kings conquered, ir 

Names of the conquered kings, 12 

Balaam slain 13 

The inheritance of the tribes, 14 

The borders of the lot of Judah, 15 

Ephraim's inheritance, 16 

The lot of Manasseh 17 

The lot of Benjamin, 18 

The lot of Simeon, 19 

Cities of refuge, etc., 20 

God giveth Israel rest, 21 

The two tribes and half sent home... 22 
Joshua's exhortation before his death, 23 
Joshua's death and burial, 24 


The acts of Judah and Simeon I 

The Israelites fall into idolatry, 2 

The nations left to prove Israel 3 , 

Deborah and Barak deliver Israel,... 4 
The song of Deborah and Barak,.... 5 

The Israelites oppressed by Midian,. 6 

Gideon's army, 7 

The Ephraimites pacified, 8 

Abimelech made king, 9 

Tolah judgeth Israel, 10 

Jephthah's rash vow, II 

The Ephraimites slain, 12 

Samson born, 13 

Samson's marriage and riddle, 14 




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Bible Text, 





Alexander the Great to the Destruction of Jerusal 


336 B.C. TO 138 A.XJ. 




BY J±. L. BAWSON, LL.D. _____ 

Entered, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1881, in the Office of the Librarian of Congress, at Washington. 

Coins of Alexander and his Successors. 

Before the time of Alexander the Great of 
Macedonia there were no portraits on coins, ex- 
cept of Gelon and Hiero at Syracuse in Sicily 
(108). Philip, the father of Alexander, left no 
portrait, his coins bearing a head of Zeus (Jupi- 
ter) or Hercules. The local deity of the country 
was honored on the coins of each — as Minerva 
at Athens (84), Arethusa at Syracuse (107), the 
Minotaur in Crete (142), Apollo and Diana in 

NO. 1.— ALEXANDER (336-323 B. C). 

many cities, and nearly every other divinity, 
hero or heroine, or deified ruler, including also 
animal forms and mythical figures, mentioned 
in the ancient classics. 
The Greeks were the earliest people to make 

No. 2.— SELEUCUS I. (312-280 B. C.). 

and use coins with an image stamped on them, 
and also to make them depositories of portraits 
and figures of persons and objects which have 
become of great value to the historical student, 
adding much to our knowledge of antiquity. 

No. 3. — ANTIOCHUS I. SOTER (280-261 B. C.). 

The kingdom of Alexander was too vast to hold 
together under any other ruler, and his generals 
assumed royalty after his death, and each seized 
a portion. Seleucus, who had been made satrap 

of Babylonia, founded the Syrian monarchy ; 
Ptolemy (see Dictionary, p. 80), a half-brother 
of Alexander, founded the dynasty of Greek Ptol- 
emies in Egypt ; Lysimachus obtained Thrace ; 


Antipater and Craterus jointly had Macedonia 
and Greece. Antiochus I. was son and successor 
of Seleucus I., and was honored with the title 
Soter (saviour) for his military successes. Anti- 
ochus II., his son, was called in flattery Theos 

NO. 5. — ANTIOCHUS III., THE GREAT (222-187 B. C.). 

(Ptolemy IV., in Diet., p. 80.) 

(god), and was the first of the name mentioned 
in the Bible. (See Dictionary, p. 7.) The first 
Seleucus mentioned was the Fourth, who was 
called Patriot (Philopator), although he is said 
to have greatly increased the already heavy taxes. 
The third Antiochus earned the title the Great for 

No. 6.— seleucus rv. 

The custom of the Seleucid kings of Syria 
was to adopt the names Seleucus or Anti- 
ochus alternately in succession ; so the son and 
successor of Antiochus the Great was called Se- 
leucus IV., and his brother, who succeeded him, 
was Antiochus IV. Epiphanes (see his coin in 
Dictionary, p. 8) ; and the student will find 

NO. 7. — ANTIOCHUS V. EUPATOR (164-162 B. C). 

many incidents of the history of these kings in 
the Apocrypha, in Maccabees, and in Josephus. 
The likeness of Antiochus V. is here, and of the 
Sixth in the Dictionary, p. 8. Demetrius I., 
son of Seleucus IV., was educated in Rome, and 
succeeded Antiochus IV., whom he deposed ; he 
was killed in battle against Alexander I. Balas 

NO. 8.— DEMETRIUS I. AND LAODICE (162-150 B. CV). 

(A. Balas, Diet., p. 6.) 

(Baal, Lord; see coin in Dictionary, p. 6), who 
claimed to be a son of Antiochus IV., and who 
succeeded to the throne. This Cleopatra was the 


his military genius, although defeated by the Ro- 
man general Glabrio at Thermopylae in Greece, 
and agaiu b«^g^ at^l^gnel?ij|iji A^a]3^j_^o^ 'third of the name among the Greek kings in 

when hi lost i&gz&sk, lerVj&ttj/ Jlw-rl jw'nt fifteen i Syria, was very talented, the wife of three buc- 
millions to the Romans for the expenses of the cessive king^s of Syria, and mother of two others. 

(See coin lo.) 





Mithridates VI. was the last of a liue of kings 
<*f Pontus, said to liave had a Persian origin, 

NO. 10.— MITHRIDATES VI. (135-83 B. C). 

about 337 B. c. He was the most powerful enemy 
the Romans had to contend with next to Hanni- 
bal, as estimated by Cicero. He was father-in- 
law to Tigranes. (See Dictionary, p. 92.). 

Demetrius II., son of Demetrius I. (No. 8), 
was taken prisoner by Mithridates VI., and held 
nearly nine years, who gave him his daughter for 
a wife, during which time his brother, Antioehus 
VII., held the throne of Syria, and espoused 
Cleopatra, wife of Demetrius, but was deposed 
on his return. He is mentioned in Maccabees 
(1 Mace, x., xi., xii., xiv.) and in Josephus (Ant. 
xiii. 9, 3) as a friend to the Jews, reducing their 
tribute. He wore a beard after the Parthian 
fashion, while nearly every other Syrian king 

NO. 11.— DEMETRIUS II. NIKATOR (146-125 B. C.). 

in that age shaved, as appears on their coins. 
Nearly all of these kings were occupied in wars 
andr intrigues.ta the exciusion_of any measures 
fo% trie* imj>«ygpgn« «f tn^jeyditrW of T! tHeir 

Tryphon was a usurper named Diodotus, from 
near Apamea, and was an officer of the court of 
Alexander Balas, who pretended a friendship for 

NO. 12.— TRYPHON (142-139 B. a). 

the young king Antioehus VI., son of Alexan- 
der, and who usurped the throne after killing 
liim. He put his name on the coins of the 
young king, as seen in the Dictionary, p. g. 
(See 1 Mace, xi., xiii., etc.) 

Antioehus VII. expelled Tryphon and took 
his brother's wife. He made concessions to 
Simon, "high priest and prince of the Jews" 
{] Mace, xv.; Jos. Ant. xiii. 7, 8). He after- 

No. 13— ANTJOCHUS VII. SIDETES (138-129 li. C.). 

ward besieged Jerusalem, but made honorable 
terms with John Hyrcanus (133 B.C.), who ac- 
companied him against the Parthians, where he 

was killed. This coin was struck at Tarsus. The 
shrine on the reverse of this coin contained a 
figure of the Greek goddess Hera (Juno in Rome) 
standing on a lion, holding in the left hand two 
palm-branches; the right hand extended, hold- 
ing a staff or sceptre. She was called " Queen 
of heaven" in Jeremiah (vii. 18; xliv. 17; etc.). 
On each side of the lion is a vase or cup for the 
drink-offerings mentioned by Diodorus; a star 
over her head refers to the planet which was sa- 
cred to her. She was called the " Goddess of 
Syria," and had a great statue in her honor at 
Hierapolis (Dan. xi. 38). Called also Astarte, 
Ashtaroth, Mylitta, and Alitta. 

Alexander II. was a purchased slave (zebina) 
and a pretender to the throne ; favored by Ptol- 

NO. 14.— ALEXANDER II. ZEBINA (128-123 B. C). 

emy Physcon of Egypt for his own purposes, but 
was deposed by him after six years for refusing 
to pay tribute. He imitated the coins of Balas, 
putting a head of Zeus, or of Dionysus, instead 
of his own, and on the reverse Pallas, or an ele- 
phant, horn of plenty, tripod, eagle, anchor, etc. 
The coin of Cleopatra and Antioehus VIII. 
presents the heads of mother and son. She is 
entitled "goddess " on the reverse (theas). See 

NO. 15.— CLEOPATRA AND ANTIOCHUS VIII. (125-121 B. 0.). 

(Tigranes, Diet., p. 92.) 

coin 9 for an earlier portrait of Cleopatra. This 
king does not appear in Scripture, but was an 
active man — sometimes called Illustrious (epiph- 
anes), and also Grypus (hook-nose). He was a 
man of energetic character. 

Antioehus IX. was named Cyzicenus from the 
city where he was educated (by Craterus), and 
his coins add the title Patriot (philopatoros). He 
was a son of Antioehus VII. (13), and born while 
Demetrius was a prisoner among the Parthians; 

NO. 16.— ANTIOCHUS IX. (116-95 B. C). 

his mother was a Cleopatra. He shared the king- 
dom with his brother, Grypus (15), having Coele- 
Syria and Palestine, with his residence at Damas- 
cus. His wife had been repudiated by Ptolemy 
Lathyrus of Egypt, and brought him an army as 
a dowry. She was killed by order of her sister, 
Tryphena, at the. altar of a sanctuary in Antioch. 
Besides his own head, he put on the coins those 
of Hercules, Zeus, Eros, Pallas and Apollo, 
Tyche, Dionysus, and Artemis, besides the an- 
chor and various emblematic figures. This coin 
was struck at Sidon. 

Demetrius III. Philopator (patriot) was a son 
of Antioehus Grypus (15). He was also flattered 

on his coins with the titles "savior," "god," 
and " thunderer." On the reverse is a figure of 
Demeter, called Ceres bv the Romans. 

NO. 17.— DEMETRIUS III. (95-88 B. C.l. 

(Tigranes, Diet., p. 92.) 

Tigranes (Dictionary, p. 92), was son-in-law 
to Mithridates VI. (10), and after some extensive 
conquests assumed the title " King of kings " in 
Armenia. In 83 B. c. he conquered Syria and 
founded Tigranocerta. After submitting to the 
Romans, he was kept by them on the throne of 
Armenia until he died, 55 B. c. He made cap- 
tive and tributary kings his house-servants. 

Mark Antony, one of the famous Triumvirs 
(three men, Octavius Caesar and Lepidus the other 


two), was born 83 b. c. He was a successful cav- 
alry officer in Egypt B. c. 53, was Caesar's lieu* 
tenant in Gaul, chief of the army in Italy io 
Caesar's absence, and consul in 44. After Caesar^ 
death, Asia and Egypt were allotted to Antony, 
and with the famous Cleopatra he indulged in 
luxury and repose, neglecting state affairs. He 
was defeated at Actium, when Octavius became 
sole emperor and augustus. Cleopatra, the last 
of the Greek dynasty in Egypk was celebrated 
for her personal charms and various accomplish* 

NO. 19.— AESACES XII. (70-60 B. C). 

ments, which fill a large space in the history or 
that age. Born 69, died 30 b. c. She was in 
Rome with Julius Caesar until his death, 44 b. c. 
and with Antony in Egypt 41 B. c A portrait 
of her son by Caesar is sculptured on the wall of 
a temple at Koom Ombos on the Nile. 

Arsaces also assumed the title of "King of 
kings," and warred with the Romans after big 
father, Mithridates, died. His grandson, called 

NO. 20.— PHRAATES IV. (36 B. C.-4 A. D.). 

Phraates IV., made a treaty with Augustus, under 
which he restored some Roman standards taken 
by the Parthians in former wars. (See No. 132.) 

l : - 


, __ 



Hebrew Money. 

Demetrius II. (No. 11), before his captivity in 
Parthia, granted the Jews the privilege of strik- 
ing coins with their own devices and superscrip- 

NO. 21.— SILVF.R SHEKEL, SIMON (139 B. C.). 

tions, and during his absence his brother, Anti- 
ochus VII., confirmed the decree. The first coin 
was made by them 139 B. c. It is called the 
shekel, and was valued at sixty cents. The in- 
scription is read " Shekel of Israel " around, and 
A for year 1 over a cup on one side, and on 
the other, " Jerusalem the Holy " around a triple 
lily. The half-shekel is on page 66 of the Dic- 
tionary, and the copper shekel on page 67. The 
next coins were by John Hyrcanus, son of Simon. 

NO. 22— JOHN HYRCANUS (135-10G B. C.). 

He was with Antiochus in Parthia, conquered 
the Idumseans, destroyed Samaria, and huilt Arak 
el-Emir, east of Jordan. His coins were not 
called shekels, and the inscriptions and devices 
differed from the shekel. On this we read " Jo- 
hanan the high priest and the Jews' Union " in 
an olive-wreath, and see two horns of plenty on 
the other side. 

Judas Aristobulus s>-ruck coins only in bronze, 
with a similar inscription to that orJVis brother 

NO. 23.— JUDAS ARISTOBULUS (106 B. C.). 

John's, calling himself "high priest." He also 
assumed the title of " king," putting an end to the 
theocracy and establishing the monarchy (Jos. 
Ant. xiii. 11, 1) for one year. 

Alexander Jannaeus, his brother, succeeded, 
and reigned twenty-seven years, issuing many 
coins. Ptolemy Lathyrus, king of Cyprus, in- 
vaded Judaea, and was defeated by Jannaeus, as- 
sisted by Cleopatra, queen of Egypt, mother of 
Lathyrus. His coins have for devices a rose, 

NO. 24. — ALEXANDER 3AKSJEVS (105-78 B. C.). 

lily, palm, star, anchor, and horn of plenty. 
The inscriptions are in Hebrew and Greek let- 
ters, and he first called himself "king" (of the 
Jews) on the coins. 

4.ntigonus was king until Herod was placed 

NO. 25.— ANTIGONUS (40-37 B. C.). 

on the throne by the Romans, and he struck 
some curious coins. 

With Herod the Great the monarchy became 
powerful, although under the Romans. All the 
bronze coins of Herod have Greek inscriptions, 

and no Hebrew, and for devices many symbols 
of temple-worship, etc., but no human figure or 

NO. 26.— HEROD THE GREAT (37-4 B. C.). 

(Mite, Diet., p. 67.) 

portrait. We read on No. 26, " Of King Herod." 
The Macedonian helmet and shield on No. 27 


are said to indicate his descent from the Greek 
kings of that country. 

Herod Archelaus, son of Herod, was made 
ethnarch and governor of Judaea, Samaria, and 

NO. 28. — HEROD ARCHELAUS (4 B. C.-6 A. D.). 

Idumaea, but after ten years' misrule Augustus 
banished him to Gaul. (See No. 59.) 

Herod Philip II. was son of Herod and Cle- 
opatra, and was made tetrarch (governor of a 
fourth part) of the Hauran, etc. (Luke iii. 1). 
He married Salome, daughter of Herod Philip 
I. and Herodias. He built Caesarea Philippi 
(Paneas), and named Bethsaida Julias (Luke x. 
10), where he was buried under a monument 

No. 29. — PHILIP. 

built by himself. This coin is dated 33 A. d. 
(L A Z, year 37 of his reign). 
Herod Agrippa I. was grandson o£ Herod I., 


and was educated at Rome with Drusus and 
Claudius, who was afterward emperor. He was 
made king and successor to Philip, and after- 
ward ruler of Judaea and Samaria. In earnest 
a Jew, he lived at Jerusalem, kept the laws, and 
improved the country by building or repairing 
public works and instituting games. 

No. 31.— HEROD OF CHALdS (41-48 A. D.). 

Herod of Chalcis was son of Aristobulus and 
Berenice, and b*oiher of Agri)-tj>». He was m«df 
king by CiailllteQitdw) ^ lt tli^fajne time gave 
Agrippa II. Judaea and Samaria), and resided at 
Chalcis in Ccele-Syria, and lie was also given the 
appointment of the high priest, the superintend- 

ence of the temple, and regulation of the sacred 
treasury. ™ 

No. 32 is the only coin bearing a head of 

NO. 32.— HEROD AGRIPPA II. M8-100 A. D.). 

Agrippa II. or of any other of thai family, and 
is dated 58 a. l>. (See Di< 1 1"\ \i:y, p. 46, foi 
coins of Agrippa, with portrait of Titus.) 


The chalkous is supposed to have been the 
only money that the poor Jews were able to 
bring to the synagogue weekly in the year 73 
A. D., as it is dated when the temple was in 

Coponius was the first procurator of Judaea, 

NO. 34.— COPONIUS (15 A. D.). 

and was assigned to duty after Archelaus was 
banished, 6 A. d. He came with the prefect 
Quirinus (Cyrenius, No. 58). The procurator 
was the governor in Judaea, collector of revenue 
and general regulator of financial affairs, and in 
later times was supreme in both civil and mili- 
tary duties (Matt, xxvii. ; Luke iii. 1 ; Acts xxii. ; 
etc.). The second was Ambivius; the third, 
Marcus Rufus, in whose term the augustus died. 

NO. 35.— VALERIUS GRATUS (16 A. D.). 

Then Tiberius sent Valerius Gratus, who was 
eleven years in office, from 15 to 26 a. D., during 
whose term Joseph, called Caiaphas, was made 
high priest, who was also son-in-law of Annas. 
(John xviii. 13.) 

Pontius Pilate succeeded Gratus, and the cru- 
cifixion of Jesus Christ is dated in the seventh 

NO. 36.— PONTIUS PILATE (29 A. D.). 

year of his term. He suspected a Samaritan 
impostor of plotting treason, and killed man; 
people on Mount Gerizim, seized the sacred 
temple-treasure, built an aqueduct with it, and 
dedicated some Roman shields in the temple in 
honor of Tiberius. 

Felix was a slave of Antonia, mother of Clau- 
dius, was advanced in the army and appointed to 
Judaea in 52 A. o. Tacitus says, " i le wielded the 
sceptre of a monarch with the soul of a slave." 

No. :'.7.— KKI.1X, UNDER NERO (54-GS A. D.). 

He married Drusilla, sister of Agrippa. His 
first wife was Drusilla, daughter of Juba; his 
third also a princess. 

Cr I W, 

, ,. r 



First Revolt of the Jews. 

The j|\^^r^1o l°PP^jr>|£^ bystkek Ramans 
that they mtffo out kito-T-Cilt seyerll times, 
but were put down easily, except when, under 
Gessius Floras, they suffered unbearable tyranny. 

NO. 38. — ELEAZAR (65 A. D.). 

The first revolt began under the emperor Nero, 
A. ©. 60, and one of the first war-measures was 
to issue money to pay soldiers and for the use 
of the people, who detested the coins of the Ro- 
mans as blasphemous and badges of servitude. 
The most capable leader was Eleazar, son of the 
high priest Ananias before whom Paul was tried. 
(Acts xxiii. 3.) His coins have the words " Elea- 
zar the high priest" and " First year of the Re- 

(Simon, Diet., p. 6.) 

demption of Israel." The types he used were 
various, being vase, harp, treasury (for sacred 
books), fruit, palm tree, and others. 

The only true shekels were those made by 
Simon the Maccabee (No. 21), all coins after his 
death having some other name, although writers 
usually call any piece of Hebrew money a shekel. 
The sizes of the various pieces were made to con- 
form to those of the Greek and Roman standards. 
The stater (Nos. 9, 135, 140) was equal to sixty 
cents and Simon's shekel (No. 21); the double 
stater (Nos. 14, 10, 139, etc.) was equal to two 
shekels; the mite (Nos. 31, 33) of copper was 
about a quarter of a cent. 


Simon, son of Gamaliel, chief of the Sanhe- 
drin, called "Nasi" (prince), struck coins after 
Eleazar's death, and also Ananus, son of Ananus. 
The Sanhedrin authorized bronze coins to be 
issued, with the legend "Year 2" around the 
vase, and " Deliverance of Zion " around the 

No. 41.— SANHEDRIN. 

On some coins the name Zion stands for Jeru- 
salem. During the siege by Titus Caesar (who 
was afterward the emperor Titus) the Jews used 
Greek or Roman coins to strike their own devices 
on, as appears on many coins of that time, as 
also on those of the second revolt. (Nos. 46, 
47, 48.) 

The Romans did not permit their provinces to 
strike coins of gold or silver ; therefore, the only 
coins of Herod and his successors are in bronze. 
The tribute-money was of necessity a Roman 
coin, bearing the head of " Cajsar " or the em- 
peror, and was valued at sixty cents, the sum 
required for two persons. 

Jerusalem Captured. 

The revolt was suppressed, and Jerusalem cap- 
tured by the Romans under Titus, his father, 
Vespasian, being emperor. A great number 
was struck by the Romans to commemorate the 
event — by Vespasian, in gold, silver, and bronze, 
and also by Titus. One of Vespasian is shown 
on page 98 in the Dictionary. This bronze (42) 
coin of Titus is read, " The emperor Titus Caesar 

NO. 42.— VESPASIAN (71 A. D.). 

(See Diet., p. 98.) 

Vespasian, Priest, Tribunal Power, Consul second 
time." On the reverse is a palm bearing dates, 
with a Roman soldier (Titus) armed, and a 
woman for Judaea weeping, seated on arms ; S. C. 
for Decree of the Senate. 

No. 43.— TITUS (73 A. D.). 

No. 43 is described, "Titus standing, his right 
foot on the prow of a vessel, holding a ' Victory ' 
and a spear ; at his feet are two Jews in suppli- 
cation, and near a palm." Dated 73 A. D. No. 
44 is a coin in honor of a naval victory, and is 
supposed to refer to the one described by Jose- 
phus (Wars, iii. 9). 

When the war began ; Nero sent Vespasian 
with the army to Palestine, and he took his son, 
Titus, with him as his lieutenant ; and when Nero 
died, A. D. 68, Vespasian became emperor, return- 
ed to Rome, and left Titus in command at Jeru- 
salem. Vespasian was proclaimed emperor at 
Alexandria, Egypt, July 1, 69, and at Jerusalem, 
in the camp of Titus, July 3. Jerusalem was 
taken September 8, A. D. 70. 

Titus was honored with the title of "emperor" 
(which was equal to commander-in-chief) on the 
fall of Jerusalem. He had served under his 
father in the siege and capture of the cities 
Taricheea and Gamala, described by Josephus. 
In the triumphal procession of Vespasian at 
Rome, Titus was associated with his father and 
with his brother, Domitian ; he was also nomi- 
nated a caesar — that is, an heir to the throne of 
Rome. A triumphal arch, the "Arch of Titus," 

,^ w : 

NO. 44.— TITUS. 

was erected at Rome, and is still standing, bear- 
ing sculptures in memory of the trophies and 
victory over the Jews. It is the oldest arch of 
the kind in that city, and one of the most inter- 
esting monuments in the world. Besides the 
coins of Vespasian and Titus, those of Domitian 
bore devices recording the capture of Jerusalem. 
The Romans -evidently regarded it as an import- 
ant event, for they stamped it on their coins dur- 
ing twenty-six years. 

The Second Revolt of the Jewel 

From the time of the first Caesar, Julius, the 
Jews, when at peace, had a certain amount of 

NO. 45.— NERVA (115 A. D.). 

liberty and many privileges. Some Jews had 
the Roman franchise at Ephesus and elsewhere, 
and Seneca said of them, "Though conquered, 
they gave laws to their conquerors." After the 
revolt which was put down by Titus, they paid 
tributes fixed by Vespasian, but under Nerva 
these were abolished, and coin No. 45 was struck 
to commemorate the event. But Jewish hatred 


to Rome could not so easily be quieted, and after 
a few years a second revolt broke out, in 115 A. D., 
in Cyrene, Egypt, Asia Minor, and Cyprus. In 
117 A. D., Hadrian sent a colony of veteran sol- 
diers to Jerusalem, and the revolt broke out 
there, aided by the cry, "The Messiah has 
come !" referring to the new leader, Simon Bar- 
kokab, called "Son of the Star" (Num. xxiv. 17- 
24), but the war did not begin until 131 A. D. 


It was an ancient custom of the Syrian kings 
and Egyptian Ptolemies to honor a successful 
general or a patriotic king and general of the 
army with the title " savior " — in Greek, soter 
— as seen on coin No. 3 ; the first Ptolemy was a 
Soter, also the first Demetrius. The Romans 
honored their emperor or general with the title 
" Father of the Country " for similar services. 
The Hebrews were very jealous of permitting 
any human image on a coin, and therefore we 
read only the name of the high priest or other 
person in chief authority, and the pious sentence, 
" The Deliverance of Jerusalem," as on No. 47, 
and "The Deliverance of Zion" on others. 
These coins were issued at the mint under the 
authority of the Sanhedrin or senate, with a new 
device on the accession of each high priest, king, 
or ethnarch. The coin No. 48 is probably the 
last coined by the Jews as a people. 

The leader Barkokab struck Hebrew devices 
over silver coins of Titus, as in this case, and 
over those of Trajan (No. 47) and of Domitian, 


and of copper over various types, as in 48, where 
the letters on the margin show that the original 
coin was of Trajan. 

10 "Q 



The imperial coins struck at Jerusalem are 
preserved in great variety, and are of great value 
and interest. Hadrian rebuilt the city of Jeru- 

NO. 49.— HADRIAN. 

galem, and gave it the name of JEjaa Capito- 
mna, in honor of Jupiter of the Capitol at 
Rome and of his own family, iElius. This coin 
(49) is read, " Hadrian Augustus, Consul the 
third term, Father of the Country," around Ha- 


drian's bust; and on the reverse, "The advent 
of Augustus into Judaea:" a woman, as Judaea, 
standing with two children bearing palms, her- 
self pouring incense on an altar: "By decree 
of the Senate." (See coin of Hadrian in Dic- 
tionary, p. 41.) In No. 50 is shown a temple, 
within which is a statue, probably of Jupiter, 
attended by two other divinities, perhaps Juno 
and Minerva. Coins were also struck by Anto- 
ninus Pius, Marcus Aurelius, Aurelius and Lu- 


clus Verus (51), by Julia Domna (which bears 
the title Conimodiana, at the request of the em- 

No. 52.— JULIA DOMNA (173-217 A. D.). 

peror Commodus), by Caracalla and Diadume- 
niauus (on which a temple with a statue still ap- 

No. 53. — COIN OF DIADUMENIANUS (217 A. D.). 

pears). The coin of Elagabalus records the 
ancient legend of the she-wolf suckling the 
twin-founders of Rome, Romulus and Remus. 
The series ended with Trajan, JEtruscus, and 
Hostilian. No other Roman coins of a later 
date struck at Jerusalem have been found. The 
next coinage of that city is of the Arabs, who 
made many varieties, No. 57 reading " Moham- 
med is the Apostle of God " in Cufic letters, and 

on the other side Palestine, on each side of the 
letter Mj under a crescent. The coins and medals 

NO. 54.— ELAGABALUS (218-222 A. D.). 

on page 54, Dictionary, are of the crusaders 
after 1 1 50 A. D. 

Elagabalus was a Syrian, named Bassianus, 
but known by his title as priest of the sun-deity, 
which was worshiped atEmesa under that name. 
He was an Oriental in habits, tastes, and train- 
ing, and had no sympathy for Roman laws, dis- 
cipline, or its religion. His reign was cut short 
by the mob, his successor being Alexander Sev- 
erus, his cousin. 

No. 55.— TEAJAN (249-251 A. D.). 

Caius Messius Quintus Trajan Decius was 
urged to accept the throne of Rome much 
against his inclination. Under his rule the 
Goths first made their appearance in the empire 
as enemies. Decius entered the field against 
them, leaving Valerian in Rome to rule with 
the title of Censor. He was the first of all the 
Roman emperors to fall in battle with the enemy. 
The coins struck in Jerusalem with his head and 
titles were honorary, as it is not recorded that he 
ever visited the city. His wife, Herennia iEtrus- 
cilla, is honored on the coin with the title Au- 

No. 56. — JSTRUSCUS (249-251 A. D.). 

gusta (the venerable), and with a fine bust-portrait, 
set in a crescent moon in reference to her purity 
of character. The figure on the other side of 
the coin is of the goddess Modesty, and is also 
in honor of the queen. These religious honors 
were decreed by the Senate, and have been the 
means of perpetuating the memory of the noble 
woman in the absence of other records. 

NO. 57. — ARABIAN. 

The caliph Omar captured Jerusalem 637 A. D., 
and struck coins in honor of the event, one of a 
long series, during over 400 years, being given 
here. Their inscriptions are always in mono- 
gram, often artistically constructed. The soil in 
and around the Holy City contains many buried 
treasures of coins, vast numbers of which are 
brought to light every year. The people hxthe 
villagfesfWj«Mine| i| digsJj||g< upA|j>jhi>a- 
tions or ceflai**irtr iSvwHlow?eS7^nd>repositFf of 
ancient coins, mostly of bronze, a few silver, and 
only now and then gold. At Sidon three differ- 
ent deposits have been found of gold coins of 

Philip and Alexander the Great — in all over 

20,000 pieces, of from $10 to $50 each in value. 


The coin of Cyronins (Quirinus) recalls the 
mention of the census made for Caesar Augustus 
in Luke (ii. 2), when "all the world " was taxed, 
about the time of the birth of Jesus. The por- 
trait shows a character in accord with the ac- 
counts given by historians of the cruel and in- 
human exactions of the tax-gatherers of that 
time. He was so detested that the Senate of 
Rome refused him the honors of a public fune- 
ral, although requested by the emperor Tiberius, 

Herod Archelaus (59 arid 28) was ruler in Pal- 
estine when, it is supposed, Paul was " at the foot 
of Gamaliel," Antipas governed Galilee and 
Peraea, and Philip (29) Trachonitis, Auranitis. 


and Batansea. When Archelaus was banished, 
Judaea, etc. became a Roman province; Copo- 
nius was procurator when Cyrenius was prefect ; 
he was succeeded by Ambivius, 10 A. D., and .Vil- 
nius Rufus, 13 A. D. ; then Valerius Gratus, 14, and 
Pontius Pilate, 25; Marcellus, 35; Marullus, .".7 ; 
and in 38 Agrippa I. was made governor of Ju- 
daea until 44; then Cuspius Fadus, Tiberius 
Alexander, 47, Felix, 52, and Festus, 60, Annas, 
62, Albinus, 62; and the last one was Gessius 
Floras, in a. d. 65, who was the great cause of 
the first revolt. 


The general policy of Augustus as to the gov- 
ernment of Judaea was, as advised by Maecenas, to 
continue the prefect in office three or live years. 
Augustus died 14 A. D., after a reign of fifty-seven 
years, at the age of seventy-seven, and was suc- 
ceeded by his adopted son, Tiberius, son of his 
wife Livia, who was a less active and more luxu- 
rious ruler, and who adopted a new line of policy, 
which was to change the rulers of provinces as 
seldom as possible, so as to avoid plundering the 
people by new and hungry officials. In a reign 
of twenty-two years he changed the procurator 
of Judaea only once. The first procurator under 
Tiberius was" Valerius (iratus, in whose time 
Joseph, also called Caiaphas, was made high 

NO. 61.— ANN 1<> RUFUS. 

priest. After ruling eleven years he made way 
for Pontius Pilate, in the seventh year of whose 
rule (33 a. d., April 2d) the Gospel narrative 
makes Jesus of Nazareth appear before him for 
trial before crucifixion. Recent discoveries have 
enabled the student to follow the entire history of 
that age from one ruler to another, with n< 
every detail supplied from antiquities. 






Paul was a native of Tarsus, which was a 
metropolis, and had a famous idol-shrine (as 
shown here, and more distinctly on No. 13). 
These idol-shrines are scattered throughout Phoe- 

NO. 62.— TARSUS. 

nicia, and are now tumbling into ruins. Hera is 
standing on a lion, holding emblems in each 
hand, a conical object each side of the lion, and 
an eagle on the apex; garlands decorate the 
front and sides. The inscription is " (Money) of 
King Antiochus the Benefactor." Some of the 
coins of Tarsus have a figure of a woman as an 
emblem of the city, and of another for the river 
Cydnus, on which the famous Cleopatra made a 
magnificent display in entering the city. (See 
«oin of Tarsus in Diction ary, p. 103.) 


The coin of Antioch has an emblem of the 
river Orontes beneath the feet of a woman per- 
sonifying the city, the inscription reading, " Of 
Antioch the Metropolis." This city was found- 
ed, by Seleucus, 1.^00 b. c. ^See Dictionary, 
p. 7.) T|ie^^|i|c^ae>|teany©f^f|e Greek 
kings and Roman governors OT*Syria\ -^Ve have 
coins of the Roman governors — P. Q. Varus, dated 
B. c. 7-6, and Volusius Saturninus, prefect from 
4-5 A. D. ; and he was followed by Quirinus (Cy- 
renius; No. 58). 

The coin of Damascus is supposed to refer to 
the fountains or rivers that water its gardens in 


the Greek word pegai. The device is an emblem 
of the city, a woman holding fruit and a horn of 
plenty, seated in a court surrounded by a market, 
a temple with a statue of a deity above, the sun 
and moon on either side. The head is of Julia 
Aquila Severa, wife of the emperor Elagabalus. 

NO. 65. — ARETAS. 

Avetas was the title of the rulers of the Naba- 
theans of Arabia, who built Petra and many 
other cities little known. There were several 
kings with this title, one of whom is here called 
"Bacchius the Jew," and on the other side of 
the coin is the name of a Roman general, Plautus. 
The head is an emblem of the city of Petra. (See 
No. 143.) 

On coin 66 we read, " Tiberius Claudius Caesar 
Augustus " around a grain-measure ; and on the 
other side, "Elected Consul the second time, 
High Priest, Tribunal Power, Emperor," around 

OW- -.*»-,'« 

S. C, for decreed by the Senate (of Rome) ; dated 
41-42 A. i> This was once 5H<;»posed to have been 

the Dictionary.) Diana is named on this coin 

The coin of Iconium, shown here, is inscribed 
" Nero Caesar Augustus " around a head of the 
young Nero ; and on the reverse, " Poppasa Au- 
gusta of the Claud-Iconians," around a seated 
figure of Poppaea, wife of Nero. Iconium was 


struck to commemorate the great famine in Syria, 
relieved by Claudius. 

Josephus says the great famine occurred under 
the procurators Fadus and Tiberius Alexander, 
44 to 48 A. d. It was the custom of the Jews in 
all countries to send money to Jerusalem to re- 
lieve the distress of their brethren there. The 
custom is in full force now. 

This Nicocles, king of Salamis, Cyprus, also on 
the coin " Of the Paphians," was son of Evagoras 


I., and ruled about 375 B. c. Isocrates, the orator 
of Athens, made a flattering eulogy on his life 
and deeds. The proconsul of Cyprus mention- 
ed in Acts xiii. 7 was succeeded by the one 
named on the coin in the Dictionary, p. 24, 
whose inscription is " (Money) of the Cyprians, 


(Cyprus, Diet., p. 24.) 

under Cominius Proclus, Proconsul." The head 
is of the emperor Claudius. The coin of Paphos 
refers to a temple of Venus, now in ruins. The 
temple-ruins at Paphos have not yet been exam- 
ined ; but another temple to Venus — also called 
Aphrodite and Astarte— was exhumed at Golgos, 
near the centre of the island, when 1000 marble 
statues came to light, some colossal, others life- 
size, and many smaller. These are now in the 
Metropolitan Museum, New York. Pausanias 
says in his ancient history that Agapenor, a gen- 
eral of the Greeks under Agamemnon, return- 
ing after the cLose of the siege of Troy, was 
wrecked on the coast of Cyprus, landed, and built 
the town of Paphos and its temple to Venus, 
which was much later in time than the one at 
Golgos. The people of the island at that time 
are said to have numbered seven millions. 


Mark, the cousin of Barnabas, Paul's com- 

E anion, left them at Perga, whose coin, shown 
ere, bears the image • of the goddess Diana, a 
stag, and other religious emblems, with the in- 
scription, " Of Diana of Perga." (See Perga in 

No. 70. — ICONIUM. 

made a Roman colony by Claudius, and named 
Claudia. (See Iconium in the Dictionary.) 
Xenophon says it was a city in Phrygia, as in 
his history of the Expedition of Cyrus he says, 
" he came to Iconium, the last city of Phrygia," 
but Cicero, Strabo, and other ancients say it was 
in Pamphylia. It is a very ancient place, for 
Xenophon wrote about 360 B. c. 

NO. 71. — ATTALIA. 

The coin of Attalia is of the emperor Commo- 
dus (180-192 A. d.), who required his subjects to 
salute him as Hercules the god. The place was 
originally called Corcyrus, and Attalus II. Phil- 
adelphus (see Nos. 127, 128), king of Pergamus, 
added a new town and built a wall around the 
whole, giving it his name. 

The coin of Troas is of Alexander Severus, 
emperor of Rome, 222-235 A. d. The city was 
founded by Antigonus (No. 137), and named by 
him Antigonia, but enlarged by Lysimachus, who 
named it Antigonia Troas. It became a Roman 


colony under Augustus, and had many immunities 
and privileges. The port was artificial, with two 
basins, outer and inner, and it was an important 
commercial centre for many centuries. The an- 
tiquities found by Dr. Schliemann in his search 
for the Troy of Homer indicate great wealth and 
culture among the people in some early age. (See 
coin of Troas in Dictionary, p. 94.) 


The island of Samothrace lies about halfway 
between Troas and Macedonia; it is eight milea 
long, six wide, and has lofty mountain-ranges, 
the highest being 5250 feet. From the top, or 
even high up on the sides, of the mountains of 
this island one can see the plains of Troy, as is 
said in Homer's Iliad. This is a very interest- 
ing confirmation of the accuracy of Homer as to 
geography and minute observation. 

1 it ' U l> i^^ 

1 tl U, 


Macedonia under the Roman rule was divided 
into four districts for safety against a general re- 
bellion, 167 A_D. A coin "of the first division is 
.3 ^T >. fl - 

(Mac. I., Diet., p. 62.) 

on page 62 in the Dictionary ; one of the sec- 
ond (74) is here ; none is known of the third ; 
but of the fourth there are several, besides this 
one, No. 75, which bears the mark of the em- 
peror's legate (leg). The chief cities were — 


Amphipolis, capital of the 1st district; Thessa- 
lonica, of the 2d; Pella, of the 3d; and Heraclea, 
of the 4th. The peoples of the several districts 
were kept wholly distinct, not even being allow- 
ed to marry those of another or have any deal- 
ings in houses or lands. The proconsul over the 
whole country resided at Thessalonica ; the Ro- 
man roads were excellent throughout the coun- 
try, uniting the capitals. The chief seaport 
eastward was Neapolis, the coin of which bears 
an archaic head of Diana with a peculiar style 
of hair-dressing, and the letters in Greek neop, 
for Neapolis ; on the reverse a head of the fabu- 
lous monster called Gorgon. The road from 
Neapolis to Philippi leads over the river Zy- 
gactes (break-pole), about which the Greeks tell 
this legend : Proserpine was gathering flowers by 
the river, when Pluto fell in love with her and 


took her into his chariot, the pole of which broke 
as he tried to cross the river. The whole coun- 
try is poetically dotted with similar legends and 

The coin of Philippi shows that it was a Ro- 
man colony, the inscription being, " Tiberius 
Claudius Caesar Augustus, High Priest, Tribunal 

No 77. — PHILIPPI. 

Power, Emperor," around bust, and " Colony of 
Julia Augusta of Philippi" around statues of 
Julius C&ssar and Augustus, standing on a ped- 

estal inscribed " The Deified Augustus." The 
city was first called Crenides, or Fountains, after- 
ward Datum ; but when Philip, father of Alex- 
ander the Great, fortified it, he named it after 
himself. The gold-mines of the vicinity were 
very productive, yielding a million a year. The 
famous battle between Octavius (afterward Au- 
gustus) and Antony (No. 18) on one side, and 
Brutus and Cassius on the other, was fought 
here 36 b. c. The remains of the earthworks 
used on that day can be traced now for long 
distances, and there are remains of a triumphal 
arch near the modern city. (For Thyatira in 
Asia, where Lydia, found by Paul at Philippi, 
resided, see coin No. 123.) 


The coin of Brutus commemorates his victory 
at Philippi, showing trophies. 

The scourging of Paul and Silas at Philippi is 
illustrated by this scene (No. 79) from an ancient 
gem, which leaves no doubt of the Roman man- 

No. 79. — FL0GG1NO IN SCHOOL. 

ner. Livy (viii. 32) and Aulus Gellius (x. 3) 
describe the Roman manner of flogging in the 
public square or forum on the naked body. 

Philippi was then the capital of the province, 
instead of Amphipolis (see under 75), and had 
the " Italian right," which included exemption 
from martial law and its hasty punishments, and 
from certain taxes, and also being favored with 
peculiar privileges. The Roman citizen, or any 
other person having the " Italian right," could 
not be condemned and punished without a trial, 
and he also had the right of appeal. The scourg- 
ing was done in the public square of the city, be- 
fore the assembled people. Some were tied to a 
post ; others were stripped and had their hands 
tied behind the back. 


On the coin of Thessalonica, we find "Cains 
(Caligula), son of Augustus," around the por- 
trait of Caius, and "Of the Thessalonians " 
(money) around a head of Augustus. Caius 
was an adopted son, He was one of the as- 
sessors when Archelaus and Herod Antipas and 
Philip were heard before Augustus prior to the 
death of Herod the Great. (Jos. Ant. xvii-9, 5; 
s^jJltefgfe|^MEA'i|"fil IJWEfcXAfcYVj) r 

The poe*ca«*PlAsiGns-*f-HiTrKue crtea as evS- 
dence of his acquaintance with, and keen relish 
for, their beauties. For instance, in his address 
to the Athenians there is an allusion to the poems 
of the Cilician poet Aratus in this line: 

"For we are also bis offspring" (Acts xvii. 28); 

and when he rebukes the Cretans, lie quotes from 
their own writer, Epimenides : 

'• Tlie Cretan? 
Are always liars, evil beasts, slow bellies" (Tit. i. 12); 

and for the Corinthians he -elects a line from the 
comedy of" Thai.-," a word of the excellent writer 

" Evil communications corrupt g . r»." 

The poet Aratus was a Cilician, born at Soli, 
and a fellow-countryman with raid. He was at 

the court of Antigonus Gronatae many years, 

NO. 81.— THE POET ARATUS (800-250 B. C). 

where he wrote the astronomical Greek poem, 
called "Phenomena," from which Paul quoted 
in Acts xvii. 28, on which Hipparchus wrote a 
commentary, and of which Cicero made a Latin 
version. Ovid said, "Aratus will always be as- 
sociated with the sun and moon in the minds of 
men, for his excellent qualities " 

NO. 82. — MENANDER (b. 341 B. C.). 

Menander, the Greek tragic poet, was the 
originator of the New Comedy, and had the high- 
est reputation, being eulogized by Julius Cseear, 
Plutarch, and other ancients. Paul quoted from 
his comedy of Thais in 1 Cor. xiii. 33. The por- 
traits of Socrates and Plato are from an ancient 
gem now in the possession of Mr. John Taylor 
Johnston of New York City. They are intro- 
duced here because Socrates was accused of vio- 


lating the laws by corrupting youth, and by 
acknowledging strange gods not sanctioned by 
the laws — accusations made against Paul. (On 
the subject of the accusations against Pan 1 
Acts xxiii. and xvii. 22. J 





— . 




The coin of Athens (84) is of the age of Peri- 
cles, 470 B. c. The purity of the silver and gold 
of the coinage of Athens after Solon's reform 

NO. 8J. — ATHENS. 

made the type useful as late as the time of Alex- 
ander, who changed the standard in weight, and 
then new and better designs were adopted. The 
head is of Minerva, and the owl was sacred to 
that goddess ; athe for Athens. 

The coin of Cenchrea, the port of Corinth, is 
of the date of 138 a. d. or later, and shows a 
head of the emperor Antoninus Pius, the suc- 
cessor of Hadrian in that year. The reverse 


has a plan of the port, where a circular row of 
warehouses end in an office, or perhaps a temple, 
on either side, and in the centre stands a statue 
of Neptune, while ships in full sail are in the 
harbor, with the initials of " Colonia Laus Julia 
C6^nthos.|4S^n'*ffiDie« | [|2ARY,) -^ , 

There a*e-~p«Hi&pl Juire JJxfos o% different 
types of Ephesus than oi any other ancient 
city. The political and religious characteristics 
of the city and of the age are illustrated on 
them, which have many allusions to the Diana- 
worship, and bear the names and official titles 

No. 86. — EPHESUS. 

of various public officers referred to in the New 
Testament. The one below (87), with the head 
of Nero, is dated about the time assigned to 
Paul's visit. We learn from the coins that there 
were many temples to Diana and other deities 
(117) — one of Apollo at the head of the port; 
one opposite the great theatre ; another of Diana 
near the theatre. One of the Diana temples has 
four columns ; another has columns all around 

No. 87.— EPHESUS. 

It; a third (the great temple), eight columns in 
front (114). The theatre was the largest struc- 
ture ever built by the Greeks, and would hold 
50,000 spectators. In this were displayed the 

fiublic games by the Asiarch — running, wrest- 
ing, feats of strength, boxing, horse-racing, 
gladiatorial contests, and fights with wild beasts 
U Cor. xv. 33) j one of the latter is presented on 

the coin No. 88. (See 1 Cor. ix. 24, 25.) The 
emperor Claudius died during the time Paul 
was at Ephesus, 54 A. D. 

The inscription on coin No. 87 is " Nero Caesar," 
around a portrait of the emperor on one side, 
and on the other, " Of the Ephesians Neocori, 
Aichmocles Aviola, Proconsul," around a temple 
of Diana, on each side of which are eph in 
Greek letters. The neokoros was a conductor 
of the public-worship ; we have no such officer 


NO. 88.— REGULUS. 

now. The city also had the privilege of build- 
ing a temple in honor of the reigning emperor ; 
and on coin No. 117 the four temples suggest 
that one or more may have been of that class. 
The inscriptions on the coins of Colossae show 
that the name of the city was written differently 
in most ancient times. The place is now entirely 
deserted, while Xenophon says (Anab.ii. 2) it 
was a great, populous, and flourishing city ; and 
Pliny says (v. 41) it was one of the most cele- 

No. 89.— COLOSSI. 

No. 90.— COLOSSI. 

brated towns in Phrygia. Laodicea and Hier- 
apolis were near, and were included in the circuit 
of labors of the apostle and his assistants (Col. 
iv. 13). These three towns were all in the valley 
of the river Maeander, within a circuit of fifteen 
miles. Hierapolis is included among the illus- 
trious cities of Asia by Tacitus. It has been 
shaken by earthquakes in successive ages, but is 
still a fine city, called by the Turks Pambook 
Kalessi. The hot springs near are the resort of 
invalids and curiosity-hunters, who examine the 
deposits of lime from the waters, which have 
formed vast masses in fantastic shapes. Among 
the ruins of the ancient city the theatre and the 
gymnasium are the most noted. The Stoic phil- 
osopher Epictetus was a native of Hierapolis, 
where he was sold in his youth as a slave to a 
freedman of the emperor Nero; which became 
the means of his good fortune, for he was taken 
to Eome, where he found means of gaining an 
education and his freedom. 

No. 91.— NERO. 

On coin No. 91 there is a front of a provision- 
market, called in Latin macelltjm (mac on 
the coin), which is interesting in connection with 
the text of 1 Cor. x. 25. The legend is, " Nero 
Claudius, Caesar Augustus Germanicus, Tribunal 
Power, Emperor, Father of the Country," around 
a bust-portrait of Nero on one side, and on the 
other, "Provision-Market of Augustus, (struck 
by) Decree of the Senate." 

The emperors supplied the poor people of Rome 
under Augustus, to the number of 200,000, with 
grain for bread. This free gift continued in prac- 
tice until the time of Alexander Severus, 222 A. d., 
when it was abolished. 

The island of Chios is named in Acts (xx. 15) 

as on Paul's route to Judaea, and coins Nos. 92. 
93 are from it. On the larger one we read, 

No. 92. — CHIOS. 

"Under the Archonship of Quintus Valerius 
Primus, of the Chians," around an amphora 
(wine-bottle), and three asses around and below 
a sphinx. Three asses were equal to six cents. 
On the smaller we read, " Chios iEschines," on 

No. 93. — CHIOS. 

either side of a water-bottle. This was the far- 
thing-piece or half a cent ; two mites were equal 
to one of these. 

Earthquakes have recently caused a great loss 
of life and a destruction of many houses in the 
cities and villages of Chios (now called Scio). 
The island is 32 miles long by 8 to 18 miles 
wide. Its fertility and the excellent quality of 
its wine, mastic, figs, and other products have 
been the theme of writers in all ages. This was 
one of the seven places that claimed the honor 
of Homer's nativity, the other six being Smyrna, 
Rhodes, Colophon, Salamis, Athens, and Argos. 
They show a sepulchre in Chios which is called 
Homer's, near the ruins of an ancient temple to 

NO. 94— SAMOS. 

Samos was the capital of an island of the same 
name. We read on the coin No. 94, " Hegesianax, 
of the Samians," above a head and shoulders of 
an ox ; the head of a lion is without inscription. 
This is a very ancient place, and mentioned in 
the earliest history. 

NO. 95.— MILETUS. 

The coin of Miletus has a head of Apollo 
bound with a wreath of laurel, and on the re- 
verse a lion looking back at a star, with the 
monogram of Miletus and the name of Theo- 
dorus, who was a chief magistrate. (See Die-. 
tionaey, pp. 65, 66.) 

No. 96.— COS. 

The island of Cos was called the garden of 
the iEgean Sea. It was mentioned in the book 
of Maccabees (1 Mace. xv. 23) and in Josephus 
(Ant. xiv. 7, 2) in connection with the war with 
Mithridates. Herod the Great conferred many 
favors on the Jews in Cos. 

10 ^Tr 


For coin of Rhodes, see Dictionary. It has 
. head of Apollo radiated as the sun on one side, 
and " Amynias (a magistrate) of the Rhodians" 
on the other, around an opening rose. 

NO. 97.— PATARA. 
(Rhodes, Diet., p. 85.) 

Patara was the port of Xanthus, the capital of 
Lycia, and stood eight miles east of the Yellow 
(xanthus) River. It is now a ruin, and its port 
is filled up with sand. On the coin a head of 
Apollo in a laurel-wreath is on one side, and a 
head of Diana on the other, with the words "Of 
the Patareans." Ruins of a theatre, baths, and a 
triple arch which was once a city-gate mark the 

Lycia was south of Asia, and had its Lysiarchs 
as Asia had its Asiarchs. It was a part of the 

No. 98.— LYCIA. 

Persian dominions before Alexander (Herodotus 
vii. 91, 92), then under the Greek kings to the 
time the Romans took it from Antiochus. It is 
mentioned in 1 Mace. xv. 23, and was made a 
Roman province under Claudius. On the coin 
is a head of Apollo and a lyre, with "Of the 
Lycians, Year 8." ^ 


Acre was a city of Phoenicia, and was invested 
by the Romans with the privileges of a colony, 
as appears on this coin of Claudius, with the 
legend, "(Claudius) Cassar, High Priest, Consul 
4th time, Emperor 13th year" (47 A. D.), around 
a portrait, and " The Deified Claudius, Ptolemais, 
Claudian Colony, Citizens Saved," around two 
oxen and driver, with four standards of the le- 
gions— 6, 9, 10, il. 

No. 100. — ADRAMYTTIUM. 

The coin of Adramyttium reads, " Antinous the 
Bacchus," around portrait of Antinous (who was 
deified in the reign of Hadrian), and " Dedicated 
by Egesias of the Adramyttians," around a fig- 
ure of Ceres. This place was settled in the time 
of Croesus by the Lydians, 590 b. c. 

On the coin of Sidon we find a head of a king 
or emperor without name, and a group of the 

No. 101.— SIDON. 

fabled Europa and the bull, with the words " Of 
the Sidonians." This myth of Europa was re- 
corded on many coins of different nations. (See 
Sidon in the Dictionary.) The name Europe 
means "the west" when applied to the country, 
but it means on this coin a deified daughter of 
Agenor, king of Phoenicia, of whom it is fabled 
that Jupiter was enamored, and she became the 
mother of the heroes Minos, Sarpedon, and Rhad- 
amanthus, and after that married Asterius, the 
king of Crete ; the Cretans deified her and built 
shrines for her worship. 

NO. 102. — CNIDCS. 

Cnidus was known to the Jews in the second 
century B. c. (1 Mace. xv. 23), and was passed by 
Paul (Acts xxvii. 7). It must have been of great 
importance and magnificence. It was formerly 
on an island of the same name, but is now con- 
nected with the mainland by a causeway. The 
coin presents a head of Venus with many orna- 
ments, and a lion's head, with Ethbolo, the name 

the governor of the island, with a C&duceiu in 
token of his good conduct in office; on the re- 

was Venus, whose temple was famed for its mar- 
ble statue of that' goddess, the work of Praxiteles. 
The mathematician Eudoxus, the philosopher 
Agatharcides, the historian Theopompus, and 
the physician Ctesias were natives of Cnidus. 
It is now a mass of ruins. The historian Theo- 
pompus is quoted by several ancient authors, 
and is favorably compared with Thucydides and 
Herodotus, but was more satirical and illiberal. 
His works are lost, only the passages quoted by 
others being extant. Ctesias wrote a history of 
Persia in twenty-three books. 

No. 103.— CNOSSUS. 

NO. 104.— GAULOS. 

verse a wreatli of latirel around a \ a-< . ami the 
letters all, for alal, in Phoenician letb 

The coin of Malta was struck by the (Greeks, 
and presents a head of the Egyptian goddess 
Isis with mystic head-dress and crown, a bead 
of barley, and the words "Of the Maltese;" on 


the reverse a figure of the god Osiris. \vi 

4 & 3f**w$£\ ,*^S^v 

NO. 105.— MEL1TA (MALTA). 

crowned with the serpent, and holding the em- 
blems of power in either hand. The knowledge 
and use of' the Egyptian gods extended to Rome 
also in later times. 

The coin of Syracuse (No. 106) is of Gelon, 
485-478 b. c, and presents the head of a girl, 
hair waved in front, one lock hanging over the 
ear, the rest braided and folded or gathered in 
a net, bound with a wreath of olive; earring, 

NO. 106.— SYRACUSE. 

with pendants and necklace ; four dolphins swim 
around the head in the same direction, differing 
from the one below ; on the other side was the 
chariot and four horses similar to that on the 
next coin. 

Coin No. 107 is of Hiero of Syracuse, 470 B. c, 
and bears a head of the goddess Arethusa. with 
earring, necklace, band, and hair in a net ; four 
dolphins swim around, two meeting before the 
face, indicating, as is supposed, that the island on 
which the fountain of Arethusa is located was 
there united to the mainland by a causeway, 
built after the former coin -was struck. The 
chariot and four horses commemorate victories 
won by King Hiero in the Olympic Games, which 
were celebrated by the poet Pindar in his Odes. 
Besides Pindar, his court was frequented by 
^Eschylus, Simonides, and Epic-harm us — all well- 

Crete is rich in the early mythology of the 
Greeks ; Cnossus was its chief city, and Gortyna 
second. (See Dictionary.) The famous 
Labyrinth is presented on this coin and on 
No. 142. The head of Diana has an orna- 
mented cap, and she has earrings and neck- 
lace of pearls or hollow gold beads ; the word 
is "Of the Knossians." The Cretans are 
named among those who witnessed the gift 
of tongues (Acts ii. 11). The strange fables 
of the Gnostics were received on the island. 
A natural cave is shown to travelers near 
Gortyna as the original Labyrinth ; it has 
many rooms and passages, with stalactites, 
and may have suggested the poetic idea 
which the ancient poet crystallized in the 
tale of Theseus and the Minotaur. 

Gaulos is a small island near Malta. The , known authors of Greek literature. Hiero was 
coin is Phoenician, and is described : Head of | a generous patron of the arts and sciences. 

NO. 107.— SYRACUSE. 





This portrait of King Hiero on No. 108 is the 

IHpst.-lrnnwn nnrt.rii i f". nn nnv fnin and is dated 

oldest-known portrait on any coin, and 
48U i.e. 

NO. 108.— SYRACUSE. 

Nero was made emperor through the manage- 
ment of his mother, Agrippina, wife of Claudius, 
in 54 A. d., when he was seventeen years old. 
The portrait of the young man appears beard- 
less on many coins (see 70), and his advancing 
years can be traced to the last (in 68 A. d.) on 
various specimens, No. 91 or 111 marking the 
greatest age. He was not old when he died (by 
his own hand), aged thirty-one. It is said his 
chief passion was to sing with a thin, shrill voice 
to the sound of a guitar, although he had talents 
in painting, sculpture, and poetry. It is said that 


he became a monster of crime and cruelty. Sen- 
eca, one of his advisers in state affairs, was the 
most elegant scholar of the age. He instituted 
games, called Juvenilia, in honor of his first 
beard. Coin No. 110 is inscribed, " Nero Clau- 


dius, Caesar Augustus Germanicus," around a 
portrait with a radiated crown ; on the reverse, 
" Freighted with (or by) Augustus," around a 
grain-ship, in reference to the supplies obtained 
from Africa for the people of Rome. 

Coin No. 109 has this legend : " Nero Claudius, 
Caesar Augustus Germanicus, High Priest, Tri- 
bunal Power, Emperor, Father of the Country," 
around a youthful head of the emperor ; and on 
the other side a figure of Nero playing on a lyre 
or cithara. 

Coin No. Ill 
Csesar Augustus 
Father of 
temple of Janus 
temple of Janus 
door, the letters 
of the Senate." 

NO. 111.— NERO. 

is inscribed, "Nero Claudius, 
Germanicus, Tribunal Power, 
, TBnyjerpr ;'&>{<% fBfcthe 
e»eflitli and oixth^ea, the 
closed," around a front of the 
hung with a garland over the 
S C on either side for " Decree 

The Seven Churches of Asia (Rev. i. 4). 
Of Patmos there are no coins. 
Of the cities of the seven churches in Asia, 
some are a heap of ruins, and others, like 
Ephesus, have been lost, and only recent- 
ly restored by the explorer's shovel. The 
city was originally named Smyrna (Strabo 
xiv. 1,4). The Diana-worship was peculiar- 
ly Oriental, and included magic, charms, 
amulets, soothsaying, and pretended mir- 
acles. The image of Diana in the great 
temple was of immense height, carved in 
ebony, ivory, and gold, and probably form- 
ed like those on the coins. The moon was 
symbolized behind the head and shoulders; 
the signs of the Zodiac were carved on 
the drapery of the breast, and animals or mon- 
strous forms were distributed over the drapery 
of the lower limbs; in each hand was a tri- 

NO. 112. — EPHESUS. 

NO. 113. — EPHESUS. 

dent. It was asserted that the image fell 
from heaven (or Jupiter) complete, as is also 
said of the Kaaba Stone in Mecca. Diana was 
worshiped in three characters — as the moon 
(Luna) in the heavens, Diana on earth, and 
Hecate in Hades. One month was named Arte- 
misia from the annual festival in honor of the 
goddess (called Artemis), the record of which in 
a decree, engraved on a marble slab, was found 
near the temple, corroborating the text of Acts 
xix. 35. During the month of revels various 
scenes were enacted in which the gods were rep- 
resented : a man as Jupiter the May King, who 

NO. 114. — EPHESUS. 

was appointed by the emperor or his legate ; one 
as Apollo, and another as Mercury. The Jupiter 
wore a robe glittering with gold, white as snow, 
and a crown of carbuncles, pearls, and other 
precious stones (Malala, lib. xii.). Ephesus was 
the great market of the region, buyers and sellers 
flocking there in great numbers ; thus religion, 
business, and pleasure combined to make the fes- 
tival-month a success. It was in that month that 
Paul's visit was timed. The expenses of the 
games were paid, all or a part, by the Asiarch 
(see Asiarch in the Dictionary), who super- 
intended the exhibition. The great image was 
copied in small sizes for use in private families, 
shops, etc., and for travelers. 

- NO. 115. — EPHESUS. 

On coin No. 115 are heads of Augustus and 
Livia joined, and on the reverse the legend, 

"Aristion Menophantus, Recorder of the Ephe- 
sians," around a stag, the emblem of Diana of 

Ephesus. No. 116 presents the image of Diana 
the huntress, with bow, quiver, and a stag, from a 
fine Greek model. No. 117 is a coin bearing the 
fronts of four temples, in one of which stands 

NO. 117. — EPHESUS. 

an image of Diana, the others having effigies o* 
the emperors. The Apollo (118) was the male 
god, the sun, as the Diana was the female, the 

NO. 118.— APOLLO. 

moon, and both are represented with bow and 
arrow. This Apollo is from the original marble 
in the Vatican, Rome ; the Diana below, a chariot 
and two horses driven by the goddess, inside a 

NO. 119.— DIANA. 

circle formed by a serpent with its tail in iii 
mouth, the ancient symbol of eternity. 



Smyrna, the second of the "seven," is men- 
tioned only once in the Scriptures (Rev. ii. 8-11), 

NO. 120.— SMYRNA. 

but honorably, and it enjoyed the proud title, 
"The Ornament of Asia." The most popular 
deity of the ancient city was the god Bacchus ; 
other gods were Apollo, Diana, the Nemesis, the 
father of the gods (Zeus), the mother of the gods 
(Hera), the city of Rome as Roma, and peculiar- 
ly, Dionysus, who was fabled to die by violence 
and be resuscitated every year. It had a large 
public library and a museum, dedicated to Ho- 
mer, who was claimed as a countryman, an 
Odeum, and other public buildings, including 
a hall of justice, where appeals from, other cities 

NO. 121.— SMYRNA. 

were heard under the Roman laws. It is now a 
city filled with ruins built into modern walls, 
which include many fragments of sculptures and 
other works of art. Herodotus described a statue 
which was near the city, cut on the face of a rock, 
seven feet high, Egyptian in style, with this in- 
scription across the breast : " I conquered this 
country by the might of my arms." (See Dan. 
xi.) This city was founded by Alexander the 
Great after the battle of Granicus. 

Pergamus, the third church in the list, was in 
a city which was the capital of a district of the 
same name. The city was founded before the Tro- 
jan war, when Pergamos, son of Pyrrhus, deposed 


King Arius there. Philetairus founded the race 
of Attalian kings of Pergamus, 280 B. c. ; Eu- 
menes, his nephew, succeeded him, 262 B. c. 
Eumenes II. was rewarded far services to the- 
Romans by the addition to his kingdom of 
Mysia, Lydia, and Phrygia; he founded a 
library that became the rival of that at Alex- 
andria. Attalus III. (133 b. c.) gave his king- 
dom to the Roman people and ended the mon- 
archy of Pergamus. 


Thyatira was mentioned fourth in the Apoc- 
alypse. (See in the Dictionary.) The coins 
bear the heads of Apollo (Tyrimnas), Hercules, 
Athene, Roma, Oybele, and the reigning empe- 
rors. The remains of antiquity are numerous, 

but ruinous, such as fragments of sculptures and 
inscribed stones giving an account of the various 
labor-guilds of that age. (Acts xvi. 14.) 

NO. 124.— THYATIRA. 

The city of Thyatira was founded by Seleucus 
I ('5,2), as one of the many Macedonian col- 
onies, which were among the results of the par- 
tition of Persia by the successors of Alexander 
the Great. It had been a city from remote times, 
called Pelopia, Semiramis, and Euhippia, after 
various rulers in different ages, and under the 
Persian rule from the time of Cyrus the (treat, 
546 B. c. A very curious superstition is said to 
have been introduced there by the Jews in the 
worship of the sibyl Sambatha. (See Rev. ii. 

NO. 125.— SARDIS. 

Sardis was the fifth in the list, and the capital 
of ancient Lydia, which Homer called Moeonia, 
the " Queen of Asia," whose earliest king was 
Candaules, 716 B. c, and the last Crcesus, 560- 
546 b. c. The golden sands of the Pactolus fur- 
nished metal (electrum) for the money of that 
age, which assisted in developing the manufac- 
tures and trade of the city. (See in the Diction- 
ary.) Two massive columns (6 feet 6 inches 
thick and 40 feet high) of the once magnificent 
temple of Cybele remain among a heap of ruins. 
It was of the same age as vhe temple of Zeus in 

NO. 126.— SARDIS. 

JEgina and of Hera in Samos. An earthquake 
in the time of Tiberius very much damaged the 
city, when its tribute to Rome was remitted for 
five years. Its theatre was nearly 400 feet in 
diameter, and the stadium adjoining it was 1000 
feet long. The ancient name of the city was 
Hyde, under the rule of Omphale, a wife of Her- 
cules. The modern name is Sart Kalessi, but the 
place is deserted ; only heaps of ruins remain of 
the once famous city, which was full of temples, 
theatres, factories, and commodious dwellings, all 
of stone. 


|3ffljaffi^a«w|fepij;|FXarrthe borderof Lydia 

and Phrygia,- '>n the atape* of Mount Tmolus and 
on the banks of the Cogamus River. 

Philadelphia was the sixth in the list of the 
churches in Asia. The city was founded by 

Attains II., called Philadelphia, 140 r. <., as a 
mart for the famous wine-district celebrated b) 

NO. 128.— A'l TALIS 11. I'lllLADII I'lll S ( l.V.l I 

Virgil ; and the coins of that period have ;i In ad 
of Bacchus or the figure of a Bacchante. Xerxes 
passed near the site of the city, and Eerodotua 
speaks of the sorghum as in successful cultiva- 
tion then (485-465 B.C.). The valley of the II, r- 
mus is one of the most extensive ami fruitful in 
Asia. The coins of the later rulers are not very 
numerous. Attalus II. vii coin No. 128 is repre 


sented more or less ideally after the likeness of 
the progenitor of the dynasty of Pergamus (No. 
122), whose descendant he was. 

NO. 130.— LAODICEA. 

The ruins of Laodicea are on seven hills, and 
comprise a stadium, three theatres (one 450 feet in 
diameter), a gymnasium, bridges, aqueducts, etc. 
The earliest name was Diospolis (city of Jupiter) ; 
after that, Rhoas, which was then the largest city 
in Phrygia; and finally Antiochus named it aftei 

NO. 131.— LAODICEA. 

his sister, Laodice. The aqueducts are construct 
ed with a knowledge of hydraulics equal to ours, 
the theatres have seats numbered and lettered, 
and the place abounds in evidences of a high 
state of civilization. This city under the Koman 
rule was a place of importance for its trade and 
manufactures. In the Christian age it was a 
populous and wealthy city where the great coun- 
cils of the Church met. The ruined site is called 


.„- .. , 



Places mentioned in the Account of the 
Day of Pentecost, Acts ii. 9-11. 

The Parthian kingdom was founded about 250 
B. c. by Arsaces, a Scythian, and it extended over 
a large part of Asia. The Parthians were never 
wholly subdued by the Romans, their last king, 
Artabanus IV., being killed by the Persians 226 
l. D. The Parthians captured many Roman 

250 b. c. 

standards in battle, which were returned after 
a solemn treaty amid great rejoicing in Rome 
Under Augustus, who struck several medals in 
commemoration of the event. The coin No. 132 
is of Arsaces IX., Mithridates II., who was the 
first to make his nation known to the Romans 
under Sulla, 92 B. c. 

Mesopotamia appears first in history as a coun- 
try inhabited by many independent tribes, as 
Arabia is now, then as a part of the Assyrian 
empire, and after that divided between the 


(For Judasa, see No. 42.) 

Medes and Babylonians. Cyrus added it to 
Persia, and Alexander made it a satrapy under 
his rule; it fell, after his death, to one of his 
gknepiBySeleucus L, and to the Parthians, B. c. 
100. Aajyfi^a^^iy |R.aip*m6MOvinc^A. 1^115. 
Cappadocia wusToundeil by Fh;i maces 744 B.C.; 
conquered by Perdiccas of Macedonia 32z. The 
Romans first encouraged the formation of cities. 
The king Ariarathes mentioned in 1 Mace. xv. 22 


was the sixth of that name. The last king of 
Cappadocia was Archelaus, who was favored by 
Augustus, but died at Rome A. d. 17, when the 
country was made a Roman province, under Ti- 

Pontus was originally a part of Cappadocia, 
near the Pontus Euxinus, and made an inde- 
pendent nation by Artabazus, under Darius of 
Persia, 487 b. c. Mithridates VI. (No. 10) con- 

2uered Scythia, Bosphorus, Colchis, and Cappa- 
oeia. The kingdom ended in the death of 
Mithridates, 63 B. c, and it became a Roman 
province under the emperors. P^emo was made 

No. 135.— PONTUS. 

fcing of Pontus by Antony, whom he attended in 
his expedition against Parthia. His son, whose 
head appears on this coin, was confirmed on the 
throne by Claudius. 

Asia as a province dates from b. c. 133 (see 
Coin No. 121) ; before that it had been from the 
time of Alexander under the 
Seleucid kings, until it be- 
came a Roman province. The 
Greeks and Persians contend- 
ed for centuries for suprem- 
acy in Asia until Alexander's 
time, since when it was under 
the Seleucid kings (except 
Pergamus, which was given 
to the Romans by will 133 
B. a), until it became a Roman province 15 A. D., 
under Tiberius. 

Phrygia was made a part of the kingdom of 
Antigonus Cyclops after the death of Alexan- 
der, 323 b. c. It was made a Roman province 
47 B. c. Phrygia was a vague term, including a 

NO. 136. — SELEUCUS I. 

NO. 137.— ANTIGONUS, PHRYGIA (333-301 B. C). 

large territory, from which portions were added 
to several Roman provinces at different times. 
Iconium and Colosse were in Phrygia. Jose- 
phus says Antiochus the Great (No. 5) first in- 
troduced Jews to Phrygia about 200 B. c. (Ant. 
xii. 3, 4). Acts xiii. 14; xiv. 1, 19. 

Pamphylia is mentioned by Herodotus (vii. 
91, 92) as one of the lesser states. In Paul's 
time it was a Roman province, enlarged under 


Claudius by Lycia and a part of Pisidia. Myra 
was the port where Paul changed ships on the 
way to Rome. It contains many relics of dif- 
ferent ages : tombs with Lycian inscriptions, a 
theatre of the Greek age, a Byzantine church, 
and later remains. The Orthodox Greeks have a 
legend that St. Nicolas was born at Patara, buried 
at Myra, and his bones now rest, having been 
moved to St. Petersburg recently. (See No. 69.) 
The Egypt of the Bible, so far as the coins 
present it, dates from Alexander the Great, 332 
B.C. (No. 1). The Ptolemies continued from 
323 (see Dictionary) to Cleopatra, 30 b. c, 
when it became a Roman province. Hadrian 

NO. 139.— HADRIAN IN EGYPT (117-138 A. D.). 

spent the greater part of his reign in journeys 
throughout the provinces of his empire, display- 
ing liberality, political wisdom, and love of the 
fine arts. On this coin appears the inscription, 
" Hadrian Augustus, Consul 3d time, Father 
of the Country," around head of the emperor ; 
and an emblem of the Nile — a strong man sur- 
rounded by boys, representing the districts of 

Egypt, Sphinx and Crocodile, with S C for De- 
cree of the Senate. 

Cyrenaica comprised five cities and then 
outlying districts (see Dictionary), was col- 
onized by the Greeks as early as 600 B. c, and 
was named by Aristseus after his mother. After 
Alexander, it became a dependency of Egypt. 


The coin presents a head of Jupiter Amnion on 
one side, and on the other the sacred silphion 
plant, now extinct. The Romans received it as 
a legacy from Apion, son of Ptolemy Physcon, 
97 B. c. It is now a desert. 

This coin (141) is of the Roman people, and 
represents a young man with a staff and a horn 

NO. 141*— ROME. 

of plenty. The people owned large districts 1& 
the provinces in the time of the emperors, and 
the taxes were derived for ages entirely from the 
countries subject to Rome outside of Italy. At 
one time, as Pliny says, six Roman proprietors 
owned half the land in Africa outside of Egypt, 
and Augustus owned all Egypt. 

The Minotaur was fabled to have been shut in 
the Cretan labyrinth and fed on young men and 


maids, supplied by Athens yearly, until Theseus 
(a king of Athens) killed the monster by the 
help of Ariadne, daughter of Minos, king of 
Crete. Theseus was next to Hercules in suc- 
cess, killing the Minotaur, vanquishing the 
Centaurs, but was finally chained to a huge 
rock in Hades by Pluto for attempting the 
rescue of Proserpine. (See No. 103.) 

The Aretas of Petra, king of the Naba- 
theans, was in alliance with the Greek kings 
of Syria, and inscribed his friendship on his 


coins, as on this : " Aretas, lover of the Greeks." 
He must have employed Greek architects in Pe- 
tra, for the remains of the city, cut in the solid 
rock, are of their style. (See No. 65, and Dic- 
tionary, p. 78.} 

Coins, Money and Weights of the 

By F. W. Madden, M. B. A. S. 

General Remarks. — Ancient money was of 
two kinds, uncoined and coined. By uncoined may 
be understood pieces not issued under an authority, 
'hough they may have borne some stamp or impress 
ef their value. By coined may be understood ingots, 
»f which the weight and fineness are certified by the 
integrity of designs impressed upon the surfaces of 
the metal (Prof. Jevons, Money, p. 57). 

The first mention in the Bible, after the Flood, of 
uncoined money is when Abraham came up out of 
Egypt "very rich in cattle, in silver, and in gold" 
(Gen. xiii. 2; comp. Gen. xxiv. 35). Though this 
passage does not imply anything more than " bul- 
lion," yet we soon find a notice of the use of money 
|Heb. silver) as the price paid for a slave (Gen. xvii. 
13). The first actual transaction of commerce is the 
purchase by Abraham of the cave of Machpelah for 
400 shekels of silver, current [money] with the mer- 
thant (Gen. xxiii. 16) ; and silver as a medium of 
commerce appears to have been in general use among 
the nations of the Philistines (Gen. xx. 16 ; Judg. 
xvi. 5, 18 ; xvii. 2, seq.), the Midianites (Gen. xxxvii. 
18), and the Syrians (2 Kings v. 5, 23). By the laws 
»f Moses, men and cattle (Lev. xxvii. 3, seq. ; Num. 
iii. 45, seq.), the possessing houses and fields (Lev. 
xxvii. 14, seq.), provisions (Deut. ii. 6, 28; xiv. 26), 
all fines for offences (Exod. xxi., xxii.), the contribu- 
tions to the Temple (Exod. xxx. 13; xxxviii. 26), 
the sacrifice of animals (Lev. v. 15), the redemption 
of the first-born (Num. iii. 47-50; xviii. 15), were 
estimated and regulated by money value. It is prob- 
able that a fixed weight was assigned to single pieces, 
so as to make them suitable for the various articles 
presented in trade. The system of weighing (though 
frequent mention is made of the balance and the 
weighing of money, Exod. xxii. 17 ; Lev. xix. 36 ; 
Deut. xxv. 13, 15; 2 Sam. xviii. 12; 1 Kings xx. 39; 
Jer. xxxii. 9, 10; Prov. xi. 1, etc.) is not likely to 
have been applied to every individual piece. In the 
large total of 603,550 half-shekels accumulated by the 
contributions of each Israelite (Exod. xxxviii. 26), 
eacli individual half-shekel could hardly have been 
weighed. Money was sometimes put into a chest, 
which when full was emptied by the high priest, and 
the money was bound up in bags, and then told, per- 
haps being weighed in the bags (2 Kings xii. 9, 10; 
comp. 2 Chron. xxiv. 8-11). That there were pieces 
of different denominations is evident from the pas- 
sage in Exod. xxx. 13, where the half-shekel is to be 
paid as the atonement-money, and " the rich shall not 
give more, and the poor shall not give less" (Exod. 
xxx. 15). The third part of the shekel is mentioned 
in Persian times (Neh. x. 32), and the fourth part 
must have been an actual piece, for it was all the sil- 
ver that the servant of Saul had to pay the seer (1 
Sam. ix. 8, 9). Iron and lead bars of constant form 
and weight circulated in Egypt ; in Greece, bars of 
iron ; in Italy, bars of copper ; in Britain, in the time 
of Julius Caesar, bars of copper and iron ; and from 
the earliest times gold and silver in the same shape 
were employed in general traffic in the East. This 
explains the mention of a wedge (Heb. tongue) of 
gold found by Achan at Jericho (Josh. vii. 21) [see 
Talent under Weights], as well as the different pay- 
ments which are mentioned in the O. T., and which 
presuppose with certainty the currency of single 
pieces of metal according to weight. 

It is also probable that a system of "jewel cur- 
rency " or '' ring-money " was in vogue. The case of 
Kebekah, to whom the servant of Abraham gave " a 
golden ear-ring of half a shekel weight, and two 
bracelets for her hands of ten shekels weight" (Gen. 
Xxiv. 22), proves that the ancient Hebrews made 
heir jewels of a specific weight, so as to know the 
value of these ornaments in employing them for 
»ioney._ That the Egyptians kept their bullion in 
jewels is evident from their monuments, where they 
are represented weighing rings of gold and silver, 
and is further illustrated by the fact of the Israelites 
having at their exodus from Egypt borrowed "jewels 
[vessels] of silver and jewels [vessels] of gold" 
(Keli keseph, Keli zahab), and "spoiled the Egyp- 
tians" (Exod. xii. 35, 36; comp. Exod. iii. 22; xi. 
i). So too it would appear that the money used by 
tte children of Jacob, when they went to purchase 

corn in Egypt, was an annular currency (Gen. xlii. 
35). Their money is described as " bundles of 
money," and when returned to them was found to be 
"of [full] weight" (Gen. xliii. 21). It was there- 
fore of a form capable of being tied up, which 
receives corroboration from the passage in Deute- 
ronomy (xiv. 24-26), where directions are given as 
to the payment of the tithes to the sanctuary : "Then 
shalt thou turn it into money, and bind up the money 
in thy hand, and shalt go unto the place which the 
Lord thy God shall choose." The account of the 
sale of Joseph to the Midianites affords another 
instance of the employment of jewel ornaments as 
a medium of exchange (Gen. xxxvii. 28), as we 
gather from the account in Numbers (xxxi. 50, 51) 
of the spoiling of the Midianites, that they carried 
their whole wealth in the forms of chains, bracelets, 
ear-rings, and tablets. The friends of Job gave him, 
in addition to "a piece of money" [Kesitah], "an 
ear-ring of gold" (nezem zahab, LXX. letradraehmon 
ch~usou kai asemou — tetradrachm of uncoined gold, 
Job xlii. 11). Now had these ear-rings of gold not 
been intended as representing money, all the friends 
of the patriarch would not have given him the 
same article, and that in conjunction with a piece of 

From these statements, it is evident, firstly, that if 
the Hebrews became learned in " all the wisdom of 
the Egyptians" (Acts vii. 22; comp. 1 Kings iv. 30), 
they did not learn from them the use of money ; and 
secondly, that nowhere in the Pentateuch is there any 
mention of money that was coined. Nor do the pas- 
sages in Joshua, Judges, and Job imply an actual 
coinage, any more than the " piece of silver " [Ago- 
bah] mentioned at the time of Samuel (1 Sam. ii. 
36). The reigns of David and Solomon were an era 
of prosperity for Judaea — "Silver was in Jerusalem 
as stones ; it was nothing accounted of in the days of 
Solomon" (1 Kings x. 21, 27 ; 2 Chron. ix. 20, 27) ; 
still, it is certain that there were no real coins — namely, 
pieces struck under an authority— before the Exile. 
On the other hand, the Hebrews, as I have shown, 
must have employed pieces of a definite weight ; but 
the excavations in Palestine have never brought to 
light an example, any more than the excavations in 
Egypt, Assyria and Babylonia. It may, however, 
be observed that when the pieces of silver were col- 
lected for the treasury they were melted down before 
reissue. It is recorded (2 Kings xxii. 9; comp. 2 
Chron. xxxiv. 17) that Shaphan the scribe came to 
King Josiah, and said, "Thy servants have gathered 
together (Heb. melted) the money that was found in 
the house;" and the same plan was also followed by 
the Persian king Darius (b. c. 521-485), who melted 
the gold and silver into earthen vessels, which when 
full were broken off", leaving the metal in a mass, 
from which pieces were broken off" as necessity 

The oldest coins extant are certain electrum staters 
of Lydia, probably about B. c. 720, which, issued on 
different standards, continued in circulation till the 
time of Croesus, who, on his accession in B. c. 568, 
reorganized the Lydian coinage, abolished electrum, 
and issued instead pieces of gold and silver. Before 
the introduction of coined money into Greece, there 
was a currency of obeliskoi, "spits" or "skewers," 
probably of iron or copper, six of which made a 
handful (drachme), and which were of a considerable 
size. The first Greek silver coins were struck at 
^Egina in b. c. 670-660. 

The earliest coins mentioned in the Bible are the 
coins called drams, B. c. 538 [Dram]. It is sup- 
posed by some that the Jewisli silver shekels and 
half-shekels were introduced under Ezra, about B. C. 
458 [Shekel] ; but it is more probable that they 
were issued under Simon Maccabsus, b. O. 139 (1 
Mace. xv. 6), and copper coins were struck by the 
Asrnonaean and Herodian family. 

The N. T. history falls within the reigns of Augus- 
tus, Tiberius, Caligula, Claudius, and Nero, but only 
Augustus (Luke ii. 1), Tiberius (Luke iii. 1), and 
Claudius (Acts xi. 28; xviii. 2), are mentioned; but 
Nero is alluded to in the Acts from chapter xxv. to 
the end, and in Phil. iv. 22. Coins of all these 
emperors would therefore be in circulation. 

The following list embraces all the denomination 
of money mentioned in the Old and New Tests* 
ments : 

Ay or ah. See Piece of Silver. 

Bekah (Exod. xxxviii. 26). Literally "a half," 
" half a shekel," about 1*. Ad. Extant half-shekel-, 
weigh about 110 grains. [Half a Shekel and 

Brass [Money]. (1) In the O. T. a passage in 
Ezekiel (xvi. 36, Heb. nechosheth, LXX. Chalkot, 
Vulgate ozs, A. V. filthiness) has been supposed i<> 
refer to brass money, but with no probability, ;ts this 
was the latest metal introduced into Greece for 
money. The Hebrew word probably means some- 
thing worthless, like " base metal " (comp. Jer. vi. 
28; Ezek. xxii. 18). (2) Chalkot, pecunia I Matt. x. 
9). The brass coins current in Palestine in die N. T. 
period consisted of Roman copper and Greek impe- 
rial coins, of the coins of Alexander JanneuB, of the 
Herodian family, and of the procurators of J uda-a 
See Farthing and Mite. 

Daric. See Dram. 

Denarius. See Penny. 

Didrachm. See Shekel and Tribute money. 

Drachm, Drachme, drachma (2 .Mace', iv. 19; 
x. 20; xii. 43; Tobit v. 14). It is of various weights, 
according to the use of the different talents. The 
drachms here mentioned are of the Attic talent, which 
became almost universal on Alexander's succession 
(b. c. 338), and weighed about 67.2 grains. In later 
times (about B. c. 27), the drachm weighed only 61.3 
grains, and thus became very nearly equal to tini 
Roman denarius [Penny], the average weight of 
which was 60 grains. The earliest Attic drachm 
contained about -fa of the weight of alloy, and 
there remain 66.1 grains of silver to be valued. < >ur 
shillings weigh 87.2 grains, and contain 80.7 grains 
of pure silver. The earliest Attic drachm is there- 
fore worth gjj of a shilling, or 9.82 pence, which is 
9f d.-\- fa of a farthing. The later Attic drachm, 
deducting also ^ of the weight of alloy, is worth ^- 7 
of a shilling, or 8.93 pence, which is 8^rf.-f fa of a 
farthing; and hence the value of the latest drachm 
or denarius may be taken at about 8d. [Piece of 
Silver and Penny.] 

Dram. The translation in the A. V. of the He- 
brew words Adarkon and Darkcmon (Ezra ii. 69 ; viii. 
27; Neh. vii. 70-72; 1 Chron. xxix. 7). Though 
there are several opinions concerning the origin of 
these words, it is agreed that by them a gold coin or 
stater — the Persian daric — is intended. The origin 
of the term has been sought in the name of Darius 
the Mede, but on no sure grounds, or of that of 
Darius, son of Hystaspes. In consequence of the 
type of the coins being "an archer" (by which name 
— toxotai — they were sometimes called), some have 
thought that the Hebrew words were derived from 
darak, "to bend the bow;" whilst others suggest a 
connection with the Persian words dashtan, "to have, 
to hold, to possess," or dara, "a king," which lattei 
would be a likely derivation, as the figure represented 
is not any particular king, hut the king of Persia in 
a general sense. Though the passages in Ezra mid 
Nehemiah would seem to show that coins of simi'ai 
name were current during the reigns of Cyrus, Cam- 
byses, and Darius Hystaspes, it is a question if tit 
coin called "daric" is intended by those mentioned 
during the reign of Cyrus, B. C. 530 (Ezra ii. 69). 
The daric proper was not in circulation till the reign 
of Darius, son of Hystaspes (b. c. 521-485), who 
issued a new coinage of pure gold, though the actual 
name of daric stater was not in vogue till the time of 
his successor, Xerxes (b. c. 485-4651 ; and the dramt 
mentioned under the reign of his son. Artaxerxe? 
Longimanus (Ezra viii. 27; Neh. vii. 721, are cer- 
tainly the coins called darics, which at this period 
extensively circulated in Persia. It is probable that 
the staters of Croesus, king of Lydia, continued in 
circulation from after the capture of Sardis in B. c. 
554 to the time when Darius reformed the coinage; 
and if so, the Lydian staters would be those alluded 
to during the reign of Cyrus. The ordinary Persian 
daric is a thick gold piece, bearing the figure of fi 
king kneeling, holding in left hand a bow and in 







o I o 


riyA< a spear or a dagger (comp. Ezek. xxxix. 3 ; Isa. 
lxvi. 19), and has an average weight of 130 grains. 
The English sovereign weighs 123.4 grains, which, 
after deducting ^j, leaves 113.12 grains of fine 
gold ; but the daric is ^ finer than our gold, and 
reckoning it at 130 grains in weight, contains 124.6 
grains of pure gold ; therefore in value it equals j^ 2 
of a sovereign, or about £1 2s. Double darics, weigh- 
ing about 260 grains — but rare — and perhaps half- 
darics, weighing 60 grains, are also in existence. 
With reference to the mention of drams at the time 
of David (1 Chron. xxix. 7), it must be remembered 
that the writer, who in all probability was Ezra, 
wished to express in language intelligible to his 
readers the value of the gold subscribed, and there- 
fore translated the terms employed in his documents, 
whatever they were, into terms that were in use in 
his own day (Speaker's Com., vol. iii., p. 271). 

Farthing. This word occurs four times in the 
A. V. of the N. T. Two names of coins are rendered 
by it. (1) Assarion (Matt. x. 29; Luke xii. 6), the 
Ureek name of the Roman as or assarius. From the 
/act that the Vulgate substitutes the word dipondius 
(= two asses) for the two assaria of the Greek text, it 
is more than probable that a single coin is intended 
by this latter expression — an idea fully borne out by 
the copper coins of Chios, on which are inscribed the 
words assarion, assaria duo or duo, and assaria tria. 
The assarion of the N. T. must be sought for among 
the Greek imperial coins, and the second brass coins 
of Antioch in Syria seem to furnish us with probable 
specimens. One of these coins, with the counter- 
mark GAD (in Greek letters), proves that it was 
lawfully current in Gadara of Decapolis. These 
coins, from the time of Augustus, consist of two 
series — (a) with Greek legends, and having the name 
of the town and the date of the era of Antioch ; and 
(b) with the name of the emperor in Latin, and on the 
reverse the letters S. C. (Senalus consulto). After the 
reign of yespasian (a. d. 79) the two sets become 
amalgamated, and form one series. The second brass 
coins of these series average in weight 143 grains, 
and are specimens of the as, which, at 10 to the 
denarius [Penny], would be equivalent to fd. of our 
money. (2) Kodrantes (Matt. v. 26; Mark xii. 42), 
or quadrans, the fourth part of the Roman as, orig- 
inally equal to the chalkous, weighing 67.2 grains. 
The copper currency of Palestine in the time of 
Augustus and Tiberius consisted partly of Roman 
and Jewish coins and partly of Grseco-Roman or 
Greek imperial. In consequence of the reduction 
of the weight of the as, the quadrans became reduced 
to just half the weight, or 33.6 grains, and the Ro- 
man coins and small copper coins of the Herodian 
family of this weight represent the farthing of the 
N. T. The as being equivalent, as we have shown 
above, to id., the quadrans would be equal to about 
•fed. or \ of an English farthing. According to St. 
Mark, " two mites make a farthing ;" but on this 
question see Mite. 

Fourth Part of a Shekel. Bebah (1 Sam. 
ix. 8), about 8d. [Shekel.] 

Gerah (Exod. xxx. 13; Lev. xxvii. 25; Num. 
iii. 47; xviii. 16; Ezek. xlv. 12). The twentieth part 
of a shekel, about lid. [Shekel.] 

Gold [Money]. (1) There is no positive mention 
of the use of gold money among the Hebrews (see Isa. 
xlvi. 6; Job xxviii. 15) [Piece of Gold; Shekel], 
though gold constituted part of the wealth of Abra- 
ham (Gen. xiiL 2), if we exclude the " 600 shekels 
of gold " paid by David for the threshing-floor and 
oxen (1 Chron. xxi. 25; comp. 2 Sam. xxiv. 24, 
"shekels of silver"), and it was generally employed 
for personal ornaments and for objects in connection 
with the Temple (2 Chron. iii. 9, etc.). (2) Chrusos, 
aurum (Matt. x. 9; James v. 3); Chrusion, aurum 
(Acts iii. 6 ; xx. 33 ; 1 Pet. i. 18). The gold coinage 
current in Palestine in the N. T. period was the Ro- 
man imperial aureus, which passed for 25 denarii, 
and was worth about £1 Is. 

Half a Shekel (Exod. xxx. 13, 15), about Is. 
Ad. [Bekah; Shekel.] 

Keseph. See Money, Silver, and Silverling. 

Kesitah. See Piece of Money and Piece of 

Mite (Mark xii. 42 ; Luke xii. 59 ; xxi. 2). The 
rendering of the Greek word lepton, which was a 
small Greek copper coin fo of the obol, weighing 
33.6 grains, and hence half of the original chalkous 
or quadrans. St. Mark states " two mites, which is 
» farthing;" but he probably meant "two small 

pieces of money," the smallest pieces then extant, 
and the words "which is a quadrans" have been 
added to show that the quadrans, weighing about 33.6 
grains, was then the smallest piece struck. The mite 
alluded to was a Jewish coin, for the Jews were not 
permitted to bring any but Jewish money into the 
Holy Place, and for this cause money - changers 
[Money-Changers] stood at the entrance to the 
Temple in order to give Jewish money in exchange 
for foreign ; and it is probable that the small coins 
of Alexander Jannaeus, ranging in weight from 30 
grains to 15 grains, are the pieces in question. Their 
value would be about y\d., or J of an English farth- 
ing. If, however, the pieces of 15 grains are the 
half of those of 30, and not examples of the same 
coin of light weight, then two would equal a quadrans, 
and their value would be -g of an English farthing. 
But this conjecture is by no means sure. 

Money. (1) In the O. T. the general expression 
is Keseph. (2) In the N. T. money is rendered as fol- 
lows : — (a) Argurion, pecunia, "silver" (Matt. xxv. 
18, 27; xxviii. 12, 15; Mark xiv. 11 ; Luke ix. 3; 
xix. 15, 23 ; xxii. 5 ; Acts vii. 16 [argentum] ; viii. 
20 [pecunia]. In Matt. xxvi. 9, the phrase is "much 
[money]"), (b) Chalkos, as, " brass " (Mark vi. 8; 
xii. 41). (c) Chrema, " a thing that one uses or needs," 
pretium (Acts iv. 37 ; pecunia, viii. 18, 20 ; xxiv. 26). 
(d) Ken-ma, "anything cut small," tes (John ii. 15). 
[Silver and Money-Changers.] 

Penny. Denarion, denarius (Matt, xviii. 28; xx. 
2, 9, 10, 13; xxii. 19; Mark vi. 37; xii. 15; xiv. 5; 
Luke vii. 41; x. 35; xx. 24; John vi. 7; xii. 5; 
Rev. vi. 6). Its standard weight in the reign of 
Augustus, and to the time of Nero, was 60 grains. 
Deducting -fa of the weight for alloy, there remain 
58 grs. of pure silver, and the shilling containing 
80.7 grs. of pure silver, we have ^ of a shilling, or 
8.6245 pence = about 820". In the time of Nero the 
weight was reduced to 52.5 ; and applying to this the 
same method of reckoning, the penny of Nero's time 
would equal about 7$d. There is no doubt that most 
of the silver currency in Palestine during the N. T. 
period consisted of denarii, and "a penny" was the 
tribute-money payable by the Jews to the Roman 
emperor [Tribute (money), 2]. "A penny" was 
the day's pay for a laborer in Palestine at the time 
of our Lord (Matt. xx. 2, 9, 10, 13; comp. Tobit v. 
13), as it was the pay of a field-laborer in the Middle 
Ages ; and the term denarius is still preserved in our 
£ s. d. [Drachm and Piece of Silver, 2.] 

Piece of Gold. This phrase occurs only once 
in the O. T., in the passage respecting Naaman the 
Syrian (2 Kings v. 5). In several other passages of 
a similar kind in connection with gold, the A. V. 
supplies the word "shekels" [Shekel]; and as a 
similar expression is found in connection with silver, 
and as there is not much doubt that a weight is in- 
tended, the word understood in this passage would 
also probably be "shekels." 

Piece of Money. (1) Kesitah (Gen. xxxiii. 
19; "piece of silver," Josh. xxiv. 32; Job xlii. 11). 
From the translation by the LXX. of " lambs," it has 
been assumed that the kesitah was a coin bearing the 
impression of a lamb or a sheep, but the coins so 
frequently quoted as examples belong probably to 
Cyprus, and were not struck till after b. c. 450. The 
real meaning of kesitah is "a portion," and it was in 
all probability a piece of rough silver of fixed weight. 
(2) Stater (Matt. xvii. 27). The word state;- means a coin 
of a certain weight, and hence a standard (comp. 
shekel and pondo), and was a term applied by the 
Greeks to coins of gold, of electrum, and of silver. 
The name was applied first to the didrachm (two 
drachms), and then to the tetradrachm (four drachms). 
During the first and second centuries, the silver cur- 
rency of Palestine consisted of tetradrachms of An- 
tioch on Orontes, of Tyre, etc., and of Roman denarii 
of a quarter their weight. The Attic tetradrachm 
was called stater, as the standard coin of the system, 
and no other slater was current in Palestine at this 
time. The great cities of Syria and Phoenicia either 
ceased to strike tetradrachms, or debased their coin- 
age before the close of the first century a. d. Antioch 
continued to strike tetradrachms to the third century, 
but gradually depreciated them, the commencement 
of which cannot be determined. It was carried so 
far as to destroy the correspondence of the stater to 
four denarii by the time of Hadrian (a. d. 117). 
Other cities, if they issued staters towards the close 
of the first century, struck them of such base metal 
as to render their separation from copper money im- 

possible. On this evidence, the Gospel is of the first 
century. The tetradrachm of Antioch (stater) is a 
specimen of the " piece of money " that was found by 
St. Peter in the fish's mouth (Matt. xvii. 27). It 
represents the tax for two persons — for our Lord and 
for St. Peter [Tribute (Money), 1]. It is equivalent 
in weight to the shekel, averaging 220 grains, and 
to about 2s. 8d. of our monev. [Piece of Silver, 

Piece of Silver. This phrase occurs in the A 
V. of both the O. T. and N. T. ( 1 ) The word " pieces '. 
has been supplied in the A. V. for a word understood) 
in the Hebrew. The rendering is always " a thou- 
sand," or the like "of silver" (Gen. xx. 16; xxxvii. 
28; xlv. 22; Judg. ix. 4; xvi. 5; 2 Kings vi. 25; 
Song of Solomon viii. 11 ; Hosea iii. 2; Zech. xi. 12, 
13). In similar passages, the word "shekels" occurs 
in the Hebrew [Shekel], and there is no doubt that 
this is the word understood in all these cases. There 
are, however, some exceptional passages where a 
word equivalent to "piece" or "pieces" is found in 
the Hebrew. The first occurs in 1 Sam. ii. 36, Agorah 
keseph, "piece of silver," and the agorah may be the 
same as the gerah (q. v.). Both are translated in the 
LXX. by obotos. The second is in Ps. lxviii. 30 (Heb. 
32), Ratsee keseph, "pieces of silver" (LXX. [lxvii. 
30] argurion), and the word ratz from ratsats, "to 
break in pieces," must mean a fragment or piece 
broken off. The third, the kesitah, to which I have 
already alluded [Piece of Money, 1]. (2) Two 
words are rendered in the N.T. by " piece of silver." 
(a) Drachme, drachma (Luke xv. 8), and here correct- 
ly rendered, as the Attic drachm was at the time of 
St. Luke equivalent to the Roman denarius [Drachm; 
Penny]. This accounts for the remark of Josephus 

(Antiq. iii. 8, 2), who says that "the shekel 

equalled four Attic drachms," for in his time the 
drachm and denarius were almost equal to the quarter 
of a shekel [Shekel]. Value about 8d. or 7 id. (b) 
Argurion, argenteus, denarius. This word occurs in 
two passages — (A) the account of the betrayal of our 
Lord for "thirty pieces of silver" (Matt. xxvi. 15; 
xxvii. 3, 5, 6, 9). These have usually been consid- 
ered to be denarii, but on no sufficient ground. The' 
parallel passage in Zechariah (xi. 12, 13) is trans* 
lated "thirty {pieces'] of silver;" but which should 
doubtless be read, "thirty shekels of silver," whilst it 
is observable that "thirty shekels of silver" was the 
price of blood to be paid in the case of a servant ac- 
cidentally killed (Exod. xxi. 32). The passage may 
therefore be explained as "thirty shekels of silver" — ■ 
not current shekels, but tetradrachms of the Attic 
standard of the Greek cities of Syria and Phoenicia. 
These tetradrachms were common at the time of our 
Lord, and of them the slater was a specimen [Piece 
of Money, 2]. In the A. V. of St. Matthew the 
prophecy is ascribed to Jeremiah instead of to Zech- 
ariah. Many suggestions have been made on this 
question, but it may be observed that the Syriac ver- 
sion omits the proper name, and merely says "the 
prophet;" hence a copyist might have inserted the 
wrong name. (B) The price of the conjuring books 
that were burnt (Acts xix. 19). The Vulgate has 
accurately rendered the phrase denarii, as there is no 
doubt that these coins are intended. [Money and 

Pound. Mna (Luke xix. 13-25) — money of ac- 
count. At this time the Attic talent obtained in Pal- 
estine. Sixty mince went to the talent (q. v.). The 
"pound" contained 100 drachms. The drachm of 
the Gospel period being equivalent to about ^d., the 
value of the pound would be £3 6s. 8d. The Greek 
name mna was probably derived from the Hebrew 
maneh (q. v. under Weights). 

RatZ. See Piece of Silver. 

Rebah. See Fourth Part of a Shekel. 

Shekel. A word signifying " weight," and also, 
the name of a coin, either silver or copper. It only 
occurs in the O. T., where it signifies the weight of 
certain objects, or where it is employed for a piece 
of silver of fixed value. The word " shekel " occurs 
in the Hebrew and the A. V. in the following pas-, 
sages : Gen. xxiii. 15, 16 ; Exod. xxi. 22 ; xxx. 13; 
15; xxxviii. 24-26 ; Lev. v. 15; xxvii. 3-7; Num. 
iii. 47, 50; vii. 13, 19, 25, 31, 37, 43, 49, 55, 61, 67, 
73, 79, 85, 86; xviii. 16; Josh. vii. 21; 1 Sam. ix. 
8 ; xvii. 5, 7 ; 2 Sam. xiv. 26 ; xxi. 16 ; xxiv. 24 ; 2 
Kings vii. 1 ; xv. 20 ; 1 Chron. xxi. 25 (gold shek- 
els) ; 2 Chron. iii. 9 (gold shekels); Neh. v. 15; x. 
32; Jer. xxxii. 9; Ezek. iv. 10; xlv. 12; Amos viii. 
5. It is supplied in the A. V. in connection with 
"silver" in Deut xxii. 18, 29; Judg. xvii 2-4, 10} 




2 Sam. xviii. 11, 12 ; 1 Kings x. 29 ; 2 Chron. i. 17 ; 
and in connection with "gold" in Gen. xxiv. 22; 
Num. vii. 14, 20, 26, 32, 38, 44, 50, 56, 62, 68, 74, 80, 
86 ; Judg. viii. 26 ; 1 Kings x. 16 ; 2 Chron._ ix. 15, 
16 [see Maneh under Weights]. Three kinds of 
shekels appear to be mentioned — (1) the shekel, (2) 
the shekel of the sanctuary, and (3) the shekel of the 
king's weight. The "shekel of the sanctuary," or 
" holy shekel." a term generally applied to the silver 
shekel, but once to the gold (Exod. xxxviii. 24), was 
probably the normal weight, and was kept by the 
priests. The "shekel of the king" was connected 
with the Assyrio-Babvlonian maneh of the king, as 
marked on the monuments from Nineveh [Talent un- 
der Weights]. The LXX. translate the denomina- 
tions in silver by didraehmon and siklos. The shekel 
as extant corresponds in weight to the tetradrachm 
or didrachm of the early Phoenician talent in use in 
the cities of Phoenicia under Persian rule. It is 
probable that the Alexandrian Jews adopted the term 
''didrachm" as the common name of the coin which 
was equal in weight to the shekel. The value of the 
silver shekel is about 2s. 8d. The gold shekel, as de- 
rived from a passage in Josephus, must have weighed 
about 253 grains [see Pound under Weights], a very 
little lower than the 60th of the Assyrian mina in 
gold, which weighed 260 grains; and when he says 
in another passage (Antiq. iii. 8. 10; comp. Num. 
vii. 14) that ten gold shekels equalled ten darics, he 
must mean the double darics, weighing about 260 
grains. The gold shekel was worth about £2. None 
have ever been discovered. (See General Remarks.) 
Fifteen shekels of silver, each weighing about 224 
grains, were equal in value to one shekel of gold 
[Talent under Weights]. The divisions of the 
shekel mentioned in the O. T. are the half (bekah), 
the third part, the fourth part (rebah) and the 
twentieth part (gerah), q. v. In the reign of Ar- 
taxerxes Longimanus (b. c. 458) a special commis- 
sion was granted to Ezra "to do what seems good 
with the rest of the silver and the gold" (Ezra vii. 
18) ; and it has been suggested that this was virtually 
permission to the Jews to coin money; and the silver 
shekels extant, dated of the years 1 to 5, and the half- 
bekels of the years 1 to 4, weighing about 220 and 
10 grains respectively, are considered to be of this 
period. As regards the "shekels of silver" mention- 
ed in Nehemiah (v. 15 ; comp. x. 32), these may per- 
haps refer to the silver coin circulating in the Per- 
sian kingdom called sighs, of which 20 went to one 
gold daric, and weighing 84 grains, but having no 
connection with the siklos (weighing about 220 grains), 
excepting in name. These coins are, like the darics, 
impressed with the figure of an archer [Dram]. In 
the year b. C. 139, Antiochus VII. (Sidetes) granted 
special permission to Simon Maccabeeus to coin money 
with his ovm stamp (1 Mace. xv. 6), and the silver 
shekels and half-shekels most probably belong to 
Simon, and perhaps the copper pieces (£ shekel, \ 
shekel, and J of shekel), dated in the fourth year; but 
there is great uncertainty as to the latter. 

The Asmonaean dynasty continued to issue a copper 
coinage, gradually showing Greek tendencies, to the 
time of Antigonus, the last prince of the Asmonaean 
dynasty, (b. c. 40-37), and the numerous coinage 
of Alexander Jannseus (b. C. 105-78) doubtless cir- 
culated even to N. T. times [Mite]. The Iduniaean 
princes, commencing with Herod I. (surnamed the 
Great), continued a copper coinage with only Greek 
legends, which circulated in Judaea (as well as a pro- 
curatorial coinage, A. D. 6-59) till the death of Agrip- 
pa II. (Acts xxv. 13; xxvi. 2, seq.) in a. d. 100. 
The national coinage, consisting of silver shekels and 
{ shekels, as well as of copper, with old Hebrew in- 
icriptions, was revived during the first revolt (May, 
A. d. 66-September, A. d. 70), and during the sec- 
ond under Bar-cochab (a. d. 132-a. d. 135), at 
■ which time many of the Jewish } shekels were struck 
over Roman denarii. 

m Silver [Money]. (1) Keseph in O. T. (q. v.) ; (2) 
in N. T. arguros, argentum (Matt. x. 9; James v. 3), 
or argtirion, argentum (Acts iii. 6 ; xx. 33 ; 1 Pet. i. 
18). The silver coins current in Palestine in N. T. 
period consisted of the tetradrachms and drachms of 
the Attic standard, and of the Roman denarius. 
[Monet, 1 and 2, and Piece of Silver, 2.] 
_ Silyerling. Keseph (Isa. vii. 23). The word 
diverting occurs in Tyndale's version of Acts xix. 19, 
and in Coverdale's of Judg. ix. 4 ; xvi. 5. The Ger- 
man silberling is found in Luther's version (Bible 
Word-Book). The same word is also used in Cran- 
mer and Tyndale for the money stolen by Micah 

(Judg. xvii. 2, 3) — " the leuen hundredth syluerhiugs" 
(Bible Educator, vol. iv., p. 210). 

Stater, See Piece of Money, 2, and Tribute-money;!. 

Sum [of Money]. (1) Kephalaion (Acts xxii. 28), 
i. e. in classical authors capital as opposed to interest 
or income (cp. "principal," Lev. vi. 5; Num. v. 7). 
In Mk. xii. 15 epikephalaion, "poll-tax," is used in 
the place of the ordinary word kensos. [TRIBUTE 
(Money), 2.] Sum of Money. (2) Time arguriou, 
pretium argenti (Acts vii. 16), ;". e. price in silver. 

Talent. Talanlon. lulenlum, a sum, not a coin. 
(1) In O. T. the rendering of the Hebrew kiccar [see 
Talent under Weights] ; (2) in N. T. this word 
occurs — (a) in the parable of the unmerciful servant 
(Matt, xviii. 23-25) ; and (%) in the parable of the 
talents (Matt. xxv. 14-30). At this time the Aitic 
talent obtained in Palestine; 60 mince and 6000 
drachmae went to the talent. It was consequently 
worth about £200. [Pound.] 

Third Part of the Shekel (Neh. x. 32), 
about \0\d. See Sliekel and Tribute [Money]. 

Tribute [Money]. (1) The sacred tribute, di- 
drachma (Matt. xvii. 24). The sacred tribute or pay- 
ment of the " atonement- money " was half a shekel 
(Exod. xxx. 13, 16), and was originally levied on 
every male of twenty years old and above when the 
Israelites were first numbered. In the reign of Jo- 
ash the same sum was demanded for the repair of 
the Temple (2 Chron. xxiv. 4-14). After the return 
from the Captivity, the annual payment "for the 
service of the house of God " was one-third of the 
shekel (q. v.), and was voluntarily contributed (Neh. 
x. 32). The amount of tribute was again restored to 
the half-shekel (q. v.), which the Jews when dis- 
persed throughout the world continued to pay to- 
ward the Temple. It is to this tribute that St. 
Matthew refers, and the stater found in the fish's 
mouth was an Attic tetradrachm, and at this time 
equal to a shekel [Piece of Money; Shekel]. 
Many commentators, both ancient and modern, have 
entirely missed the meaning of this miracle by in- 
terpreting the payment as a civil one. That it was 
the sacred tribute is plain from our Lord's reason for 
exemption : " Of whom do the kings of the earth 
take custom or tribute? of their own children or of 
strangers?" (Matt. xvii. 25, 26), and further, from 
His reason for payment, "lest we should offend 
them," which shows that the Jews willingly paid the 
tribute ; indeed, it was not enforced by law even in 
the earliest times, being in this respect unlike the civil 
tribute. (2) The civil tribute, nomisma ton kensou, 
kensos, phoros (Matt. xxii. 17, 19; Mark xii. 14; 
Luke xx. 22; xxiii. 2). This was a tax paid to the 
Roman emperor, and was doubtless established when 
Judaea became a Roman province. The sum paid 
annually is not known ; but after the capture of 
Jerusalem and destruction of the Temple, Vespasian 
ordered the Jews, in whatever country they might 
be, to pay the sum of two drachma? to the temple of 
Jupiter Capitolinus, as they had previously paid to 
the Temple at Jerusalem. Under Domitian the tax 
was enforced with great severity, but upon the ac- 
cession of Nerva it was abolished. Numismatic 
records establish this fact ; coins are extant with the 
legend, Fisci Judaici calumnia sublata (comp. syco- 
phantia — false accusation — Luke xix. 8). After the 
revolt of Bar-cochab, Hadrian renewed the tax, and 
in the reign of Alexander Severus (a. d. 226) the 
Jews continued to pay the didrachm. This civil 
tribute was paid in denarii. " Show me the tribute- 
money; and they brought unto Him a. penny" (Matt. 
xxii. 19 ; comp. Mark xii. 15 ; Luke xx. 24). "And 
He saith unto them, Whose is this image and super- 
scription ? They say unto Him, Caesar's." The title 
of Caesar is common to all the Roman emperors, and 
the name of Tiberius, who was the Caesar alluded to, 
is abbreviated on the coins, TI., while the title CAE- 
SAR is at length. The answer may further be illus- 
trated by the small brass coins issued under the pro- 
curators Coponius, Ambivius, and Rufus, circulating 
in Judaea at this time, on which is simply the legend 
Kaisaros — of Caesar. [Penny.] 

Twentieth Part of the Shekel; about V 2 d. 
See Gerah and Shekel. 

The two following terms bear direct relation to 
money, and are worthy of illustration : 

Money -Changers. Three distinct terms are 
employed in the N. T. to express this class — (1) Tra- 
pezltes, numularius, A. V. "exchanger" (Matt. xxv. 
27), from trapeza, "a table," a word employed for the 

"tables" (mtnra) of the money-changers in Matt 
xxi. 12; Mark xi. 15; John ii. 15, and for the 
"bank" (menga) in Luke xix. 23. Tbvoemttt was 

the ordinary name for the banker at Athens, Ilia 
principal occupation was that of changing money at 
an agio. He was a private banker, like theorya 
at Kome, who must be distinguished from the mm- 
sarii or mauularii and the numularii, who were pub- 
lic bankers appointed by the state on various emer- 
gencies, the latter of whom seem to have been perma- 
nently employed. Hence the Vulgate has rendered 
their name in all cases correctly. As the Greek word 
Irapemtes is from trapeza, "a table, - ' so our English 
word "banker" (French, banquier) is derived from 
the French banc, "a bench," on which tin- person sat 
to do his business. (2) KoUubittes, numularius, A. V. 
"money-changer" (Matt. xxi. 12; Mark xi. 15) j 
A. V. changer" (John ii. 15), from koUubot or /..,/- 
lubon, sometimes designated as " the changing of 
money," or ''rate of exchange," sometimes as 'a 
small coin "or "a kind of money." A passage in 
Theophrastus shows us that the kollubos must have 
been a silver piece ranging between the Upton [Mite] 
and the { obol, and therefore I of an obol, weighing 
about 1.4 grains. It would thus be the silver equiva- 
lent of the chalkous, which was the copper J of an 
obol. (3) Kermalistes, numularius; A. V. "changei 
of money" (John ii. 14), from a Greek word signify* 
ing"to cut small," which is from kerma, "money," 
John ii. 15 [Money]. Money-changing was called 
kermatismos. No coin was called by this name. The 
money-changers, of which perhaps the "goldsmiths" 
who repaired the vessels of the Temple (Neh. iii. 8) 
are prototypes, sat in the courts of the Temple on the 
25th of Nizan for the purpose of exchanging foreign 
money for Jewish, as the Temple tax cotdd only he 
paid in this latter coin. They also seem to have 
acted as bankers, money being placed in their hands 
for the purpose of increasing it, and on which in- 
terest was paid (Matt. xxv. 27; Luke xix. 23). 
Though the system of "lending" was not altogether 
objected to in the O. T. (Exod. xxii. 25; Lev. xxv. 
36, 37; Dent, xxiii. 19, 20; Prov. vi. 1 ; Ps. xv. 5; 
Jer. xv. 10; Ezek. xxii. 12; xviii. 13, etc.), yet after 
the Captivity the Jews were compelled to leave off 
usury (Neh. v. 11, 12), whilst in the N. T. period it 
was sanctioned, provided it was done " hoping for 
nothing again" (Luke vi. 35; comp. Matt. v. 42 . 
The system, however, pursued by the money-changers 
in the Temple must have been a vicious one, as is 
apparent from our Lord's denunciation of their do- 
ings (Matt. xxi. 13; Mark xi. 17; Luke xix. 46; 
comp. Isa. lvi. 7; Jer. vii. 11). 

Treasury or Treasure. This term is used in 
the A. V. of the N. T. as the translation of three . 
different words — (1) Gazophulakion (Mark xii. 4 ! , 
43 ; Luke xxi. 1 ; John viii. 20), from gaza, "a treas- 
ure," and phulasso, " to keep." The word gaza (Heb. 
ganza), which occurs in this sense in Acts viii. 27, is 
employed frequently in the O. T. for "treasures" or 
"treasure-house" (Ezra v. 17; vi. 1; vii. 20; Esth. 
iii. 9; iv. 7; Ezek. xxvii. 24; 1 Chron. xxviii. 11). 
It is not a Hebrew word, but probably a Persian. 
The term gazophulakion or gazophylaeium occurs in 
various passages of the Maccabees, and the Vulgate 
uses it as the term for the "chest" (Heb. arun, LXX. 
kibotos) in which Jehoiada collected the money for 
the repairs of the Temple [see General Remarks], 
The treasury-chamber appears to have been a place 
where peopie came to offer their charity-money for 
the repairs and 'other uses of the Temple, and con- 
sisted of 13 brazen chests (Heb. trumpets, because 
the mouths were wide at the top and narrow below), 
which stood in the outer court of the women. (2) 
Korbanas, corbona (Matt, xxvii. 6i, the sacred treas- 
ure of the Jews, and explained in Mark vii. 11 as s 
gift (doron), and by Josephus as "a gift to God." 
Korban in the O. T. is principally employed for un- 
bloody sacrifices" (comp. Lev. ii. 1, 4, 5, 6). D5n n 
in the N. T. principally means "gifts in general' 
(Matt. ii. 11), "sacrificial gifts" (Matt. v. 23, 24; Heh 
v. 1; xi. 4), "gifts of God to man" (Ephes. ii. 8), 
"of man to man" (Rev. xi. 10); but it is also used 
of gifts to the "treasury" (Luke xxi. 1), and in ona 
case appears to mean the "treasury itself" (Luke 
xxi. 4 1. (3) Thesauros, thesaurus, (a) As the "treas- 
ure-house" (Matt. ii. 11 ; xiii. 52); i b I as the " treas 
ure" (Matt. vi. 19, 20; xii. 35; xiii. 44; xix. 21. 
Mark x. 21 ; Luke vi. 45; xii. 33: xviii. 22; 2 Cor 
iv. 7 ; Col. ii. 3 ; Heb. xi. 26). The word is used ia 
the LXX. as the translation of the Hebrew oisar, 
meaning either " treasures of God," " store-house lol 




corn," " treasury for gold and silver," etc. (Deut. 
xxviii. 12; xxxii. 34; 1 Chron. xxvii. 27; Josh. vi. 
19 ; 1 Kings vii. 51, etc.). 

1 05 ( V| 


The following weights are mentioned in the Bible : 

Bekah (Gen. xxiv. 22), "half," "half a shekel." 
This word occurs only in the Pentateuch. See Bekah 
under Money. 

Gevah. Properly a "grain" or "bean," the 
smallest silver weight, ^ih part of the shekel. See 
Gerah under Money and Shekel. 

JLitra. See Pound. 

Maneh (LXX. mna; Vulgate, mina). "A por- 
tion or part ;" A. V. " pound," sometimes called sta- 
ter — standard ; a word owing its origin to Babylon, 
and which, as the weight was employed by the Egyp- 
tians, Phoenicians, Hebrews, and Greeks, has the 
same meaning in the language of all these nations. 
The weight of the golden targets made by Solomon 
for the Temple is stated to have been 300 [shekels'] 
of gold each (2 Chron. ix. 16), whilst in the parallel 
passage the amount of gold employed for each shield 
is given as three pounds (manehs, 1 Kings x. 17). It 
would thus appear that the maneh of gold was equal 
to 100 shekels, but it must be observed that in the 
Chronicles the Hebrew is " 300 of gold," the word 
shekels being supplied in the A. V. ; and it has con- 
sequently been suggested by some that the Chronicles 
was written in the Macedonian period, and that con- 
sequently one should reckon what is here meant as 
" 100 drachms to the maneh," as in use among the 
Greeks. The passage, however, is obscure, and in 
any case the calculation of 100 shekels to the maneh 
is not likely. That in Ezekiel (xlv. 12) relative to 
the maneh is also difficult ©f explanation [Shekel ; 
Talent]. The word maneh further occurs in Ezra 
ii. 69; Neh. vii. 71, 72; comp. 1 Esdras v. 45. 

Pound. (1) Mna, mina (1 Mace. xiv. 24; xv. 
'8). Here large sums are weighed by this standard, 
and it refers to the Attic talent. (2) Litra, a word 
used by the Greeks of Sicily in their system of weights 
and money, sometimes called stater — standard — and 
equivalent to the Latin word libra or as, the unit of 
weight among the Romans. Josephus says that the 
Hebrew maneh of gold equalled 2| litrw. The libra 
or Roman pound = 5059 grains, consequently 1\ 
Roman pounds = 12,647 grains ; and as the Hebrew 
gold shekel was the fiftieth part of the maneh, it 
must have weighed about 253 grains [Shekel under 
Money]. The word litra occurs in the N. T. in 
John xii. 3 and xix. 39. 

Shekel. A word signifying " weight," according 
to which numerous objects were weighed, especially 
the metals. The passage in Ezek. xlv. 12 is confus- 
ing, and cannot be satisfactorily explained, but it 
must be remembered that it is prophetical. 50 or 60 
shekels equalled a maneh [Maneh ; Pound]. 3600 
or 3000 shekels equalled a talent [Talent]. See 
Shekel under Money. 

Talent. Kikkar, properly " a circle " or " globe ;" 
hence kuklos, circus. The largest Hebrew weight for 
metals. First occurs in Exod. xxv. 39, " a talent of 
pure gold." It is also specially spoken of as " talent 
of silver" (2 Kings v. 22), "talent of lead" (Zech. 
v. 7), "talent of brass" (Exod. xxxviii. 29), and 
"talent of iron" (1 Chron. xxix. 7). A talent of 
silver bound up in a bag, and one change of garment, 
were about as much as one man could carry (2 Kings 
v. 23), and weighing was probably avoided by the sealed 
bags containing a certain weight of silver. The He- 
brew talent was derived from Assyria and Babylonia. 
Of the talents current in these countries, the heavy 
or Assyrian talent passed through Mesopotamia and 
Syria to the Phoenician coast-towns, and to Palestine, 
where we find it in use among the Israelites. In 
Nineveh, as well as in Palestine, besides the weights 
talent of the king of 3600 sixtieths of the maneh for 
Valuing precious metals, a special reckoning was made 
by talents of 3000 gold and silver units ; but when it 
was found convenient to reckon 3000 shekels instead 
of 3600 to the talent is not known, nor when a devia- 
tion was made from the sexagesimal division of the 
maneh, and it was limited to 50 instead of to 60 units. 
The sum-total of the taxes to the sanctuary paid by 
the people is stated to be (Exod. xxxviii. 25) 100 
talents, 1775 shekels, to which 603,550 men each con- 
tributed a half shekel, so that, according to this, 3000 
shekels are reckoned to the talent ; and as the talent is 

always divided into 60 manehs, 20 shekels went to the 
maneh; which is corroborated from the fact that the 
taxes for persons of various age and sex commence 
at a maximum point of 50 shekels (Lev. xxvii. 3, 
16), and that Achan found a wedge of gold of just 50 
shekels' weight, and not 60 (Josh. vii. 21). [See 
General Remarks.] 

The shekels of the weight talent " of the king " and 
the gold talent are identical, the latter talent having 
been formed from the former, which appears to have 
been used for weighing other materials than the met- 
als ("king's weight," 2 Sam. xiv. 26). [Shekel.] 
The weight of 9 "holy" silver shekels (224.7975X9) 
thus equals 8 sixteenths of the "weight" maneh 
(252.9165X8), and the value of 15 "holy" silver 
shekels equals that of 1 gold shekel — i. e. £2. Some, 
however, have taken the silver talent as weighing 
660,000 grains [H4 r 7 j lbs. troy], and, on the basis 
of the shekel being equivalent to 3s., equalling £450, 
and the gold talent (with a shekel of about 132 
grains) as weighing double the silver, 1,320,000 
grains [229 J lbs. troy], and equalling, at £4 per oz. 
troy, £11,000 (Smith, Student's O. T. Hist). As to 
the copper talent, which is supposed by some to have 
had a shekel of four times the weight of the gold 
shekel, though only 1500 to the talent, and therefore 
equalling 792,000 grains, it is impossible to speak 
with certainty ; but in all probability the copper 
talent did not contain a fewer number of shekels 
than that of the silver. 

The amounts of talents mentioned in the Bible 
during the reigns of David and Solomon are almost 
incredible (1 Chron. xxii. 14; xxix. 4, 7). The 
annual income of Solomon is said to have been 666 
talents of gold (1 Kings x. 14; 2 Chron. ix. 13), 
which, taking the estimate of some that the gold 
talent was double the silver, would be equivalent to 
£7,780,000, a sum more than the revenues of the 
whole Persian empire under Darius, which has been 
calculated at about three millions and a half. But if 
we take 15 shekels of silver as equalling one shekel 
of gold, and 15 talents of silver as equalling one 
talent of gold, then 666f talents of gold were exactly 
10,000 talents of silver, or £4,000,000. It is, how- 
ever, difficult to hazard any safe conjecture, and most 
likely the figures in all these passages have been 

Roman Money, mentioned in the Neio Testament, reduced to the 
English and American Standard. 

£ s. d. cts. cts. 

A penny, or denarius 8—8%— 14.67—15.59 

A pound, or mina (Gk. mnd)S @ 8 $16 12 


2510 747:1 


The graphic account in Job xxviii. is a striking 
description of mining operations in olden times: 
"Surely there is a source for the silver, and a place 
for the gold which they fine. Iron is taken out of 
the earth, and he [i. e. the miner or workman] pour- 
eth forth stone as copper. He hath made an end of 
darkness, and he searcheth to every extremity [i. e. 
to great depths and with diligent care] for the stone 
of darkness and of the shadow of death. He break- 
eth through a shaft away from those who tarry 
above ; there, forgotten of every foot, they hang and 
swing far from men. The earth, from it cometh forth 
bread, and beneath it is upturned like fire: its stones 
are the place of the sapphire, which also hath dust 
of gold. A way that no bird of prey knoweth, and 
the eye of the hawk hath not seen it ; which the 
proud beasts of prey have not trodden, nor the lion 
passed along. He layeth his hand upon the stone, 
he turneth up mountains from the root. He cutteth 
channels in the rocks, and his eye seeth all rare 
things. He bindeth fast the rivers that they leak 
not, and that which is hidden he bringeth to light " 
(Job xxviii. 1-11). 

There are, as we have already seen, traces of 
ancient mining in Egypt, in the desert of Sinai, in 
Palestine, and in the adjoining lands, and this poetic 
description must be held as applying to some of these 
operations. The writer sketches the vast labor and 
dangerous enterprises which men will undertake in 
order to win from the earth its treasures, and then 
passes on to the question : "Where shall wisdom be 
found, and where is the place of understanding?" 
These shall baffle the skill of the miner, and are 

£ O 


more difficult of attainment than the precious treas- 
ures of the earth. For " the fear of the Lord, that is 
wisdom ; and to depart from evil is understanding " 
(vs. 12, 28). 

It may be well here briefly to summarize what ia 
known concerning the mines of biblical antiquity. 
Clearly, gold, silver, and tin were brought to the 
lands of the Bible mainly by commerce, though 
there are traces or records of gold-working ia 
Egypt, and of both gold and silver in Arabia and 
Edom. Copper and iron were botli native product 
of Palestine, and were worked also in the island of 
Meroe, at the mouth of the Nile and in the peninsula 
of Sinai. The island of Cyprus is also mentioned as 
a source of copper, and there is every probability 
that both iron and copper were worked in other dis- 
tricts likewise, though there is no distinct and ex- 
plicit proof. There were lead-mines in Egypt, near 
the coast of the Red Sea, and also near Sinai, and it 
is not improbable that these lead-mines may have 
yielded small quantities of silver also. 

Diodorus Siculus gives a minute description of the 
method of mining and refining gold. Shafts were 
sunk into what Diodorus calls veins of marble of 
excessive whiteness (evidently quartz-rock), from 
which day-and-night relays of convicts extracted the 
auriferous quartz. This was then broken up with 
picks and chisels, and further reduced by iron pestles 
in stone mortars to small fragments. Then it was 
ground to powder, spread upon a broad inclined 
table, and washed with water and fine sponges until 
the gold became pure from earthy matter. Finally, 
it was put, with a little lead, tin, salt and bran, into 
earthen crucibles closed with clay, and subjected for 
five days and nights to the fire of a furnace. From 
this description it may be seen that gold-mining in 
these ancient times did not radically differ from that 
of one hundred years ago. 

Concerning the arts of metallurgy in ancient times 
we are left in much ignorance. These arts must have 
existed in considerable excellence amongst the Egyp- 
tians and Assyrians; and the accounts given in the 
Bible of the buildings of David and Solomon show, 
that the Israelites, and especially the Phoenicians, 
were accomplished metal-workers. Situated between 
the great ancient empires of the East and West, 
Palestine was alternately the prey of each, and the 
carrying away of metal-workers into captivity shows 
the esteem in which they were then held. See 1 Sam. 
xiii. 19 ; 2 Kings xxiv. 14, 15 ; Jer. xxiv. 1 ; xxix. 2. 
The book of Ecclesiasticus (chap, xxxviii. 27, 28), in 
the Apocrypha, gives an account of a smith's work- 
shop which those who are used to factories and foun- 
dries will fully appreciate: "So every carpenter and 
workmaster, that laboreth night and day ; and they 
that cut and grave seals, and are diligent to make 
great variety, and give themselves to counterfeit 
imagery, and watch to finish a work : the smith also 
sitting by the anvil, and considering the iron-work, 
the vapor of the fire wasteth his flesh, and he fighteth 
with the heat of the furnace ; the noise of the ham- 
mer and the anvil is ever in his ears, and his eyes 
look still upon the pattern of the thing that he mak- 
eth ; he setteth his mind to finish his work, and 
watcheth to polish it perfectly." 

In the Bible are references to casting (Ex. xxv. 12; 
xxvi. 37 ; 2 Chron. iv. 17; Isa. xl. 19) ; soldering and 
welding (Isa. xli. 7) ; hammering into sheets (Num. 
xvi. 38; Isa. xliv. 12; Jer. x. 4, 9); gilding and 
overlaying with metal (Ex. xxv. 11-24; xxvi. 37; 
1 Kings vi. 20; 2 Chron. iii. 5; Isa. xl. 19; Zech. 
xiii. 9). But perhaps the most interesting of all such 
allusions are those to the melting and separation and 
refining of metals (Ps. xii. 6 ; Prov. xvii. 3, etc. ; Isa. 
i. 25 ; Jer. vi. 29 ; Ezek. xxii. 18-20). Malachi (iii. 2, 
3) makes use of a striking metaphor derived from 
the metallurgy of silver. Before the discovery of 
quicksilver, lead was used for the purification of the 
precious metals. How far the ancients were acquaint- 
ed with what is now known as " Pattison's method " 
of obtaining silver from argentiferous lead-ore is.un- 
certain, but Pliny apparently hints at something of 
the kind in these words : " When submitted to the 
action of fire, part of the ore precipitates itself in the 
form of lead, while the silver is left floating on the 

Clearly, however, the passage from, Malachi above 
named refers to the process of " cupellation :" "He 
[the Messiah] shall sit as a refiner and purifier of 
silver; and he shall purify the sons of Levi, and 
purge them as gold and silver, that they may offer 
unto the Lord an offering in righteousness." 


270 J 5282 


44£3 321* 10125 (i ( 


1 -259 


At Rest on the Plain. 

IVTO animal is more conspicuous in Bible history than the Camel. 
IM It is mentioned as part of the flocks of Abram. It figures in 
the New Testament. Hebrew economy ever finds a place for it, and 
even Hebrew poetry. The pastoral existence of the East found the 
camel as indispensable as the ox and sheep. Its milk contributed to 
the homely meal. Its hair gave clothing. It was the commercial 
beast of the plains, and without it desert trade was impossible. The 
camel of Palestine was the common, or single-humped, camel. A 
smaller, and even more useful, species of the camel is known as 
the dromedary. The two-humped, or Bactrian, camel is native to 
countries farther East than Palestine, and is not a scriptural animal. 
It was at the watering of Abram's camels that Rebekah was selected 
as Isaac's wife. Laban's wealth was, in part, measured by camels, as 
was that of Job. They were used as presents between high officials, 
and the keeper of a camel herd was often a man of distinction. 

The flesh of the camel was prohibited food to the Jew, because it 
did not divide the hoof, but it was eaten by the Arabs and kindred 

The hoof of the camel is adapted by Nature to the sandy plains, 
as are its length of legs and all its parts. The most wonderful feature 
of its organization is its ability to take in and retain enormous quan- 
tities of water, sufficient for sustenance during long journeys over 
arid wastes. It requires but little food, and this of the plainest. 
The slight herbage it gathers by the desert way is sufficient to keep 
it alive. Its instinct for water is remarkable and often, when all 
around is parched and travelers are ready to perish with thirst, 
the camels of a caravan, scenting water from afar, break the lines 
and rush in the direction of the desert sprine. 

The camel was not only used to carry burdens, but as a beast of 
draught. It drew the plough and chariots of pleasure and war. But 


as a beast of draught it was by no means so useful as when it bore 
burdens. By protecting its humps with a saddle of straw, and slinging 
over the saddle attached hampers, receptacles were provided into which 
could be placed market products, manufactures, treasures, and even chil- 
dren, till the weight 
reached several hun- 
dred pounds, which 
the animal bore swift- 
ly and patiently. 

Much attention 
was paid to the breed- 
ing of camels. The 
lower and heavier 
breeds were valued 
f o r their carrying 
powers. The higher 
breeds were valued 
for their swiftness. 
The latter, called De- 
loul, or swift camels, 
were used for postal 
purposes, and in- 
stances are mentioned 
where they have trav- 
eled for fifty consecu- 
tive hours at the rate 
of ten miles an hour. 

These " ships of 
the desert," as* they are not inaptly called, are the most homely of all 
beasts, and the most domestic of all. They kneel patiently to re- 
ceive their loads, and refuse to rise when overloaded. Their motion 
is awkward, and riders maintain their seats with difficulty at first ; 
but on getting used to it the motion becomes pleasant, and is not at 
all tiresome. 


The Dromedary. 

The Delodx, or Post Camel. 

Threshing with Oxen 1 . 

The Cattle of Palestine were of small size. The breeds were 
limited. They were valued less for their flesh than for other uses. 
The milk and curds of the cow were esteemed higher than her meat. 
The Ox was used in the plough, on the threshing-floor, and on the 

highway. All cattle were counted as a valuable part of pastoral 
wealth, and many were required annually for the sacrifices. Allu- 
sioj is to domestic cattle furnish some of the most striking metaphors 
in Bible prose and poetry. 


The Horse of Scripture is chiefly the horse of war. Jewish prose 
and poetry give a high conception of the charger and the chariot- 
horse. These conceptions were borrowed, for the Jews were not horse- 
men, like their brothers of the plains, the Ishmaelites, nor like the 
Egyptians and Persians. The horse really played a small part in 
Jewish economy, but the finest breeds in the world sprang from the 
deserts around Palestine, particularly Arabia, and amid the Bedouin 


The Ass is one of the most prominent of Bible animals. It was and 
is the saddle-animal of the East, and was ridden by Christ on his tri- 
umphal entry into Jerusalem. It is hardy, docile, sure-footed, active ; 
in fact, an ideal beast amid hot suns, scanty vegetation, and narrow, 
rugged roads. For every purpose of the East, except that of war, the 
ass is superior to the horse. Wild asses are spoken of in the Bible ; 
also the mule, the latter being held in high esteem, but little used. 


Watering the Sheep. 

The pastoral life of the Hebrews gave to Sheep a prominent place 
in their economy. Sheep were a measure of wealth and prosperity. 
The choicest life was that of the shepherd. The Scriptures abound in 
incidents connected with sheep and shepherd-life. The finest prose 
passages, the parables, and the poetry of the Bible allude to sheep. 
They were food and clothing to the Hebrews, and a favorite sacrificial 
offering. Their innocence, prominence, the attachment for them, and 
frequent offering of them, rendered appropriate the expression 
"Lamb of God." 

A Desekt Houseman. 

Though the Lion has long been extinct in Palestine, it must have 
existed there, for mention of it is frequent in the Scriptures. Every 
mention of it implies a knowledge of its strength and ferocity. It 
was held in wholesome fear by the Hebrews. The most striking il- 
lustration of the power of virtue over bestiality is that of Daniel in 
the lions' den. The Hebrew word for lion signifies "the strong one." 
Jacob uses the metaphor of the lion in connection with the tribe of 
Judah ; Solomon makes frequent mention of its strength and bold- 
ness, though since the introduction of firearms the lion has become a 
cowardly brute. The roar of the lion impressed early Hebrew prophecy 
and poetry, for it is frequently alluded to. 





The Hippopotamus 
has acquired a peculiar 
distinction in Bible his- 
tory, not by that name, 
but because it is suppos- 
ed to be the Behemoth 
so vividly described in 
Job. That description 
leaves little to be said 
of the size, strength, 
and habits of the hip- 
popotamus. Job's de- 
scription must have 
been borrowed from 
Egyptian sources, for 
the hippopotamus is 
not an Asiatic animal 
at present, and, as the 
fossil remains indicate, 
has not been for several 
thousand years. There 
is hardly any beast so 
rugged, strong, and 
horrid as the hippo- 

The Hippopotamus. 

potamus. Its jaws are 
capable of crushing al- 
most any animal, and 
even boats. Though 
not amphibious, it is a 
water-beast, a powerful 
swimmer, an inveterate 
wader, and a liver on 
the grasses of swamp? 
and bottom-lands. Si 
ibnd is it of the water 
that it will stand or 
float for hours in mid- 
st ream, with no part 
of its body protruding 
except its nostrils. It 
is only a vicious beast 
when disturbed, and 
then it is bold to attack. 
Whenit leaves the water 
to forage on growing 
crops, its widespread 
feet make a double path, 
andare very destructive. 

The Elkphant. 

The Elephant is not mentioned in Scripture, except in 
the apocryphal books, where it is alluded to as an instru- 
ment of war. But ivory is frequently mentioned, and it 
was almost as highly appreciated as gold and silver and 
gems. The Hebrews, both in Egypt and in their Eastern 
captivity, had abundant opportunity to know of the ele- 
phant, both in its wild state and as a servitor of man. 

The Leopard is often 
mentioned directly and met- 
aphorically in the Script- 
ures, though not native to 
Palestine. It belongs to the 
more tropical parts of Asia 
and to Africa. But, where- 
ever known or described, it 
is a striking animal, and 
could not fail to touch the 
i mnginations of prophets and 
>oets. Its colors are rich 
md fascinating. "Spotted 
like the leopard" conveys 
the highest idea of animal 
beauty as to fur or skin. 
While it is the stealthiest 
of all animals, it is at the 
same time the fiercest and 
most voracious. It readily 
overtakes the swift deer, 
which is its favorite prey, 
does not hesitate to engage 
in deadily encounter with 

The Wolf. 


the lion, and has been known 
to spring in vicious attack on 
the back of an elephant. 

The Wolf was a pest in 
Palestine. It bred freely in 
the mountains, and was one 
of the most formidable of' 
midnight enemies to sheep. 
Yet it is never mentioned, 
except metaphorically, in the 
Scriptures. Perhaps this 
was because it is naturally 
cowardly. E\ jo. when moved 
by hunger it is not ferocious 
when alone, but when an 
hungered pack scents food 
no animal is free from at- 
tack. Its nature is to prowl 
and steal, and no object af- 
fords it an easier conquest 
than a helpless lamb or in- 
nocent sheep. Jesus made 
frequent mention of the 
wolf in his metaphors. 


The Bear is often mentioned in Scripture. It was native to Palestine, the 
forests of Lebanon being a favorite haunt. The species was what is known as 
the "Syrian bear," being darkish brown when young, and gradually chaia 
to a lighter brown as it ages. In summer the bear lives on berries and fruits; 
in colder months it becomes a meat-eater, and finally goes into iis winter Bleei 
The Scriptures picture the bear as ferocious, and frequently couple it with th 

The hear is not an agile animal, but it is strong and 
in a fight it rears on 
its haunches and de- 
livers powerful blows 
with its fore legs, 
which, being formid- 
ably clawed, gener- 
ally disembowel the 
adversary. The at- 
tachment of bears for 
their offspring is fre- 
quently alluded to in 
the Bible, and is sus- 
tained by all writers 
of natural history. 
The bear's tenacity 
of life is remarkable. 
Asidefrom the tough- 
ness of its skin, it 
seems almost to defy- 
mortal wounds, and 
even amid death's 
throes it is the most 
terrible of antago- 



54 h 

The Wild Boar. 

A Family of Beabs. 

The Ape was not indigenous to Palestine, but is alluded to as 
among the curious and valuable things which the ships of Tarshish 
were accustomed to bring. Precisely what part it played in the 
economy of King Solomon must be left to conjecture. It may have 
been an evidence of wealth, along with the gold, ivory, and pea- 
cocks ; it may have been only a means of exciting popular curiosity. 
The ape mentioned was, very likely, the Rhesus monkey, since it came 
with the peacocks, which are of Indian origin ; but it may have been 
the Wanderoo of India, which is the species shown in the cut below, 
and is noted for the masses of hair about its neck, shoulders and head. 

The Ape. 


The Hare of Scripture was forbidden meat. It is native to Pales- 
tine, but not so with the rabbit and true coney, though there was an 
animal called the hyrax, which resembled the rabbit or coney. What 
is remarkable about the hare is that it was prohibited meat because it 
chewed the cud, but did not divide the hoof. It does not chew the 
cud at all, but only appears to do so. Its flesh is very sweet and 
nutritious. Hares are plentiful in Palestine, and two species are 
found. The hare of Northern Palestine is large, but with short ears. 
That of Southern Palestine is smaller, and with longer ears. 

The Scripture allusions to the hog species are made under the name 
of Swine or Boar. The flesh of swine was a forbidden meat among 
the Hebrews, and they held no flesh in greater detestation. This 
hatred gives point to the degradation into which the Prodigal Son 
fell when he became a swineherd, and was compelled to eat of the 
husks on which the swine fed. The Wild Boar is alluded to in the 
Scriptures as the breaker of hedges and destroyer of vineyards. 

A Group of Hares. 





The Animals whose Flesh was Forbidden Food. 

The wisdom of the prohibition of flesh as food as it applied to the 
Hebrew race, and as found in Leviticus xi., has never been doubted. 

Many of the prohibitions seem 
arbitrary to-day and among 
other nations. But if the cha- 
racteristics of the Hebrews be 
studied, and the fact be remem- 
bered that they were fresh from 

an Egyptian climate, had been subjected to the terrible vicissitudes 
of an Arabian desert, and were beginning an era in a new land 
where all the laws of health must be observed if they were to 
prosper, the wisdom of the " forbidden meats," coupled with other 
sanitary regulations, becomes apparent. The exclusion of certain 
beasts, birds, and fishes, and the general exclusion of reptiles, main- 
tains to the present day, even where the special prohibition of conies, 
hares, and swine does not prevail. 

The Goat. 

Day of 

The Goat ranks next to the sheep in the pastoral 
economy of the Hebrews for food, for clothing, and 
for sacrifice. The soil, the climate, the topography 
of Palestine rendered the goat indispeusable. It is 
by nature hardy, prolific, and independent. The 
flesh of the kid and of the female goat was reckoned 
as even more palatable than that of the sheep. Kid 
flesh is very often referred to in the Bible as some- 
thing very savory and welcome. Guests of distinc- 
tion were received with a meal of kid broth or 
roasted kid. The hair gave a useful coarse cloth- 
ing, and the skin was converted into leather and 
into many household utensils, such as bottles, 
etc. The goat was nearly as favorite a sacrifice as the lamb, and on the great 
Atonement it was the only animal that could be sacrificed. 

The scriptural allusions to the Fox may 
also embrace the jackal. This impression 
is strengthened by the fact that the jackal 
is numerous in Palestine to-day, while the 
true fox is rare. Their habits, however, 
are closely allied, except that the jackal, 
like the wolf, is of gregarious disposition, 
and is not so cunning as the fox, being 
more easily erticed and snared. Allusions 
to the fox are frequent in Scripture. The 
most remarkable is that in the story of 

The Scripture word which distinguishes 
the antelope from the deer is now under- 
stood to mean Gazelle, four species of 
The Fox. which are found in and around Palestine. 

They are shy, fleet, gregarious animals, difficult 
to kill or capture. Their haunt is on the moun- 
tain-slopes, though they are not so much a forest 
animal as the deer. The gentle nature and soft, 
liquid eye of the gazelle are frequently men- 
tioned in Oriental poetry, and its flesh was re- 
garded as very delicious food by the Hebrews. 



The Dog was a detested brute among the Hebrews, 
mentioned in the Scriptures, but never favorably. This 

led to harsh 

It is often 
ment. No attention 
was paid to breeds. 
Indeed, there was 
scarcely more than 
one breed of dogs in 
Palestine in ancient 
times, and it was so 
inferior that the dog 
species of the day 
would hardly be rec- 
ognized at present 
and in this country, 
where so many fine 
breeds abound. 

The dog of the He- 
brew cities was a 
hungry, gaunt, 
treacherous and cow- 
ardly. It was toler- 
ated only because it 
gathered up refuse. 
Several Scripture al- 
lusions to dogs show 
that shepherds knew their value, and turned them to account as pro- 
tectors of sheep. 

The Porcupine is not men- 
tioned by name iu the Script- 
ures, though it existed and still 
exists in Palestine. This was 
because the Hebrews classed 
it with the hedgehog, and 
their word implies no distinc- 
tion. The porcupine is cover- 
ed with long spines or quills, 
which it raises and lowers, and 
which are its means of defence 
and sometimes of gathering 
food. It is a night animal, 
like the rabbit, and retires to 
a rock-crevice or underground 
burrow during the da) r . It is 
fitted for dry climates, as it 
needs no other water than the 
moisture of the grass and roots 
it feeds upon. Its quills are 
solid, and strengthened by ribs ""* 

which run lengthwise. These 
quills are shed and replaced 

The Snail mentioned in Scripture is un- 
doubtedly the animal we now know as such. 
But the species is not indicated, and the 
mention of it is made in such a way as to 
show that the Hebrews believed that the 
slime it left in its track was a part of its 
body, continual parting with which would, 
in course of time, cause the animal to melt 
away and perish. 

The Hebrew word for Mouse has been variously translated. It \* 
not now thought to refer to the common mouse of the house, since it 

pests in the fields rather than in the 

The Porcupike. 

Jerboa, or Jumping Moose. 

signifies "a destroyer of "corn." The Scripture allusions to mice are as 

house. Therefore, translators 
think the jerboa, or jumping 
mouse, was meant. It is a 
field animal, and a rodent of 
very destructive turn, though 
not as destructive as the 
dormouse, or regular field- 

The Bat is prominently 
mentioned in the Bible. Its 
flesh was forbidden to be eaten, 
and it is always mentioned as 
an abhorred creature. It, along 
with the mole, is us<<l as an 
emblem of darkness. Its He- 
brew name signifies " the 
animal that flies by night." 
Though a winged animal, it 
walks on all four legs like a 
quadruped. The food of the 
bat consists of flies and other 
?*- insects, which it catches when 
on the wing at night. Its home 
-'is the cavern, rock-deft, de- 
serted ruin, or dark house-loft. 
The Dormouse, or common field-mouse, 
is very plentiful in Palestine. It is a most 
destructive rodent, and very prolific. The 
Scripture allusions to mice are evidently to 
dormice. They never cease their ravages 
on corn, for they burrow after the seed, and 
attack it in the ear, the shock, and the barn. 
When corn is scarce they are equally de- 
structive to plants with tender bark. The 
flesh of mice was forbidden food, though 


The Snail. 

The Bat. 

that of the jerboa is 
eaten in Arabia and 
Syria. The dormouse 
is a very shy animal, 
having many enemies 
to contend with, and 
being a special mark 
for the cat, fox, hawk, 
and owl. Various spe- 
cies of rodent animals 
abound in Palestine, 
but dormice are the 
most numerous and 

Dormouse, or Field-Mouse, 



By most translators the Falcon and the 
Glede (Deut. xiv. 13) are regarded as the 
same. Several varieties of falcon inhabit 
Palestine. One of these is the peregrine 
falcon, whose habits and haunts are quite 
like those of the eagle. Another is the 
lanner falcon, which is much larger than 
the peregz-ihe falcon and but little smaller 
than the great gerfalcon. 

The female of the falcon is larger, 
stronger, and swifter than the male. The 
falcon gives a name to the genus of birds 
of prey which seize their food alive, as 
the eagle, hawk, etc. They are all known 
as the genus Falcon. The falcon is so 
swift of wing that it does not need to 
sight and pounce upon its prey, as the 
eagle and hawk do, but it frequently gives 
chase to smaller birds in the air and seizes 
them on the wing. Owing to this great 
velocity of wing and to a tamable dispo- 
sition, the falcon has been turned to the 
account of man by teaching it to chase the 
hawk and kite away from farmyards. 

The word translated as Osprey, or Os- 
pray, in the Bible, and whose flesh was 
forbidden food, is the fishing eagle. Its 
chief food is fish, which it takes in its 
claws and flies away with, just as other 
eagles do with their prey. The bird can- 
not dive, but seizes only the fish which swim near the surface of the water 

The Eagle is one of those birds of prey 
which the Hebrews grouped under one 
word. That word has been translated 
osprey. At least five species of eagle 
exist ill Palestine. The imperial eagle is 
the largest and strongest, and the golden 
eagle has the finest plumage. The short- 
toed eagle is by far the most numerous 

The eagle species seize and kill their 
own prey. They live on birds, fish, rep- 
tiles, mice, rabbits, and even carry off" 
large fowls and lambs. They seek their 
prey while on the wing, and for this pur- 
pose they are endowed with the keenest 
vision. When their prey is sighted they 
dart upon it with the aim and swiftness 
of an arrow, and bear it away to their 
eyrie in their powerful claws. 

The flight of the eagle is loftier than k-M^JW'WB. 
that of any other bird, and on account of 
its great strength it is called " the king of 
birds." Its flesh was forbidden food. The 
eagle leads a solitary life, hardly ever asso- 
ciating with its kind, except its mate and 
young. It builds in rocky, out-of-the-way 
places, and gathers food over wide districts. 

Lammergier, or Ossifrage. 

Falcon, or Glede. 

The Lammergier, or Ossifrage, be- 
longs to the vulture species. The ossifrage 
was, with the eagle and osprey, forbidden 
food. The name signifies " bone-breaker." 
It is one of the largest of flying birds. 
One of its species, the lammergier, exists 
throughout Europe and Asia, and it differs 
from the ordinary vulture species in that 
it does not go in flocks, but lives in pairs, 
like the eagle, and usually for a long time 
in one place. It is a carrion bird, like 
other vultures, but, instead of eating only 
the flesh of the dead animal, it takes the 
bones in its claws, rises to a great height 
with them, and then lets them fall, so that 
they will strike the surface of some rock. 
By this means the bones are crushed, and 
the bird extracts the marrow. The nest 
of the ossifrage is always on some lonely, 
inaccessible cliff, and it is built with im- 
mense labor, consisting sometimes of as 
much as a cartload of sticks filled in with 
sods and moss. The ossifrage is provided 
with very expansive wings, which enable it 
to soar to great heights, even when its claws 
are heavily laden with booty. It is capa- 
ble, too, of very protracted flight, and may 
be seen floating for hours over its native 
crags in search of food. 

Osprey, or Fishing Eagle. 

Often, when sailing 
away with a fish in its talons, it is attacked by the 
eagle and robbed. The osprey is not numerous in 
Palestine, because it prefers the seashore and countries 
with large rivers. It is said to avoid the Sea of Gali- 
lee entirely. 

Several species of Hawk exist in Palestine. Its 
flesh was forbidden as food. The entire species is 
noted for its power of flight. The hawk, like the 
eagle, falcon, and its entire genus, seeks live prey, for 
whose capture it is peculiarly fitted by its strength of 
claw, power of wing, and keen eyesight. Hawks, 
like falcons, were taught to pursue other birds as 
game, and during the Middle Ages this style of 
hunting, called falconry, was a leading sport of the 
nobility. Wherever the word hawk is mentioned in 
the Scriptures it embraces all of the species, and does 
not refer to any particular kind. It is said that the hawk 
does not build for itself, but steals the nests of other 
birds. This is not true of evey species of hawk. 




The Cuckoo was forbidden 
flesh to the Hebrews. The word 
is the same in nearly all languages, 
being taken from the note of the 
bird. Its egg is very small in 
proportion to the size of the bird, 
and it has the habit of laying its 
eggs in other birds' nests. Two 
varieties of cuckoo are known in 
Palestine — one the great spotted 
cuckoo, with the crested head and 
spotted wing; the other of smaller 
size and less brilliant plumage. 
The larger cuckoo has great length 
of tail, and sometimes measures as 
much as sixteen inches from tip 
to tip. In some countries the una I 
spotted cuckoo has a much fuller 
and bolder crest than in Pales- 
tine. In this respect the species 
• known as Le Valliant resembles 
-the cockatoo. Mention of the 
cuckoo is made only twice in 
the Bible. 

Lapwing, ob Hoopoe. 

The Bible word translated Lapwing, win 
flesh is prohibited food, is now preferably trans- 
lated hoopoe. It is a bird of beautiful plumage, 
and it finds its counterpart in the flicker, or red- 
headed woodpecker, of America. It builds in 
the hollow of a tree, and its nests give forth a 
pungent odor, owing to their being illy venti- 
lated. Its food consists of insects and worms, 
particularly those that bore in wood. It tap- on 
the outer surface of the wood with its stout 
beak, and seizes the startled dwellers therein as 
soon as they respond to the alarm. The crest 
of the hoopoe is very conspicuous, while its <r\ 
and gestures always excite superstitious dread. 

A legend concerning the hoopoe connects h 
with King Solomon. Solomon was crossing a 
desert and came near perishing. The hooj 
came to his relief. Grateful for help, he would 
bestow on them a favor. They asked to be 
crowned with gold, like the king. The request 
was granted and a brilliant crown given. Soon 
they repented, for the crown was too heavy. B< - 
sides, their great wealth rendered them the prey 
of every fowler. At last the few survivors pre- 
sented themselves before Solomon and begged him 
to rescind his fatal gift. Then they were given 
a crest of feathers of equally brilliant hue, but 
less weight. The hoopoe thus had all its former 
grandeur in less irksome form, and whenever it 
wishes to remind itself of its golden estate, all it 
has to do is to view itself in the water. 
All the smaller birds of the Bible are grouped under one word, equivalent to twittering birds. This 
word is variously rendered swallow, sparrow, etc. Swallows abound in Palestine, and the varieties 
are numerous. They vary in size from the humming- 
bird to the martin. The swallow is migratory. It is 
insectivorous, fond of the farmhouse, and a favorite 
with man. Its swiftness of flight has been noted by 
the poets of the Old Testament., as well as its nest- 
f~''' ^' : ■ l £*W%^p£& : &!$y/ building peculiarities. It has been called the "bird 

^A-^5» W« WMn. f freedom," on account of its flights, though the term 

might be better bestowed on birds of larger flight. The 
swallow cannot endure captivity, but is forced by in- 
stinct to pass from one country to another in order to 
preserve itself in an equable temperature. Its migra- 
tions extend over immense distances, and so unerring is 
f~ ' ~vfii|j|al£^|£jfe^ <?>~"^fe ~ _ its instinct that, even though wide stretches of sea have 

intervened, it seldom fails to return to the very nest 
whence it started. In ancient and modern times and 
in all countries swallows have enjoyed the protection 
of man and been suffered to build in peace under his 
roof. Many suppose their presence brings luck to a 
house. In some places the superstition prevails that to kill a swallow or destroy its nest will shorten the supply of cow's milk. Though swal 
lows prefer the habitations of ineu, they frequently build in rock-clefts and under embankments, especially where insects are plenty. 

The Owl of Scripture is the same solemn- 
looking animal as with us. Its flesh was prohibited 
food, both that of the little owl and the great owl. 
The little owl was well known in Palestine, and 
was looked upon with superstitious respect. The 
great owl was a fine specimen of the bird family. 
It often grew to the length of two feet, and pos- 
sessed a very full and fine plumage. Its ear-like 
tufts gave it the appearance of being horned. It 
was plentiful wherever lonely ruins existed, and 
amid these it dwelt in the day-time, its enormous 
eyes not being able to stand the light. 

The owl, like the eagle, takes its prey alive. 
The smaller owls catch mice and rob bird-roosts, 
while the larger kind do not hesitate to attack 
animals as large as the rabbit. They build in 
secluded spots, and their nests are composed of 
sticks lined with herbage. They build in or 
near the same spot year after year, laying but 
two eggs before hatching. 

Do O 

Fewer of the great owl family are found in 
Palestine than iu Egypt, where the extensive 
ruins seem to give them a natural abode and to 
conduce to their growth. In many countries the 
owl stands for a symbol of wisdom, and in nearly 
all it is the centre of superstitions and much dread 
on account of the solemnity of its hootings. In day- 
time it is stupid, and will even bear familiarity 
without showing fear, but at night it is a keen 
hunter, and one of the most ingenious of birds 
in its search for and capture of prey. 

The Gkeat Owl. 

The Little Owi 

Swallow of PALESTINE 



The Collared Dove. 

No bird plays so prominent a part in 
the Scriptures as the Dove. It is the 
constant source of poetry and meta- 
phor. The dove and the pigeon, kin- 
dred birds, and scarcely distinguished 
in the Hebrew mind, were associated, 
in innocence, with sheep and lambs, 
& and were used as largely for sacrificial 
purposes. Wherever the lamb was 
too expensive the dove was substi- 

The collared dove, or ringdove, was 
the strongest in body, while the car- 
rier dove, or pigeon, was giveu su- 
periority on account of the instinct 
which enabled it to return home from 
remote places. It was used, as at 
present, to bear messages, and was 
regarded as highly useful in this re- 
spect, as no more rapid means of 
communication was then known. The 

The Quail 

old writers attrbuted this instinct to 
scent, but it is now attributed to the 
telescopic eye of the bird, which gives it an enormous range of vision 
from great heights. 

That the Jews reared doves as they did domestic fowls is clear from 
the mention of dove-cotes in the Bible ; and that they witnessed about 
the dove-cote precisely what we witness at the present day is also 
clear from Isaiah, who asks, " Who are these that fly as a cloud, and 1 them easy victims 
as the doves to their windows ?" 

Every mention of Quail in the Bible al- 
ludes to it as a food-bird. It furnished miracu- 
lous food to the Israelites in the wilderness 
more than once. The quail is gregarious. Be- 
sides the nest or family flock, it gathers in 
vaster flocks at certain seasons, and, being short 
of flight, it takes advantage of the wind both 
for direction and distance. 

The Hebrews welcomed the flesh of the 
quail as a change from manna. Its flesh is 
excellent food, and it must have proved par- 
ticularly tempting to those who had not tasted 
flesh for a long time. The bird is small, round- 
bodied, and with a head set close on its shoulders. 
The Arab name for it signifies fatness, plump- 
ness. The Hebrews captured these birds by 
surrounding them and driving them into close 

quarters. They then used the net, throwing it over those on the 
ground or casting for those that attempted flight. They also used 
traps and springs. 

The color of the quail corresponds so nearly to that of autumn vegetation that it is a 
protection to it, especially against birds of prey. 

The word Partridge occurs seldom in the Bible, but when it does occur the allusion to 
its habits is perfect. The bird meant is the kore, or desert partridge, which is sometimes 

designated as " the caller," from the habit the 
males have of challenging one another from a 
distance. The partridge is of even shorter 
flight than the quail, and when the bird is ap- 
proached it as often depends on its legs for 
safety as on its wings. The partridge is every- 
where very prolific, laying as many as twenty 
eggs, and hatching with great certainty when 
undisturbed. Several species of the partridge 
exist in Palestine. 

The species of birds known as the Bee-eater, 
or King" Bird, is widely dispersed. It is one of 
the smaller insectiferous birds which the Hebrews 
grouped under a single word or title. No bird 
ranks as braver or more pertinacious. It does not 
hesitate to attack birds much larger than itself, 
and seems to have a peculiar enmity against ra- 
vens and kites. Its propensity for eating bees is 
well known. Nature seems to have endowed it 
for the capture of this insect by inserting in its 
head a tuft of red feathers which it can expose 
at will, and which, when exposed, bears a close 
Tue Partridoe. resemblance to a flower. 

The Turtle-dove. 

The rock pigeon, or blue rock dove, of the Holy Land, is the 
original of our common breeds of pigeons. It clings to the Medi- 
terranean coasts and to the mountains of Palestine, where it multi- 
plies in great numbers. It is captured in nets, whose cruel bait is 
an imprisoned bird. Its cries attract others to the spot and render 

Several kinds of Turtle-doves inhabit the 
Holy Land. It is a migratory bird, and this 
fact is beautifully set forth in that celebrated 
passage in the Song of Solomon : " Lo, the win- 
ter is past, the rain is over and gone ; the 
flowers appear on the earth ; the time of the 
singing of birds is come, and the voice of the 
turtle (dove) is heard in our land." The prophet 
Jeremiah also alludes to the migratory nature 
of the dove : " Yea, the stork in the heaven 
knoweth her appointed times ; and the turtle 
(dove), and the crane, and the swallow observe 
the time of their coming ; but my people know 
not the coming of the Lord." 

An interesting species of the dove is the 
. palm turtle, so called from its habit of nesting 
in palm trees whenever it is forced to build 
away from the habitations of man. It is un- 
like others of the species in that it is gregarious, and often several 
nests are found in one tree. It is smaller than the collared dove, 
and is not marked by rings on the neck. 

King Bird, or Bee-eateb. 


— — ' — 




The Ostrich was reck- 
oned as an unclean bird. 
It is mentioned several 
times in Scripture, but 
nowhere is it described so 
fully as in the splendid 
poem of Job. There the 
description is wellnigh 
perfect, even to the beauty 
of its feathers, its enor- 
mous strength, and its 
great velocity. The feath- 
ers of the ostrich have in 
all ages and countries been 
used as evidences of rank 
and fashion. They appear 
on the monumentsof Egypt 
cut in stone. 

The ostrich is careless 
of its eggs, leaving the sun 
to do the work of incuba- 
tion. The young are able 
to care for themselves as 
soon as hatched. Voracity 
is inseparable from the 
ostrich nature. It makes 
food of everything, even 

The Ostrich. 

metals, and its power of 
digestion is without 
bounds, [te Btupidity is 
proverbial, and it ia con« 
stantly the subject of met- 
aphor, as seeking safety 
by biding its head in the 
.-and while it- vital parte 
are exposed. 

Job saya of the ostrich 
"What timeshe lifteth Uj 
herself on high, Bhe scorn- 
eth the horse and rider." 
Feu horses can catch it in 
a fair chase. Its short 
wings conic to the assist- 
ance of its long legs, and 
together an immense speed 
is secured. The Arabs 
call the ostrich the " camel 
bird," because it resembles 
the camel in shape, is pecu- 
liarly an animal of the des- 
ert, and can do a long time 
without water. Its cry re- 
sembles the roar of the lion. 

The ('rank. 

The Heron. 

body, but great expanse 
which they adhere to for 

The Heron was classed as an unclean 
frequent object in Egyptian monuments, 
assume an attitude of perfect quiet, and sud- 
denly pounce on their prey, which consists of 
frogs and small fishes. Their beaks are very 
powerful, very long, and pointed. If their 
capture should be larger and stronger than 
they can handle, they leave the water and 
dash it against a stone till it is subdued. 

The Pelican was prohibited food. Says 
David : " I am like a pelican of the wilder- 
ness." The pelican is fond of resorts far re- 
moved from man. It is a silent, meditative 
bird, careful of its young, and a great gourmand. 
While the Hebrew word for pelican signifies 
" to vomit," it comports with the now better- 
known structure of the bird, which is armed 
with a capacious pouch into which it takes its 
catch of fish. On its return to its nest it dis- 
gorges its catch as food for its young by press- 
ing its breast with the red tip of its beak. This 
red in contrast with the white led to the legend 
that it fed its young with its own blood. 

Scripture mention of the Crane alludes 
to its noisy cry and habit of migration. The 
crane is gregarious. When swarming at 
evening toward its roost its trumpet cry can 
be heard afar. It builds in secluded spots 
and watches with great caution. It is a 
fisher like the heron, but equally fond of 
worms and insects. Parts of the plumage 
of the crane are very beautiful, and it vies 
with that of the ostrich for fashionable wear. 
The bird lays but two eggs, and manifests the 
greatest solicitude for its young. 

The Stork of Scripture is almost a rever- 
enced, always a protected, animal in the East. 
This is not more on account of the notion that 
it is a pious bird than because it is the de- 
stroyer of snakes, insects, and garbage. In 
many cities of the East the stork walks freely 
in the streets and gathers offal without moles- 

When storks settle on a tract of land, each 
bird seems to appropriate a section, and its 
first duty is to cleanse it of every reptile, 
worm, and insect its keen eyes and knowing 
beak can discover. Storks have a small, light 
of wings. They resemble mankind in choosing a single habitation, 

bird. The heron species abounds in the East, and it is a 
Herons are natural fishers. They wade into the water, 

The Stork. 

The Peijcjln. 


■-} '.>!.* J. — T 7 


The Bittern, like the heron, 
crane, and stork, is a hird of 
the reeds and marshy grounds. 
It is a large bird, and is noted 
for its peculiar plumage, which 
is so like the surrounding vege- 
tation as to make the bird diffi- 
cult to see by its enemies. It 
is, moreover, a bird of solitude, 
never venturing far from its 
haunts and shunning the dwell- 
ing-places of men. When man 
takes up his abode on new 
ground, the bittern is the first 
to depart. When places go to 
ruin the presence of the bittern 
shows that the desolation is com- 
plete. Hence the bittern was 
used to exemplify the final curse 
on a once-inhabited spot: "The 
bittern shall dwell there." 

The strange, wild cry of the 
bittern but adds to the desola- 
tion its presence typifies. Silent 
by day, it awakens the night 
with a loud, deep sound that 
seems to mingle the neighing 
of a horse, the lowing of a bull, 
and a shriek of savage laugh- 
ter. These alarming sounds 
are only uttered by the male 
bird, and when on wing en- 
gaged in its short and swiftly- 
curved flights. 

The bittern, like all waders, 
has the faculty of changing its 
shape and size to a wonderful 
extent. When excited or on the 
alert it appears like a large, 
keen, and stately bird ; but when 
at rest, standing on one foot, as 
it often does for hours, it shrinks 
into a comparatively insignifi- 
cant clump of feathers. 

The bittern builds on the 
ground and near the water, 
but always beyond the reach 
of overflow. It uses leaves, 
rushes, and reeds for its nest. 
So fond is the bittern of solitude that even the male and female live 
separately except during the mating and hatching seasons. 

The Cormorant of Scripture was forbidden meat. Many com- 
mentators insist that the word translated " cormorant " should be 
rendered " pelican," as these birds belong to the same family of 
birds. The cormorant is an expert fisher, and fish constitutes its 
chief food. Its long beak enables it to seize even a very large 


fish, and the hook on the 
end of its beak prevents the 
slippery prey from escaping. 
It is enabled to dart forth its 
long, snake-like neck forward, 
right or left, with such rapid- 
ity that it is almost impos- 
sible for a fish to escape it. 
It flies with some rapidity, yet, 
like most waterfowl, has the 
power of gathering its feathers 
together so as not to interfere 
with its watery visits. Its tail 
acts as a rudder both in the 
air and water. 

The cormorant is a swimmer 
of such rapidity as to overtake 
the fishes it wishes to secure, 
and such is the structure of its 
lungs it can stay under the 
water for a long time, It is 
a most voracious bird — so much 
so that the name cormorant has 
come to signify greed. Its 
powers of digestion are such 
that it is ready for a second 
meal of fish very soon after 
the first has been swallowed, 
no matter how large it may 
have been. Though a marine 
bird, hunger often drives it in- 
land to lagoons, lakes, and 
rivers. It may be seen on 
Eastern waters amid ducks 
and teals, always the most 
active of the lot, and every 
now and then disappearing un- 
der the water to return with a 
fish, which it invariably swal- 
lows head foremost. If the fish 
should happen to be an eel and 
unwilling to stay down, the bird 
swallows it again and again till 
the victim succumbs through 
sheer exhaustion. 

Cormorants can be domesti- 
cated and trained to fish for 
the benefit of man, just as fal- 
cons were taught to catch birds. 
Their skill is such in this respect that where two are fishing to- 
gether, and one catches a fish larger than it can manage, the 
other will come to its assistance. While in use as fish-hunters 
for man a ring is placed around their necks to prevent them from 
swallowing the fish. Cormorants build their nests upon rocky, inac- 
cessible ledges. They congregate in great numbers during the building 
and hatching season, and their nests are found in close proximity. 


(Sacked Ibis. 

I c 

The word Ibis is supposed by many to be a better rendering of the Hebrew original 
than the word " swan." If so, the white or sacred ibis of Egypt is meant. It was held 
in great reverence, and its form appears in sculpture. It was thought worthy of being 
embalmed, and many mummies of 
it have been found. Its habits are 
those of the waders and fishers. The 
reason the ibis was so venerated by the 
Egyptians may be found in the fact 
that its migrations indicated the Nile 
inundations. Its flights northward 
heralded the overflows to the people. 

The Sea-swallow was hardly 
other than the gull or stormy petrel. 
It was a bird of the coasts of Pales- 
tine, there being little inducement for 
it to venture inland except that af- 
forded by Lake Gennesaret and the 
Red Sea, neither of which were M-^ 
viting in comparison with the wa- 
ters of the Mediterranean. Sea-swallow. 




, 'v^&ic ^ •*'. " JV K?'';>S.' - "' v — -'^- ^- :{ - : - ' 




Ant of Palestine. 

The Ant is a familiar Scripture animal. It abounds in Palestine, and 
several varieties exist. Its industry and wisdom for storage afford fine 
metaphors and allusions, and yet half the wonders of its instinct cannot 

be known till one learns of the ani- 
mal in America, Africa, and the 
isles of the Pacific, where it grows 
to great size and practises an econ- 
omy which is almost rational. 

Two species of Locust exist in 
Palestine — one migratory, the other 
stationary. Both are vegetable- 
feeders and do great harm to veg- 
etation. When locusts come in 
swarms, borne by the winds, they 
leave a trail of desolation. Every- 
thing green goes down before them. 
This is as true of Palestine as it 
was of Egypt when it experienced 
the curse of locusts. The Scripture 
allusions to them, as in Joel, fully 
describe their devastating career. 

Locusts can sustain flight for a 
considerable time, but its direction 
is controlled by the winds. In the 
mention of the plague of locusts 
(Ex. x. 12, 13) the wind brings 
them and takes them away. The 
modern descriptions of these locust 
armies correspond exactly with the 
biblical descriptions. 

Locusts were not only not a pro- 
hibited, but an acceptable, article 
of food among the Hebrews. 

Hornets and Nest. 

Butterflies of Palestine. 

Though Butterflies cannot be regarded as scriptural animals, the 
Hebrews were acquainted with silk, and therefore must have known 
of them. In later years silk-grow- j 
ing became a branch of industry 
in Palestine, and consequently (■)' 
the butterfly grew familiar. The 
species shown in the illustration, 
are the Syrian grayling, orange- 
tip, and swallow-tail. 

The Bee of Palestine is a 
much-mentioned object in Script- 
ure. Its traits are well describ- 
ed both in poetry and prose. That 
there was abundance of honey, 
domestic and wild, is well estab- Bee. 

lished. The wild bee laid up its stores in rock-clefts instead of 

trees. Canaan was pictured as a 
"land flowing with milk and hon- 
ey," both of which articles formed 
a part of the every-day meal. 

Hornets arc mentioned several 
times in the Scriptures, but always 
in a metaphorical sense. Hornets 
are very common in Palestine, and 
in olden times they infested certain 
spots to such an extent as to e 
names to them. Some hornets build 
underground nests, but in general 
they erect homes of pulp, like thai 
in the illustration, appended to the 
branch of a tree. They are very 
industrious yet very vindictive in- 
sects, and the manner in which they 
inflict their sting is [ike the arrival 
of an arrow from an unknown 
source. Their attacks upon the 
[sraelites on their journeys could 
not fail to impress them with the 
earnestness of the little animal, and 
afford a fit subject for metaphorical 
mention. For the same reason they 
must have found great encoun 
nient in the divine promise to head 
their armies with a vanguard of 
hornets, for the purpose of driving 
out the natives of Canaan. 

OF hi 




The Lizard belongs to the great family of skinks. It was pro- 
nounced an unclean animal. Lizards abound in Palestine. One 
species was regarded as medicinal, and often became part of a mix- 
ture for the cure of diseases. Another species was beautifully spotted 
with orange and scarlet, and was really a handsome animal, aside 
from its association with reptiles. The lizard loves sandy localities, 


Though Frogs abound in Palestine, Scripture mention of them is 
chiefly in connection with the plagues of Egypt. This is not to be 
wondered at, for they literally swarm in the waters of the Nile and 
the swamps adjacent. Really, the only miraculous thing about the 
" plague of frogs " was that they were directed to the houses of the 
inhabitants. n . 

OH ol b 

Lizard, ok Skink. 

especially where the sand is mixed with water. It is not a rapid traveller, and is harmless, 
though superstitiou has taught that it is venomous. It is a timid, wary creature, and glides 
quickly and easily into a place of safety on the approach of danger, its favorite hiding-place 
being under a stone or in a friendly rock-cleft. The lizard feeds upon insects, worms, and 
reptiles smaller than itself. It has been known to destroy the young birds found in ground 
nests. There is much doubt about the Hebrew rendering of the word " lizard." Many think that 
a snail was meant, while as many think that the word translated "snail" should have been ren- 
dered " lizard." But, whatever the dispute, it is agreed that a creeping thing was meant. 

The Crocodile is thought 
to be the " leviathan " of 
Scripture. The description 
in Job xli. of the leviathan 
is exact as to the crocodile, 
leaving out the imagery of 
the poet. Crocodiles are not 
found in Palestine. The 
waters there were not suffi- 
cient for them, even if the 
climate had been. They 
abound only in tropical 
waters and where large 
streams or swamps are 
found. Wherever found, 
the crocodile is known by 
its expanse of jaw, its ter- 
rible saw-like teeth, its 
webbed feet, its extensive 
tail, and its impenetrable 
skin. Owing to the forma- 
tion of its teeth it cannot 
masticate, but it seizes and 
tears, and mostly swallows 
its food whole. By an ar- 
rangement of throat-valves 
it can hold its prey under 
water till it drowns it. Like 
the hippopotamus, it ob- 

The Chameleon of Scripture is a small animal, notable for its terrible grasp with tail and claws 
therefore familiar to the Hebrews. It is a tree animal, and fares poorly on the ground. The 
strangest part of the chameleon is its eye, which bulges from its head and is protected by a thick 

skin. The eyes are of independent sight, and one 
may look forward while the other is looking backward. 
It has the power to change its color to suit its sur- 
roundings, and thus secure protection. It feeds on 
insects, which it catches by means of a long, protruding 
tongue, like that of the toad. 

The Scorpion is found in all parts of Palestine. 
Though its sting did not necessarily kill, it was classed 
with the bite of serpents. The scorpion is the subject 
of frequent Scripture allusion and metaphor. Though 
it belongs to the spider class of animals, its venom is 
not in its bite, but in its sting. The phrase " whip of 
scorpions " does not allude to the animal. There was a 
scorpion whip specially made and used to punish slaves. 

Crocodile, or Leviathan. 

Egyptian Frogs. 

scures and protects its body 
entirely by sinking in the 
water, leaving only its nos- 
trils exposed. It is of vast 
bulk, slimy skin, horrid 
shape, and with green, star- 
ing eyes. Stupid at times, 
it is ravenous at others and 
indiscriminate in its at- 
tacks. Wherever it abounds 
it is held in dread, especi- 
ally in the Ganges, where 
the natives frequently fall 
a prey to its greed. Only 
in Egypt has it ever been 
looked upon with respect, 
and there it seems to have 
been reverenced chiefly 
because of the dread it in- 
spired. Though apparently 
stupid and slothful, it is 
cunning, and when it spies 
prey will disarm suspicion 
by swimming away and re- 
turning under water, either 
to seize directly with its 
teeth or strike a blow with 
its powerful tail which 
paralyzes its victim. 
It abounds in Palestine, and was 



56 314 

The Chameleon. 



Cerastes, ok Horned Viper. 

The Cerastes, or Horned Viper, is 

found in all the desert regions of Arabia 
and Palestine. The allusion to the adder 
in Gen. xlix. 17, exactly describes the horn- 
ed viper, which lies half buried in the sand 
till some animal approaches which it can 
attack. Its usual food is the field-mouse or 
smaller animal, but it is apt to strike at 
whatever disturbs it, so that it is a veritable 
" serpent by the way, an adder in the path." 
Its color harmonizes with the sand, render- 
ing it difficult to discern, but horses dis- 
tinguish its presence by their sense of smell, 
and avoid it. Its bite is deadly. Its fangs 
lie in its upper jaw. They are folded back, 
and are so needle-like as to be scarcely 
discernible. Yet they are hollow, and it is 
through them the snake emits its poison 
into the wound they make. 

The Boa is not mentioned in Scripture, 
though some of the allusions to the " ser- 
pent " would seem to indicate, at times, 
that a larger serpent was contemplated 
than any that existed in Palestine. The 
boa is of the python species, is not poison- 
ous, and kills its prey by strangling it. It 
feeds chiefly on smaller quadrupeds, which 
it catches by plunging on them from an 
overhanging limb and crushing them in 
its deadily coils. It has been known to 
attack animals even as large as the deer, 
and to crush its bones as in a vice. 

Emperor Boa. 

The Toxicoa. 

The Toxicoa is a viper, like the cerastes. 
It is not so large, and is much more active. 
Its bite is not so deadly. But its home is 
in the sand, and it is sometimes called the 
sand viper. It is a beautiful snake, of 
variable colors, with rows of whitish spots 
and angular streaks along its sides. Its 
head is dark, but variegated with arrow- 
shaped white marks. 

The toxicoa abounds in Arabia, Pales- 
tine, and other Eastern countries, and on 
account of its activity it is held in great 
dread by the natives. 

The Scripture allusions to the Adder 
are nearly all noted, so that the word ma\ 
be read " cockatrice." Cockatrice itself is 
frequently mentioned, especially in Isaiah. 
The cockatrice, or adder, was a source of 
superstitious dread among all Oriental peo- 
ples. Legends innumerable became attach- 
ed to it. It was thought to kill with its 
very look. Its poison was thought so 
deadly that it would infect any one who 
killed it. It exuded poison from its mouth 
and sides till the air became deadly. Of 
course these legends are exploded now, but 
they prevailed" in the olden time. Yet 
there is no doubt about the cockatrice, or 
adder, being a very venomous serpent. In 
Jeremiah we read, "I will send serpents, 
cockatrices among you, which will not be 
charmed, and they shall bite you." 

The Cobra di Capello finds a natural home in Asia. It has 
always been renowned for its venom and for the singular part it 
has been made to play in juggling. It is the one serpent, above 
others, which the snake-charmers of the East have used to show 
their art and awe their audiences. Though deadly, the cobra is 
an intelligent, tamable snake. It is of brownish hue, and is par- 


Cobra di Capello. 

ticularly noted for its ability to expand its neck so as to resemble a 
puffed bladder. At the same time, it throws forward a hood or bonnet 
over its head. These phenomena are rendered possible by the fact 
that the first twenty ribs of the snake are straight and loosely hinged 
to the backbone. When excited, it brings these ribs forward, thus 
swelling out the skin. The back of its head is marked by two spots 
connected in such a way as to resemble a pair of spectacles. 




PISHES OF b:bt,e w 



Fishes are frequently men- 
tioned in the Bible, but not in 
such a way as to furnish a satis- 
factory identification of the spe- 
cies. This is rather remarkable, 
considering the fact that several 
of the apostles were fishermen. 
Fish were largely used for food 
by the Hebrews, both in Egypt 
uid Palestine. In Numb. xi. 4, 
5, we read, " We remember the 
fish which we did eat in Egypt 
freely." And there are numbers 
of passages alluding to fishermen, 
which show that they had a regu- 
lar and no doubt a profitable 

While the lakes and streams of 
Palestine furnished the usual as- 
sortment of flood or river fishes, 
the Hebrews contented them- 
selves with dividing them into 
clean and unclean. Those which 
had the body naked were pro- 
hibited. This would include eels, 
catfish, and many others now rec- 
ognized as delicious food. Perhaps 
the most plentiful fish in the Sea 
of Galilee was the barbel. It is a 
scale fish, and therefore permitted 
food, and is allied to the carp. 

The Hebrews cultivated fish in ponds like the Romans, though they 
did not limit the cultivation to a single species. The fish food of Pales- 
tine was by no means limited to and dependent on its own waters. It 
was drawn' largely from the Mediterranean Sea, which washed the shores 
of the country, and of course consisted of the varieties found therein. 

BO 5 

Spotted Ray. 

Though the Salmon inhabits both salt and fresh waters in all parts 
of the globe, the Hebrews could not have known other than the sea sal- 
mon, for there are no inland waters in Palestine capable of producing 
it. The fresh-water salmon, justly called the "king of fishes" for 
food purposes, and noted for its gameness, requires a swift, heavy-flowing 
river for its successful propagation, or else a clean, expansive lake. 

A Group of River Fish. 

The Turbot is found in the Mediterranean and in the Black Sea. It 
is of the genus of flat fishes, and noted for its rhomboidal form. It has 
great width of body, and is scaleless. The eyes are on the left side of 
the body, and the lower one is slightly in advance of the upper. The 
mouth is armed with teeth. It is a voracious fish, and feeds on mol- 
lusks and other fish. It grows to a considerable size in 
certain waters, and specimens are on record which weigh 
as much as thirty pounds. 
The Ray genus is found 
in the Mediterranean. It 
embraces six distinct fam- 
ilies, and each family a 
great number of species. 
The spotted ray is known 
by its vertical fins and the 
strong spine attached to 
the upper side of its tail. 
No less than forty species 
of this family are known, 
and they inhabit the tem- 
perate seas of both hemi- 
spheres. The ray is an ex- 
cellent food-fish, and, as it 
swims in schools, is readily 
caught either in nets or 
with baited hooks. 
The Pearl is the subject of several beautiful metaphors in the Bible. 
Though an inferior pearl may have been found in the shellfish of the 
coasts of Palestine, the pearl of Scripture was evidently rare and costly, 
and of a kind extracted from the pearl-oyster found in the Persian Gulf 
and Indian Ocean. Thkwst,ef ^is^caught by diving for it in deep water. 

The Turbot. 

.The Salmon. 

The Pearl Oyster. 





;216 8700 5 3201 



<i24tt 7733 7152 6177 






A. See Alpha. 

Aar' oa {mountaineer or enlightener). Son of Amram 
and Jochebed, and elder brother of Moses and 
Miriam (Num. xxvi. 59). Direct descendant of 
Levi by both parents. Called " the Levite " (Ex. 
iv. 14) when chosen as the "spokesman" of Moses. 
Married Elisheba, daughter of the prince of Judah, 
and had four sons, Nadab, Abihu, Eleazar, and 
Ithamar (Ex. vi. 23). Eighty-three years old 
when introduced in the Bible. Mouthpiece and 
encourager of Moses before the Lord and the people 
of Israel, and in the Court of the Pharaoh ( Ex. iv. 
30; vii. 2).- Miracle worker of the Exodus (Ex. 
vii. 19). Helped Hur to stay the weary hands of 
Moses in the battle with Amalek (Ex. xvii. 9-12). 
In a weak moment yielded to idolatry among his 


people, and incurred the wrath of Moses (Ex. 
xxxii). Consecrated to the priesthood by Moses. 
(Ex. xxix). Anointed and sanctified, with his 
sons, to minister in the priest's office (Ex. xl). 
Murmured against Moses at the instance of Miriam, 
but repented and joined Moses in prayer for 
Miriam's recovery (Num. xii). His authority in 
Israel vindicated by the miracle of the rod (Num. 
xvii). Died on Mt. Hor, at age of one hundred 
and twenty-three years, and was succeeded in the 
priesthood by his son Eleazar (Num. xx. 22-29). 
Office continued in his line till time of Eli. Re- 
stored to house of Eleazar by Solomon ( 1 K. ii. 27 ). 

AaVon-ites. Priests of the line of Aaron (1 Chr. xii. 
27), of whom Jehoiada was " chief," or "leader," 
in the time of King Saul (1 Chr. xxvii. 5). 

AT) (father). 1. A syllable of frequent occurrence 
in the composition of Hebrew proper names, and 

"i4j b 9} u i J 7 - loD 6» u « *» *i *i a ' ¥> abort* o£rc, far, l&at, t&ll, what; U»Crt, veil, term ; pique, 

signifies possession or endowment. Appears in 
Chaldaic form of Abba in N. T. (Mark xiv. 36; 
Bom. viii. 15; Gal. iv. G). 2. Eleventh month of 
the Jewish civil, and fifth of the sacred, year; cor- 
responding to parts of July and August. [Month.] 
AVa-cuc. 2 Esdr. i. 40. [IIabakkik.] 
A-bad'don (destroyer). King of the locusts, and 
angel of the bottomless pit. The t i reck equivalent 
is Apollyon (Rev. ix. 1 1 ). 
Ab"&-dl'as. 1 Esdr. viii. 35. [Obadiah.] 
A-bag'tha (God-given). One of the seven chamber- 
lains in the court of King Ahasuerus (Esth. i. 10). 
Ab'a-na (stony). A river of Damascus, preferred 
by Naaman to the Jordan for healing purposes 
(2 K. v. 12). Believed to be identical with the 
present Barada, which rises in the Anti-I.ilmnus 
range, twenty-three miles N. \V. of Damascus, runs 
by several streams through the city, and thence 

firm; douc, for, dfl, wolf, fo~od, foot; 




across a plain into the "Meadow Lakes," where it 
is comparatively lost. 

Xb'arim, a mountain or range of the Jordan, facing 
Jericho. Its most elevated spot was " the Mount 
Nebo 'head' of 'the' Pisgah," from which 
Moses viewed the Promised Land. Mentioned in 
Num. xxvii. 12, xxxiii. 47, 48, and Deut. 
xxxii. 49. 

Ab'ba. [Ab.] 

Abed'negd (i. e. servant of Nego, or perhaps Nebo), 
the Chaldaean name given Azariah, one of the 
three friends of Daniel, miraculously saved from 
the fiery furnace ( I 'an. iii. ). 

A'bel, name of several places in Palestine, prob- 
ably signifies a meadow. 1. A'bel-beth- 
ma'achah, a tnwu of some importance (2 Sam- 
xx. 19), in the extreme north of Palestine. 2. 
A'belmizua'im, i. e. the mourning of Egypt, the 
name given by the Canaanites to the floor of Atad, 
at which Joseph, his brothers, and the Egyptians 
made their mourning for Jacob (Gen. i. 11). It 
was beyond (on the east side of) Jordan. 3. 
A'bel-shit'tim, on the low level of the Jordan 
valley. Here — their last resting-place before 
crossing the Jordan — Israel "pitched from Beth- 
jesimoth unto A. Shittim" (Num. xxxiii. 49). 4. 
A'bel-me'holah (" meadow of the dance "), in 
the north part of the Jordan valley (1 K. iv. 12). 
Here Elisha was found at his plough by Elijah 
returning up the valley from Horeb (1 K. xix. 
16-19). 5. A'bel-ce'ramim, a place eastward of 
Jordan, beyond Aroer (Judg. xi. 33). 0. "The 
great ' Abel,' in the field of Joshua the Bethshe- 
mite" (1 Sam. vi. 18). 


e. breath, vapor, transitoriness), second 
son of Adam, murdered by Cain (Gen. iv. 1-10). 
Jehovah showed respect for Abel's offering, but 
not that of Cain, because (Heb. xi. 4), Abel "by 
faith offered a more excellent sacrifice than 
Cain " Our Lord spoke of Abel as the first 
martyr (Matt, xxiii. 35); so the early church. 
The traditional site of his murder and his grave 

_are,pointed out near Damascus. 

A'bi, mother of king Hezekiah (2 K. xviii. 2), 
written Abijah in 2 Chr, xxix. 1. 

Abi'a, Abi'ah, or Abi'jah. 1. Second son of 
Samuel, whom together with his eldest son Joel 
he made Judge in Beersheba (1 Sam. viii. 2 ; 1 
Chr. vii. 28). 2. Abijah, or Abu am, the son of 
Rehoboam (1 Chr. iii. 10; Matt. i. 7). 3. Mother 
of king Hezekiah. [Am]. 

Abi'asapb. (Ex. vi. 24), otherwise written Ebi'asaph 
(1 Chr. vi. 23, 37, ix. 19), the head of one of the 
families of the Korhites. Among the remark- 
able descendants of Abiasaph (1 Chr. vi. 33-37) 
were Samuel the prophet and Elkanah his father 
(1 Sam. i. 1), and Heman the singer. 

Abi'athar, high-priest aud fourth in descent from 
Eli, of the line of 
Ithamar, the 
younger son of-', 
Aaron. Abiathar 
was the only one 
of the sons of Ahi- 
melech the high- 
priest who escaped 
the slaughter by _****-~''* rW ^ 
Saul( 1 Sam. xxii. ). ancient oriental cart, no. 2. 
Abiathar having become high-priest fled to David 
(1 Sam. xxiii. 9, xxx. 7; 2 Sam. ii. 1, v. 19. &c). 
He adhered to David in his wanderings ; he was 
with him while he reigned in Hebron (2 Sam. ii. 
1-3), the city of the house of Aaron (Josh. xxi. 
10-13); he carried the ark before him when 
David brought it up to Jerusalem (1 Chr. xv. 
11 j 1 K. ii. 2G); he continued faithful to him in 


ancient plough. 
One of David's mighty men 

descendant of 
great judge 


Absalom's rebellion (2 Sam. xv. 24, 29, 35, 36, 
xvii. 15-17, xix. 11). When, however, Adonijah 
set himself up, Abiathar sided with him, while 
Zadok was on Solomon's side. For .this Abi- 
athar was deprived of the high-priesthood (1 K. 
ii. 27, 35), thus fulfilling the prophecy of 1 Sam. 
ii. 30. — Zadok was desceuded from Eleazar, the 
elder son of Aaron. He is first mentioned in 1 
Chr. xii. 28. 

A'bib.' [Mi nths.] 

Abi'el. 1. Father 
of Saul (1 
Sam. ix. 1), 
as well as 
of Abner, 
Saul's com- 
mander- in- 
chief (1 
Sam. xiv. 51). 

_(1 Chr. xi. 32). 

Abi-e'zer. 1. Eldest son of Gilead. 
Manasseh and ancestor of the 

Ab'igail. 1. Beautiful wife of Nabal, a wealthy 
owner of goats and sheep in Carmel. When 
David's messengers were slighted by Nabal, Abi- 
gail supplied David and his followers with pro- 
visions, and succeeded in appeasing his anger. 
Ten days after Nabal died, and David sent for 
Abigail and made her his wife (1 Sam. xxv. 14, 
&c). 2. A sister of David, married to Jether, 
the Ishmaelite, and mother, by him, of Amasa (1 
Chr. ii. 17). 

Xb'iha'il. 1. Wife of Rehoboam, and a descend- 
ant of Elial, elder brother of David (2 Chr. xi. 
18). 2. Father of Esther and uncle of Mordecai 
.(2 Esth. ii. 15, ix. 29). 

Abi'hu, the second son (Num. iii. 2 
Elisheba (Ex. vi. 23). With his 
Nadab he was consumed by fire 
(Lev. £. 1,2). 

Abi'jah or Abi'jam. 1. Son and successor of 
Rehoboam on the throne of Judah (1 K. xiv. 31 ; 
2 Chr. xii. 10). He began to reign B. C. 959, and 
reigned three years. 2. The second son of 
Samuel, called Abiah. 3. A descendant of Ele- 
azar. To the course of Abijah or Abia belonged 
Zacharias, the father of John the Baptist (Luke 
i. 5). 

Ab'ilehio (Luke iii. 1). A tetrarchy of which the 
city Abila was the capital. Traditions associat- 
ing it with the death of Abel are in existence. 

Abim'elech. The name of several Philistine kings. 

of Aaron by 
elder brother 
from heaven 

• <* G&sC 

1. A Philistine, 
king of Gerar 
(Gen. xx., xxi.). 

2. Another king 
of Gerar in the 
time of Isaac 
(Gen. xxvi. 1, 
&c). 3. Son of 
the Judge Gid- 
eon (Judg. viii. 
31), who after his 
father's death 
murdered all his ancient Egyptian. 
brethren, 70 in number, with the exception of 
Jotham, the youngest, who concealed himself; 
and he then persuaded the Shechemites to elect 
him king. "When Jotham heard that Abimelech 
was king, he addressed to the Shechemites his 
fable of the trees choosing a king (Judg. ix. 1). 
He stormed and took Thebez, but was struck on 
the head by a woman with the fragment of a 
millstone (cornp. 2 Sam. xi. 21); and lest he 
should be said to have died by a woman, he bade 
his armor-bearer slay him. Thus God avenged 
the murder of his brethren, and fulfilled the curse 
of Jotham. 

Abin'adab. 1. A Levite of Kirjath-jearim, in 
whose house the ark remained 20 years ( 1 Sam. 
vii. 1, 2 ; 1 Chr. xiii. 7). 2. Second son of 
Jesse (1 Sam. xvi. 8, xvii. 13). 3, A son of 
Saul, who was slain with his brothers at the fatal 
battle on Mount Gilboa (1 Sam. xxxi. 2). 

Abinoam, the father of Barak (Judg. iv. C, 12, v. 
1, 12). 

Abi'ram. 1. A Reubenite, son of Eliab, who with 
Dathan and On organized a conspiracy against 
Moses and Aaron (Num. xvi.). 


Xb'ishag, a beautiful Shunammite, taken into 
David's harem to comfort him in his extreme old 
age (1 K. i. 1-4). After David's death Adonijah 
induced Bathsheba to ask Solomon to give him 
Abishag in marriage ; but this cost Adonijah his 

life (1 


oriental cart. 
Abisha'i, the eldest of the three sons of Zeruiah, 
David's sister, and brother to Joab and Asahel 
(1 Chr. ii. 16). He was the devoted follower of 
David. He commanded a third part of the army 
in the decisive battle against Absalom. He res- 
cued David from the hands of a gigantic Philis- 
tine, Ishbi-benob (2 Sam. xxi. 17). His personal 
prowess won for him a place as captain of the 
second three of David's mighty men (2 Sam. 
xxuL 18 l LChr.jd. 20). 

7b 664 ' 


Abish'alom, father or grandfather of Maachah, 
wife of Rehoboam. He is called Absalom in 2 

■ Chr. xi. 20, 21. This must be David's son. 

AVner. 1. Son of the brother of Kisch (1 Chr. 
ix. 36), the father of Saul. Saul made him com- 
mander-in-chief of his army (1 Sam. xiv. 51, 
xvii. 57, xxvi. 3-14). After the death of Saul 
David was proclaimed king of Judah in Hebron; 
and subsequently Abner proclaimed Ishbosheth, 
Saul's son, as king of Israel, at Mahanaim be- 
yond Jordan. War soon broke out, when the 
army of Ishbosheth was defeated. Afterward 
through the ingratitude of his king Abner went 
over to David, and was treacherously murdered 
by Joab and Abishai, at the gate of Hebron. 
David was indignant, and showed every token of 
respect to Abner' s memory (2 Sam. iii. 33, 34). 


Abomination of Desolation, mentioned by our 
Saviour as a sign of the approaching destruction 
of Jerusalem, with reference to Dan. ix. 27, xi. 
31, xii. 11. The prophecy referred to the de- 
struction of Jerusalem by the Romans, and it ap- 
pears most pi-obable that the profanities of the 
Zealots constituted the abomination, which was 
the sign of impending ruin. 

Abraham or A'bram, the son of Terah, and founder 
of the great Hebrew nation. His family, of the 
descendants of Shem, was settled in Vr of the 

u,e,i,o, a, y, long; &, i, i, 6, tt, y, short; care, far, list, fftU„ wb?t; tbere, veil, Una; pique, rfrm; done, idr, da, wyli, food, fooli 



Chaltlees, Leyond the Euphrates. Terah had two 
other sons, Nahor and Haran. Haran died be- 
fore his father in Ur of the Chaldees, leaving a 
son, Lot; and 'J'erah, taking with him Abram, 
and Sarai his wife, and his grandson Lot, emi- 
grated to Haran in Mesopotamia, where he died. 

78 3>3 n 


^x\-ii. 4, 5). 

Ab'salom. Third son of David by Maachak, daugh- 
ter of Palmai, king of Gcsher. Absalom's ser- 
vants, by his order, murdered his half-brother 

Amnion, for violating his sister Tamar. He after- 
ward rebelled against his lather and took posses- 


On the death of his father, Abram, then in the 
75tk year of his age, with Sarai and Lot, pursued 
his course to the land of Canaan, whither he was 
directed by divine command (Gen. xii. 5). We 
have his subsequent history in Genesis, at length, 
from the pitching of his tent (Gen. xii. 10) be- 
neath the terebinth of Moreh, until his death at 
the age of 175 years (Gen xxv. 7-10). Sarah 
died and was buried at Machpelak. By Keturah, 



be had six children. It is asserted that he was 
born about two years after the death of Noah, 
though nine generations are traced between them. 
Some chronologers place his birth 60 years earlier. 
The very many interesting events of his life are 
so familiar to the reader, or, at least, are so 
succinctly given in Genesis, that it seems almost 

sion of Jerusalem, and the King's harem, David 
fleeing beyond the Jordan. He was subsequently 
defeated in the woodatEphraim, where, becoming 
entangled in the branches of a terebinth by his 
long hair, and left suspended, his mule running 
away from him, he was slain by Joab. In the 
valley of Jehosha- 

phat isamonument 
bearing his name; 
but it bears evi- 
dence of later time. 
Ac'cbd (the Ptolk- 
mais of the Macca- 
bees and N. T.), 
now called Acea, or 
more usually by 
Europeans, St. Jean 
d'Acre, the most 
important sea-port 
town on the Syrian ^ 
coast, about 30 SpH 
miles S. of Tyre. | 
The only notice of | 
it in the N. T. is in 
connection with St. 
Paul's passage 
from Tyre to Caes- 
afea (Acts xxi. 7). 
Acel'dama, "the 
field of blood;" 
the name given 
by the Jews of 
Jerusalem to a 
field near Jerusa- 
lem purchased 
with the money 
of Christ. The 


subscription No. 2"). 

Sc'han (trouble) , an Israelite who, when Jericho 
and all that it contained waa devo'.ed to destruc- 
tion, secreted a portion of the spoil in his tent. 
For this sin Jehovah punished Israel by their de- 
feat in the attack upon Ai. When Achan tun 
ed he was stoned to death with his family by 
the people in a valley between Ai and Jericho, 
and their remains, with his property, were burnt 

(Josh. vii. 10-22). From this the valley received 

_ite name. 

A'chim, son of Sadoc, and father of Eliud, in our 
Lord's genealogy ; the fifth in succession before 
Joseph, the husband of Mary (Matt. i. 11). 

J'chish, a Philistine king of Gath, who in the 
title to the 84th Psalm is called Abimelech. 
David twice found a refuge with Lira from Saul. 
On the first occasion, being recognized, he feigned 
madness (1 Sy-m.xxi. 10-13). On a second occa- 
sion David fled to Achish with COO men ( 1 Sam. 
xxvii. 2), and remained at Gath a year and four 

A'ohor, Valley of, " valley of trouble," the spot at 
which Achan, the "troubler of Israel, was 
stotied (Josh. vii. 24, 20). 

Xch'sah, daughter of Caleb. Her father promised 
her in marriage to whoever should take Debir. 
Othniel, her father's younger brother, took that 
city, and accordingly received the hand of Ach- 
sah. Caleb added to her dowry the upper and 
lower springs, which she had pleaded lor (Jotsk. 
xv. 16-19; Judg. i. 11-15). 

Acts of the Apostles, a second treatise by the 
author of the third Gqsppl, traditionally known 

Jacob's well (one mile east of Shechem). 

received for the betrayal 
'field of blood" is now 
shown on the steep southern face of the valley or 
ravine of Hinnom. It was believed in the mid 

die ages that the soil of this clace had the power 


purposeless to attempt an imperfect sketch of 
them in a condensed work like the one before us. 
We will therefore simply add that being the pro- 
genitor of all the Jews, and the most brilliant 
example of justifying faith, he was called the 
"Father of the faithful." His name ot Abram, 
or "high father," was changed, with the promise, 
uito AbrziuZn, or * iacner or r a multitude" (Gen. 


of very rapidly consuming bodies buried in it. 
Lcha'ia, in the N. T. a Roman province. This, 
with Macedonia, comprehended the whole of 

tfirl, 1-BdLe, p^sh; e, i, o, silent; f us; cb u dij «, ch, as k ; g as J, gaa 

Greece ; hence Achaia and Macedonia are fre- 
quently mentioned together in the N. T. to indi- 
cate all Greece (Acts xviii. 12, xix. 21; Rom. 
xv. 20, xvi. 5 ; 1 Cor. xvi. 1 •">, etc.). 
Aoba'ious, a name o f a <"■' ■ ■ ,; iu 1 Cor. xvi. 17, 

(let; $ as * 

as Luke. The identity of the writer of both 
books is shown by their great similarity in style 
and idiom, and the usage of particular words and 
compound forms. The book seems to cover a 
space of about thirty years. It seems most prob- 
able that the place of writing was Rome, and the 
time about two years from the dale of St. Paul's 
arrival there, as related in ch. xxviii. 30. This 
would give us for the publication the year 63 a. d. 

A'dah {ornament, beauty). 1. The first of the two 
wives of Lamech, by whom were born to him 
Jabal and Jubal (Gen. iv. 10). _ 2. One of the 
three wives of Esau (Gen. xxxvi. 2, 10, 12, 10). 
In Gen. xxvi. 34, she is called Bashemath. 

Sd'arn, the name given in Scripture to the first man. 
It apparently has reference to the ground b. in 
which he was formed, which is called in Hebrew 
Adamah. The creation of man was the work ot 
the sixth day. By the subtlety of the serpent, 
the woman given to be with Adam was beguiled 
into a violation of the one command imposed 
upon them. She took of the fruit of the forbid- 
den tree and gave it to her husband. Adam i3 
stated to have lived 930 years. His sons men- 
tioned in Scripture are Cain, Abel, and Setli j it 
is implied, however, that he had others. 

Adamant, the translation of the Hebrew word 
Shamir in Kz. iii. 9, aud Zech. vii. 12. In Jer 

I as gz; B as lo linger, HqV; ibuln thine. 



xvii. 1 it is translated "diamond." As the He- 
brews were apparently unacquainted with the 
true diamond, it is probably the Emery, a variety 
of Corundum, that is intended. It is inferior only 
/• tb the diamond in hardness. 
Adar. A Jjswigh^month. [Months.] 

A Jewish mi 

o4 o4'-d 


Ad'der. This word is used for any poisonous snake. 
It occurs five times in the text of the A. V., and 
three times in the margin as synonymous with 
cockatrice, viz. Is. xi. 8, xiv. 29, lix. 5. It repre- 
sents four Hebrew words: 1. 'Acshub, found 
only in Ps. cxl. 3. 'Acshub may be represented 
by the Toxicoa of Egypt and North Africa. 2. 
Pethen. [Asp.] 3. Tsepha, or Tsiphoni. In 
Prov. xxiii. 32 translated adder, and in Is. xi. 8, 
xiv. 29, lix. 5, Jer. viii. 17 rendered cockatrice. 
4. Shephiphon occurs only in Gen. xlix. 17, and 
we identify it with the celebrated horned viper, 
the asp of Cleopatra (Cerastes), which is found 
abundantly in the dry sandy deserts of Egypt, 
Syria, and Arabia. The r Cer ) as±e^ v is, extremely 

, . __ 


of David (2 Sam. xx. 24), Solomon (1 K. iv. 6), 
and Rehoboain (1 K. xii. 18). This last monarch 
sent him to the rebellious Israelites, by whom he 
was stoned to death. 
Adon'i-ze'dek (lord of justice), Amorite king of 
Jerusalem who organized a league with four other 
princes against Joshua. The confederate kings 
having laid siege to Gibeon and Joshua put them 
to flight. The five kings took refuge in a cave at 
Mekkedah, whence they, were, taken and slain 
(Josh. x. 1-27). 

;s iook reiuge 


Adon'i-Be'zek (lord of Bezek), king of Bezek, a 
city of the Canaanites. This chieftain was van- 
quished by the tribe of Judah (Judg. i. 3-7), who 
cut off his thumbs and great toes, and brought 
him prisoner to Jerusalem, where he died. He 
confessed that he inflicted the same cruelty upon 
70 petty kings. 

Addni'jah. (My Lord is Jehovah). 1. The fourth son 
of David by Haggith, born at Hebron (2 Sam. 
iii. 4). After the death of Amnon, Chileab, and 
Absalom, he became eldest son; and when his 
father' s strength was declining, put forward his 
pretentions to the crown. Adonijah's cause was 
espoused by Abiathar and Joab. David gave 
orders that Solomon should be anointed and pro- 
claimed king. Adonijah was pardoued on con- 
dition that he should 
"show himself a worthy 
man." The death of 
David quickly followed, 
and Adonijah begged 
Bathsheba to procure 
his marriage with Ab- 
ishag, the wife of David 
in his old age (1 K.i.3). 
This was regarded as a 
fresh attempt on the 
throne, and Solomon 
ordered him put to 
death by Benaiah. 


Adoni'ram (1 K. iv. G), also Adoram and Hador- 
AM, chief receiver of the tribute during 1 he reigns 


Adop'tion, an expression metaphorically used by 
St. Paul (Rom. viii. 15, 23; Gal. iv. 5; Eph. i. 
5). He probably alludes to the Roman custom 
of adoption. The Jews themselves were un- 
acquainted with the process of adoption ; in- 
deed it would have been inconsistent with the 
regulations of the Mosaic law affecting the in- 
heritance of property. 

Ad'ora'tion. The acts and postures by which 
the Hebrews expressed adoration bear a great 
similarity to those still in use among Oriental 
nations. To rise up and suddenly prostrate the 
body was the most simple method ; but, gener- 
ally the prostration was more formal, the per- 
son falling upon the knee and then gradually 
inclining the body until the forehead touched 


the ground. Such prostration was usual in the 
worship of Jehovah (Gen. xvii. 3 ; Ps. xcv. G). 
Adram'meleeh. 1. The name of an idol intro- 
duced into Samaria from Sepharvaim (2 K. xvii. 
31). He was worshipped with rites resembling 
those of Molech, children being burnt in his 
honor. 2. Son of the Asyrianking Sennacherib, 

who, together with his brother Sharezer, mur- 
dered their father in the temple of Nisroch at 


Ad'ramyt'tium, a seaport in the province of Asia, 
in the district anciently called Aeolis, and alsc 
Mysia (A^ts xvi. 7). 


A'dria, more properly Adrias (Acts xxvii. 27). A 
sea on the coast of Italy, now known as the Gulf 

_of Venice. Paul suffered a great tempest here. 

A'driel, son of Barzillai, to whom Saul gave his 
daughter Merab, previously promised to David 
(1 Sam. xviii. 19). His five sons were amongst 
the seven descendants of Saul whom David sur- 
rendered to the Gibeonites (2 Sam. xxi. 8). 


Adiil'lam. Apocr. OnoLTAM, a city of Judah. Its 
limestone cliffs are pierced with extensive exca- 
vations, some one of which is doubtless the "cave 
of Adullam," the refuge of David (1 Sam. xxii. 
1 ; 2 Sam. xxiii. 13 ; 1 Chr. xi. 15). 

Adultery. TheMosaic penalty was that both the guilty 


parties should be stoned (Dent. xxii. 22-24). A 

bondwoman so offending was to be scourged, and 

the man was to make a trespass offering (Lev. 

xix. 20-22). At a later time the penalty of death 

was seldom or never inflicted. The famous trial 

by the waters of jealousy 4?d$^. 

(Num. v. 11-29) wasprobab- /0^#^di|f= 

ly an ancient custom, paral- *^^rt|Sii 

leled by the "red water " in ^ i'Svllffl 

Western Africa. 
Adum'mim, a rising ground or 

pass " over against Gilgal," 

and "on the south side of 

the 'torrent' " (Josh. xv. 7, 

xviii. 17), the position of the 

road leading up from Jericho 

and the Jordan valley to 

Jerusalem. The pass is still 

infested by robbers, as in the 

days of our Lord, of whose 

parable of the Good Samaritan this is the scene. 
Aene'as, a paralytic at Lydda healed by St. Peter 

(Actaix. 33,34). 
Ae'non, a place "near to Salim," at which John 

baptized (John ii. 23). It was evidently west of 


a, e, I, 5, u, y, long; &, e, I, 8, &, y, abort.; c&re, far, list, fgll, what; thhre, veil, term; pique, firm; done, idr, do, wolf, food, to'ot; 





and hound in sheaves. The sheaves or heaps 
were carted (Am. ii. 13) to the Boor — a circular 
spot, of hard ground. On these the oxen, &c, 
forbidden to be muzzled, ( Dent. ,\w. 4 i, trampled 
out the grain. At a later time the Jews used a 
threshing sledge called morag ( Is. xli. 15 ; 2 Sam. 
xxiv. 22; J Chr. xxi. 23), probably resembling 
in Egypt. Lighter 

the Jordan (comp. iii. 22, with 20, and with i. 

28), and abounded in water. 
Ag'abus, a Christian prophet in the apostolic age, 

mentioned in Acts xi. 28 and xxi. 10. 
A'gag, possibly the title of the kings of Amalek, 

like Pharaoh of Egypt. One kin" of this name 

is mentioned in Num. xxiv. 7, and another in 1 

Sam. xv. 8, 9, 20, 32. „ . •"> r >) ^ H 0re 9> st '^ employed 

Agate, the second /^Bi^.vrK-?^.... 

stone in the third 

row of the high 

priest's breast- 
plate. It is a sil- 

icions stone of the 

quartz family. I \] J ~ "• tg^ 

Age. Old. The //J] l&v 

Jew was taught to 

consider old age 

a reward for piety, sowing and ploughing 

id a signal token of God's favor. In private 
life the aged were looked up to (Job xv. 10) : the 
young were ordered to rise up in their presence 
(Lev. xix. 32): they allowed them to give their 
opinion first (Job. xxxii. 4): they were taught to 
regard gray hairs as a " crown of glory." In 
public affairs age carried weight with it. 
Ag'rioult'ure. This was little cared for by 


patriarchs. The pastoral 
life was the means of keep- 
ing the sacred race distinct from mixture especi- 
ally whilst in Egypt. When, grown into a nation 
they conquered their future seats, agriculture sup- 
plied a similar check on the foreign intercourse 
and speedy demoralization, especially as regards 
idolatry, which commerce would have caused. 
Thus agriculture became the basis of the Mosaic 

Bain. — The abundance of water 
in Palestine, from natural 
sources, made it a contrast to 
rainless Egypt (Deut. viii. 7, 
xi. S-12). 

Crops. — The cereal crops of || 
constant mention are wheat i, 
and barley, and more rarely j? 
rye and millet (?). f, „ 

Ploughing and Sowing. — The H^i/fJ. 
plough was probably very ji''.j;:/ 
light, one yoke of oxen usual- 
ly sufficing to draw it. Moun- 
tains and steep places were h$!> 
hoed (Is. vii. 25). Sowing 8" 
also took place without pre- ~ 
vious ploughing, the seed, as 
in the parable of the sower, 
being scattered broadcast, and 
ploughed in afterwards. The 
soil was then brushed over 
with a light harrow, often of thorn bushes, 
highly irrigated spots the seed was trampled in by 
cattle (Is. xxxii. 20), as in Egypt by goats. 

Heaping and Threshing. — The wheat, &c, were 
reaped by the sickle, or pulled up by the roots, 

grains were beaten out with a stick (Is. xxviii. 


Winnowing.— The "shovel" and "fan" (Is. xxx. 

24) indicate the process of winnowing. The 
" fan " (Matt. iii. 12) was perhaps a broad shovel 

which threw the grain up against the wind. The 

last process was the shakirg in a sieve to scpa- 
ite.dut and refuse (Am. ix. 9). 

Fields and floors were not 

commonly enclosed. 
Agrlp'pa. [Hekod.] 
A'gnr, the son of Jakek, an 
unknown Hebrew sage, who 
uttered or collected the say- 
ings of wisdom recorded in 
ov. xxx. 

ah. 1. Son of Omri, sev- 
enth king of Israel, reigned 
b. c. 919-896. He married 
Jezebel, daughter of Eth- 
baal king of Tyre; and in 
obedience to her wishes, 
caused a temple to be built 
to Baal in Samaria itself, and 
an oracular grove to be con- 
secrated to Astarte. (See 1 
K. xviii. 19.) How the wor- 
ship of God was restored ; 
how the priests of Baal were 
slain ; how a famine reigned ; 
how Naboth and his sons 
were put to death, and how 
Ahab was finally killed, are 
matters fully recorded in 1 
Kings. 2. A lying prophet, 
who was burnt by Nebuchad- 
nezzar (Jer. xxix. 21). 
AhasmVrus. There were several kings of this 

name: 1. Astyagcs, the Mede (Dan. ix. 1); 2. 

Cambyses, king of Persia (Ezra iv. 6, 7) ; 3. 

Drius Hystaspes, the husband of Esther (Esth. 

i. 1), who died a. M- 3519. 
Aha'va, a place (Ezr. viii. 15), or river (viii. 21), 

where Ezra collected his second expedition from 

Babylon to Jerusalem. Perhaps the modern Hit 

on the Euphrates. 


In A'haz, eleventh king of Judah, son of Jotham, 
reigned 741-72G. At the time of his accession, 
Rezin king of Damascus, and Pekah king of 
Israel, formed a league and proceeded to lay 
siege to Jerusalem. Upon this Isaiah hastened 



to give advice to Ahaz, and the allies faded in 
their attack i Is. vii. viii. ix. . Alia/, became 
tributary to Tiglath-pileser. He v^uUuuJ to ;?. 

ty in heathen cere- ^-^ta 

monies. " The altars 
on the top i or roof) of 
the upper chamber of 
Ahaz (2 K. xxiiL 
12) were com 

with the adulation of 
the Mars. 
Ahazi'ah. 1. Son of 
Ahab and Jezebel, 
eighth king of I 
reigm ■! b. i . 896 895. 
He was Seriously in- 
jured by a fall through 
a lattice in his palace. 
2. Fifth king of Judah, 

son of Jehoram and 
Athaliah (daughter of 
Ahab), and therefore 
nephew of the preced- 
ing Ahaziah, reigned 
one year n. c. 884. 

Ahi'ah, or Ahi'jah. 1. a si.ix.ik. 

Son of Ahitub, grandson of Phinehas, and great- 
grandson of Eli, succeeded his lather as high- 
priest in the reign of Saul ( 1 Sam. xiv. 3, 18). 

Ahim'aaz, sun of Zadok, the high-priest in David's 
reign, and celebrated for his swiftness of foot. 
During Absalom's rebellion he carried to David 
important intelligence. He was the first to bring 
to the king the news of Absalom's defeat^ _ 


AMm'elech, son of Ahitub (1 Sam. xxii. 11, 12), 

and high-priest at Nob. He gave David the shew- 

bread and the sword of Goliath; and for so do- 
ing was put to death with his house by Saul's 

order. Abiathar alone escaped. 
AMn'oam. 1. The daughter of Ahimaaz and wife 

of Saul (1 Sam. xiv. 50). 2. Arrive, of J 

married to David dur- — ^ -, 

ing his wandering (1 

Sam. xxv. 43). She 

lived with him and his 

other wife Abigail at 

the court of Achish 

(xxvii. 3). She is 

again named in 2 Sam. 

ii. 2, and was the 

mother of his eldest 

son Amiion i Iii. 2 I. 
Ahith'ophSl (brother of 

foolishness), a native 

of Giloh, was a privy 

councillor of David, 

whose wisdom was 

highly esteemed. He 

was the grandfather ot 

Bathsheba. David's utcikht aechkb. 

grief at his treachery found expression in the 

Messianic prophesies (Ps. xli. 9, lv. 12- 

Ahithophel persuaded Absalom to take possession 

fiirl, rnile, pn«h; e, i, o, silent; 9 as s; 9b as sh; c, ch, ask; § as j, g as In get; sui;i is gz; nuln linger, link; tn as In thlnr. 


of the royal harem (2 Sam. xvi. 21). David sent 
Hushai to Absalom. Ahithophel had recom- 
mended an immediate pursuit of David; but 
Hushai advised delay. When Ahithophel saw 
■hat Hushai 's advice prevailed, returning to his 
own home he " put his household in order and 
hanged himself (xvii. 1-23). 

Ahd'lah, an 1 Ahol'ibah, two symbolic names, rep- 
resenting Samaria and Jwlah (Ez. xxiii.). 

&.hfl'liab, a Lanite of great skill as a weaver and 
embroiderer (Ex. xxxv. 30-35). 

VI (heap of ruins), A city lying east of Bethel 
and " beside Bethaven" (Josh. vii. 2, viii. 9). 

Alabaster occurs in the N. T. in Matt. xxvi. 7; 
Mark xiv. 3 ; Luke vii. 37. The ancients consid- 
ered it the best material in which to preserve 
ointments. Mark xiv. 3 probably means breaking 
the seal. 

Xl'exan'der. 1. Son of Simon the Cyrenian (Mark 
xv. 21); 2. One of Anna's kindred; 3. A Jew 
put forward at Ephesus by his countrymen to 
plead (Acts xix. 33); 4. An Ephesian Christian 
reproved by Paul (1 Tim. i. 20), and perhaps the 
same with 5. Alexander the coppersmith (2 Tim. 
iv. 14). 

O '"* C\ ») 

Algnm or Almug Tiee? : 1 K. s. 11, 12; 2 Chr. 
ix. 10, 1 1. It is probable that this tree is the red 
sandal wood, which is a native of India and Cey- 


them (1 Sam. xv.). Subsequently a remnant wai 
destroyed by the Semeonites, in the time of Hez- 
ekiah (1 Chr. iv.). 

NOAH'S ark. 

Alexan'dar III., king of Macedon, surnamed the 
gkeat, the son of Philip and Olympias, was born 
at Pella, b. c. 356, and succeeded his father B. c. 
336. In the year k. c. 323 he died in the midst 
of his gigantic plans. In the prophetic visions of 

Ion. The wood is very heavy, hard, and fine 
grained, and of a beautiful garnet color. 

AUelu'ia, so written in Rev. xix. 7, foil., or more 
properly Hallelujah, "praise ye Jehovah," as 
it is found in the margin of Ps. civ. 35, cv. 45, 
cvi., cxi. 1, cxii. 1, cxiii. 1 (comp. Ps. cxiii., 9, 
cxv. 18, cxvi. 19, cxvii. 2). 

Almond-Tree (Gen. xliii. 11; Ex. xxv. 33, 
34, xxxvii. 19, 20 ; Num. xvii. 8; Eccles. 
xii. 5 ; Jer. i. 11). It is a native of 
Asia and North Africa. The height is 
about 12 or 14 feet; the flowers pink; 
the leaves long, ovate, with a serrated 
margin, and an acute point. The cover- 
ing of the fruit is downy and succulent, 
enclosing the hard shell which contains 
the kernel. 

Aloes, Lign Aloes, a costly and sweet 
smelling wood mentioned in Num. xxiv. 
6; Ps. xiv. 8; Prox. vii. 17; Cant._ iv. 
14 ; John xix. 39. It is quite possible 
that some kind of odoriferous cedar may 

_be the tree denoted. 

Al'pha, the first letter of the Greek alph- 
abet, as Omega is the last. Both Greeks 
and Hebrews employed the letters of the 
alphabet as numerals. 

Alphabet. [Wiuting.] 

Alphae'us, the father of James the Less 
(Matt. x. 3; Mark iii. 18; Luke vi. 15; 
13), and husband of that Mary who, with the 


Am'asa. Son of Ithra or Jether, by Abigail, 
David's sister { 2 Sam. xvii. 25). He joined Ab- 
salom and was appointed in the place of Joab, 
by whom he was totally defeated in the forest of 
Ephraim (2 Sam. xviii. 6). David forgave the 
treason of Amasa, and appointed him Joab's 




Daniel the emblem by which Alexander is typified 
(a he goat) suggests the notions of strength and 
speed ; and the universal extent (Dan. viii. 5) 
ilexan'dria (3 Mace. iii. 1 ; Mte xviy.,,2 ( 4, vi 
the Hellenic, Roman, and. 
Christian capital of Egypt, 
was founded by Alexander 
the Great, b. c. 332, who 
himself traced the ground- 
plan of the city. Its popu- 
lation was mixed from the 
first. Philo estimates the 
number of the Alexandrine 
Jews in his time at little less 
than 1,000,000. The Sep- 
tuaginttranslation was made 
for their benefit. According j 
to the common legen.!, St. 
Mark first "preached the 
Gospel in Egypt, and found- 
ed the first Church in Alexandria." At the be 
ncning of the second century the number of 
Christians at Alexandria must have been very 


mother of Jesus and others, was standing by the 
cross during the crucifixion (John xix. 25). In 
this latter place he is called Clopas (in the A. V. 

Altar. The first altar referred to is in 
Gen. viii. 20. The law of Moses al- 
lowed altars to be made either of earth 
or unhewn stone (Ex. xx. 24, 25). 
After the construction of the taber- 
nacle, two altars were made, one for 
sacrifices, the other for incense, and 
no others were lawful. The altar of 
burnt-offering, made by Solomon, was 
thirty feet square and fifteen feet high, 
and stood in the court. The altar of 
incense was a table about two feet 
square and four feet high, plated with 
gold, and stood in the Holy Place. 

Xm'alek, son of Eliphaz, grandson of 
Esau, and chieftain of Edom (Gen. 
xxxyi. 12, 16; 1 Chr. i. 36.) 

Am'alekites. A nomadic tribe or na- 
tion, between the Red and Dead Seas. Saul 
over-ran their whole district and utterly ruined 


successor (xix. 13). Joab afterwards stabbed him 
with his sword (xx. 10). 

Amazi'ah. Son of Joash, and eighth king of 
Judah, reigned B. C. 837-809. In the 29th year 
of his reign he was murdered by conspirators at 
Lachish (2 Chr. xxv. 27). 

Ambassador. The earliest examples of ambassa- 
dors occur in the cases of Edom, Moab, and the 
Amorites (Num. xx. 14, xxi. 21 ; Judg. xi. 
17-19). They were usually men of high rank. 

Amber (Heb. chashmal), Ez. i. 4, 27, viii. 2. It is 
usually supposed that the Hebrew word chashmal 
denotes a metal, and not the fossil resin called 

Amen, literally, " true ;"/< truth" (Is. Ixv. 16). 
In the synagogues and private houses it was cus- 
tomary for those present to say "Amen" to the 
prayers offered, and the custom remained in the 
early Christian Church (Matt. vi. 13 ; 1 Cor. xiv. 

' 363 / 


16). And doxologies were appropnatery 
concluded with " Amen " (Romans ix. 5, 

S, e, I, 5, O. y, long; & r i, h *i tt, y, sfaortj care, far, list, *ftll, whati there, veil, term; pique, tScta; done, for. da. w?U, food, tffoti 


xi. 3G, xx. 33,. xvi. 27; 2 Cor. xiii. 13, &c. 

Ame'thyst. The third precious stone in the third 
row of the high priest's breastphite (Ex. xxviii. 
19, xxix. 12). It occurs also in the N. T. (Rev. 
xxi. 20). A gem of a purple or violet color. 

Xm'monites, a people descended from Ben-Animi, 
the son of Lot by his younger daughter (Gen. 
xix. 38; comp. Ps. Ixxxiii. 7, 8), as Moab was 
by the elder. Unlike Moab, the precise position 
of the territory of the Ammonites is not ascer- 
tainable. The Ammonites were held in hatred 
by Israel. Their last appearances in the biblical 
narrative are in the books of Judith (v., vi., vii.) 
and of tli*? .Maccabees (I Mace. v. li, 30-13). The 


divinity of the tribe was Mplech 


im'non. Eldest son of David by Ahinoam the 
Jezreelitess. He dishonored his half-sister Ta- 
mar, and was in consequence murdered by her 

_brother (2 Sam. xiii. 1-29). 

Anion, an Egyptian divinity, whose name occurs 
in that of No Amon (Nah. iii. 8), in A. V. "pop- 
ulous No," or Thebes, also called No. [No.] 
The Greeks called this divinity Amnion. The 
ancient Egyptian name is Amen. He was wor- 
shipped at that city as Arnen-Ra, or "Amen the 


A'mon. King of Judah, son and successor of Ma- 
nasseh, reigned two j'ears, from B. c. 642 to 640. 

Amorite3. One pf the chief nations who possessed 
the land of Canaan before its conquest by the 

i'mos. A native of Tekoa in Judah, about six 
miles S. of Bethlehem, who was called by God's 
Spirit to be a prophet, although not trained in the 
prophetic schools (i. 1, vii. 14, 15). His date 

cannot be later than the 15th year of Uzziah's 
reign (b. c. 808). The Book ok, is divided into 
denunciations of the sins of bordering nations, 

descriptions of the impending punishment of 
Israel, and the hope of the Messiah's kingdom. 


no real ono ; St. John relating the fir.-: introduc- 
tion to Ji ms, tlii- other Evangelists the formal 
call in his ministry. He is said t<> have been 
crucified in Achaia. Some ancient writers speak 
of an apocrypha] Acts pf Andrew. 


The peculiarity of style is in the many allusions 

_to natural objects and agricultural occupations. 

A'moz, father of the prophet Isaiah, and, accord- 
ing to tradition, brother of Amaziah king of 
Judah (2 K. xix. 2, 20, xx. 1, etc.). 

Amphip'olis, a city of Macedonia, through which 
Paul and Silas passed from Philippi to Thessa- 
lonica (Acts xvii. 1). It was 33 Roman miles 
from Philippi. 

Am'ram. A Levite of the family of the Kohath- 
ites, and father of Moses, Aaron, and Miriam 
(Ex. vi. 18, 20; Num. iii. 1'.), etc.). 

An'akim. (Hants, descendants of Arba ( Josh. xv. 
13, xxi. 11), dwelling in the southern part of 

Anam'melech, one of the idols introduced into 
Samaria from Sepharvaim (2 K. xvii. 31). Chil- 
dren were burnt in his honor, and he is the com- 
panion-god to Adrammelech. 

Anani'as. 1. A high-priest in Acts xxiii. 2-5, 
xxiv. 1. 2. A disciple at Jerusalem, husband of 
Sapphira (Acts v. 1-11). 3. A Jewish disciple at 
Damascus (Acts ix. 10-17), of high repute (Acts 


Anise. Matt, xxiii. 23. It is no matter of cer- 
tainty whether the anise or the dill is intended; 
probably the latter. 

Anklet, Anklets are referred to in Is. iii. 16, 18, 
20. They were fastened to the ankle-band of each 
leg, were as common as bracelets and arml 
and made a pleasant tinkling a,s they knocked 
against each other. 


xxii. 12). Tradition makes him to have been 

afterwards bishop of Damascus, and to have died 

by martyrdom. 

Anath'ema, literally a thing Sip 

suspended, the equivalent Sf 7 - 

of the Hebrew signifying a §J|§ 

thing or person devoted. Bj 

The word anathema fre 

quently occurs in St. Paul's |ll 

writings, and is generally gp 

translated accursed. 
An'drew, one among the first sT 

called of the Apostles of jp. 

our Lord (Johni. 40; Matt. Eg 

iv. 18); brother (whether Pi 

elder or younger is uncer- ^ 

tain) of Simon Peter (ibid). 

He was of Bethsaida,' and 

a disciple of John. He left his former master, 

and attached himself to our Lord. The apparent 


An'na. A "prophetess" in Jerusalem at tJietimn 
of our Lord s presentation in the Temple (Luki 
ii. 36). She was of the tribe of Asher. 

An'nas, the son.of one Seth, was appointed high 
priest in the year a. d. 7. In Luke iii. 2, Annas 
and Caiaphas are both called high-priests. Our 
Lord's first hearing (John xviii. 13) was before 
Annas, who then sent him bound to Caiaphas. 
He lived to old age, having had five sons high- 

Aiit, mentioned twice in the 0. T.: in Prov. vi. 6, 
xxx. 25. In the former the diligence of this in- 

discrepancy in Matt. iv. 18 if., Mark i. 16 fif. , is 


sect is instanced : in the latter the wisdom. The 
ancient Greeks and Romans believed that the ant 
stored up food in summer for winter's consump- 

©irl, rpJe.p^sh; e,i, o, silent J $ as &j cj» aa sb; «, «h, as b; § as j, g aa In get; s ui;{>s gz; euin linger, link; t» as la t hine . 


tion ; but this is an error. The European species 
of ants are dormant in the winter, and require no 
Anticiirist. In 1 John ii. 18, the apostle makes di- 


rect reference to the false Christs, whose coming, 
it had been foretold, should mark the last days. 
The allusion to Matt. xxiv. 24 was clearly in the 
mind of the Syriac translator, who rendered 
Antichrist by " the false Christ." 
Antioch. 1 In Sykia. The capital of the Greek 


kings of Syria, and afterwards the residence of 
the Roman Governors of the province of Syria. 

No city, after Jerusalem, is so intimately connect- 
ed with the apostolic church. Here the first Gen- 
tile church was founded (Acts xi. 20, 21); here 
the disciples of Jesus Christ were first called 
Christians (xi. 26). From Antioch St. Paul 
started on his mis- t f 4- 

sionary journeys. 
The city was found- 
ed in the year 300 b. 
c, by Seleucus Ni- 
cator. Jews were 
settled there from the 
first, and allowed 
political privileges. 
Antioch became a 
city of great extent 
and remarkable 
beauty. 2. In Pis- 
idia (Acts xiii. 14, 
xiv. 19, 21; 2 Tim. 
iii. 11), on the bor- 
ders of Phrygia. This 
city became a col- 
onia, and was also 
balled Caesarea. 

An'tipas, martyr at 
Pergamos ( Rev. ii. 
13), and by tradition, 
bishop of that place. 

Antipa'tris, a town to 
which the soldiers 
conveyed St. Paul Egyptian and Assyrian anklets 
by night (Acts xxiii. 31). Its ancient name was 
Capharsaba ; and Herod changed it to Antipatris. 

Apel'les, a Christian saluted by St. Paul in Rom. 
xvi. 10. Tradition makes him bishop of Smyrna 
or Heraclea. 

Apoc'alypse. [Revelation.] 


nor in the Chaldee; VI. The Wisdom of Solo- 
mon ; VII. The Wisdom of Jesus the Son of 
Sirach, or Ecclesiasticus ; Y1I1. Baruch ; IX. 
The Song of the Three Holy Children; X. The 
History of Susanna; XI. The History of the 
destruction of Bel and the Dragon; XII. The 
Prayer of Manasses, King of Judah; XIII. 1 
Maccabees ; X I V. 2 Maccabees. 
Associated with the signification 
''spurious," and ultimately to 
have settled down. The sepa- 
rate books are treated of in dis- 

Jinct Articles. 

Ap'olWnia, a city of Macedonia 
through which Paul and Silas 
passed from Philippi and Am- _ 
phipolis to Thessalonica (Acts^|K 
xvii. 1). _ ^pj 

Apol'los, a Jew from Alexandria, 
eloquent and mighty in the 
Scriptures; who (Acts xviii. 
25) on his coming to Ephesus, 
a. d. 54, was more perfectly 
taught by Aquila and Priscilla. He preached the 
Gospel in Achaia and Corinth (Acts xviii. 27> 
xix. 1). He is mentioned in Tit. iii. 13. After 
this nothing is known of him. 


at their common trade of making the Cilician 
tent or hair-cloth. 

Ara'bia. A country of Asia, the greatest length 
of which is about 1020 miles, and its greatest 
breadth about 1350. It is usually divided into — 
1. Arabia Petrcca, containing the famed cities of 
' Mecca and Medina ; the people being called 

1 *) .3 7 / 50 

ANOINTING a king. 

Apoo'rypha. This includes the following: I. 1 
Esdras; II. 2 Esdras; III. Tobit; IV. Judith; 
V. The rest of the chapters of the Book of 
Esther, which are found neither in the Hebrew 


Apol'lyon, or, a3 in the margin of Rev. ix. 11, " a 
destroyer," is the rendering of the Hebrew word 
Abaddon, " the angel of the bottomless pit." 

Apds'tle (one sent forth, in the N. T., originally 
the official name of those Twelve of the disciples 
whom Jesus chose to send forth first to preach 
the Gospel ; also used in a wider sense. (See 2 
Cor. viii. 23; Phil. ii. 25.) 


Ap'pMa, a Christian woman addressed in Philem. 

2, apparently of Philemon's household; probably 

his wifei 
Ap'pii Fo'rum, a station on the Appian Way, the 

road from Rome to the F~\ 

neighborhood of the Bay of (V «v* 

Naples (Acts xxviii. 13). 
Apple-Tree, Apple. Mentign 

of the apple-tree occurs |n] 

Cant. ii. 3, viii. 5, and Joel 

i. 12. The fruit is alluded * 

to in Prov. xxv. 11, aiid*TT 

Cant. ii. 5, vii. 8. It is a ^ 

difficult matter to say what 

is the tree denoted. 
Aq'uila, a Jew whom St. 

Paul found at Corinth (Acts 

xviii. 2). He was a native 

of Pontus, but had fled, with 

his wife Priscilla, trom Rome, in consequence of 

an order of Claudius. He with St. Paul wrought 


" men of the east" (Gen. xxv, 6; Jud. vi, 3). 

2. Arabia Deserta, in which is Mount Sinai. 3. 
Arabia Felix, famous for drugs and spices, and 
lying between the Persian Gulf and Red Sea- 
The Arabians are generally the descendants of 
A'ram'. The name by which the Hebrews desig- 


nated, generally, the country lying to the north- 
east of Palestine. 

Ar'arat, a mountainous district of Asia mentioned 
as the resting-place of the Ark (Gen. viii. 4.) It 
is of volcanic origin. The 
summit was long deemed 
inaccessible. It was as- 
cended in 1829 by Parrot. 
Arguri, a village on its 
slopes, was the spot where, 
according to tradition, 
Noah planted his vineyard. 
Lower down is Nachdjeuan, 
where the patriarch is re- 
puted to have been buried. 

Arau'nah, a Jebusite who sold his threshing-floor 
on Mount Moriah to David (2 Sam. xxiv. 18-24 ; 
1 Chr. xxi. 25). 

Arohela'us, son of Herod the Great. At the death 



of Herod (b. c. 4) his kingdom was divided be- 
tween his three sons, Herod Antipas, Archelaus, 
and Philip. Archelaus never properly bore the 
title of king (Matt. ii. 22), but only ethnarch. 
He was banished to Vienne in Gaul, where he 

a, e, I, 5, a, f, long; a, «, i, ft, 6, $-, ebort.; care, like, last, Jftll, what; tixore, veil, term ; ■ptc-_ae, frrm; done, lor, do, wolf, food, foot; 


Arohip'pus, a Chiistian teacher in Colossae (Col. 
iv. 17 ; Philem. 2), probably a member of Phile- 
mon's family. 
Arctu'rus. The Hebrew words rendered "Arctu- 
rus " in Job ix. 9, xxxviii. 32, are believed to 
represent the constellation Ursa Major, known 
commonly as the Great Bear. 
Xre5p'agus. [Marx' Hii.i..] 

Are'tas. 1. A. contemporary of Antiochns Epiph- 
anes (b. c. 170) 
and Jason (2 Mace. 
v. 8). 2. TheAre- 
tas alluded to by 
St. Paul (2 Cor. xi. 
82) was father-in- 
law of Ilerod Anti- 

A'riel. A designa- 
tion given by Isaiah 
to tliecity of Jerus- 
alem (Is. xxix. 1, 
2, 7). Its meaning 
is obscure. We 
must understand by 
it either " Lion of 
God, or "Hearth 
of God." 

Arimathae'a (Mitt. 
xxvii. 57 ; Luke 
xxiii. 51; John xix. 
38). Identified by 
many with the modern Ramlah. 

ftristar'chus, a Thessalonian (Acts xx. 4, xxvii. 
2), who accompanied St. Paul on his third mis- 
sionary journey (Acts xix. 2!)). He was with the 
apostle on his return to Asia (Acts xx. 4); and 
again (xxvii. 2) on his voyage to Rome. We 
trace him as St. Paul's fellow-prisoner in Col. iv. 
10, and Philem. 24. Tradition makes him bishop 
of Apamea. 

Aristobu'lus. 1. A Jewish priest (2 Maec. i. 10). 
2. A resident at Rome, some of whose household 
are greeted in Rom. xvi. 10. Tradition makes 
him one of the 70 disciples. 

Irk, Noah's. [Noah.] 

Ark of the Covenant. It appears to have been an 
oblong chest, 2h cubits long by 1-V broad and 
deep. Within and without gold was overlaid on 
the wood, and on the upper side or lid, which was 
edged round about with gold, the mercy seat was 
placed. II. Its purpose or object was to contain 
inviolate the Divine autograph of the two tables. 
It was also probably a reliquary for the pot of 
manna and the rod of Aaron. 

Armaged'don, "the hill, or city of Megiddo " 
(Rev. xvi. 16). The scene of the struggle of 
good and evil is suggested by that battle-field, the 
plain of Esdraelon, famous for the victories of 
Barak and of Gideon, and for the death of Saul 
and of Josiah. 

Arme'nia occurs (2 K. xix. 37) for Ararat. That 
lofty plateau whence the rivers Euphrates, Tigris, 
Araxes, and Acampsis, pour down their waters 
in different directions. 

Armlet. An ornament universal in the East, es- 
pecially among women : used by princes and dis- 
tinguished persons. Sometimes only one was 
worn, on the right arm (Ecclus. xxi. 21). 

Arms, Armor. 

. AE A, 


Arrows were carried in a quiver. They seem to 
have been Bometimes poisoned. 4. The Sling 
is first mentioned in Judg. xx. 10. Later in the 
monarchy, slingers termed part of the regular 
army (2 K. iii. 26). 11. Armor. 1. The Breast- 
plate, literally a " breastplate of scales "' | I Sam. 
xvii. 5). 2. The habergeon is mentioned but 
twice (Ex. xxviii. 32, xxxix. 23). 3. The Hii- 
met is referred to. 4. Greaves, or defences for 

-= 12 



As'ahel. Nephew of David. He was cell brat< d 
for his Bwittnesa of foot. When fighting under 
his brother Joab, be pursued Abner, who was 
obliged to kill him in^elf-defencfl (2 Sam. ii. 
18 fi'.j. 

ancient iconium (Asia Minor). 

the feet made of brass, are named in 1 Sam. xvii. 
6. 5. Two kinds of Shield are distinguishable, 
the large shield and the buckler. 6. The Shelet. 
Army. I. Jewish Army. Every man above 20 
years was a soldier (Num. 1. 3): each tribe formed 
a regiment with its own leader (Num. ii. 2, x. 
14): their positions were accurately fixed (Num. 
ii. ): the whole army started and stopped at a sig- 
nal (Num. x. 5, 6). IL The Rojuan Army was 


Asaht'ah, a servant of king Josiah. 

A'saph. A Levite, son of Berechiah, one of the 
leaders of David's choir (1 Chr. vi. 89 . Psalms 
1. and lxxiii.-lxxxiii. are attributed to him : and 
he was a seer as well as a musical composer - 
Chr. xxix. 30; Neh. xii. 40). 

As'enath, daughter of Potipherah, priest, or prince, 
of On, wife of Joseph (Gen. xli. 45), and mother 
of Manasseh and Ephraim (xli. 50, xlvi. 20 . 

Ash. Is. xliv. 14. The LXX. and Vulg. under- 
stand some species of pine-tree. 

Ash'dod, or Azo'tus (Actsviii. 401, one of the five 
confederate cities of the Philistines, nearly mid- 
way between Gaza and Joppa. 

Ash'er, Apocr. and N. T. A'ser, the 8th son of 
Jacob, by Zilpah, Leah's handmaid (Gen. xxx. 

Ash'erah, the name of a Phoenician goddess, or 
rather of the idol itself (A. V. "grove"). Ash- 



ently the earliest known and most widely used 
was the Cliereb, or "Sword.' 2. Next to the 
sword was the Spear. 3. Of missle weapons of 
offence the chief was undoubtedly the Bow. The 

divided into legions, the number of which varied, 
each under six tribuni ("chief captains,'' 
Acts xxi. 31), who commanded by turns. 
The legion was subdivided into ten cohorts 
("band," Acts x. 1), the cohort into three 
maniples, and the maniple into two centuries, 
containing originally 100 men, but subse- 
quently from 50 to 100. There were thus GO 
centuries in a legion, each under the com- 
mand of a centurion (Acts x. 1, 22 ; Malt, 
viii. 6, xxvii. 54). 
g Artaxerx'es. The name of a race of Persian 

kings! I 
Ji Ar'temas, a companion of St. Paul (Tit. iii. 
W% 12) ;"by tradition bishop of Lystra. 
^Jm. A'sa. Son of Abijah, and third king of Judah 

ainst heathen- 
Maachah, but deposed her from her dignity. He 
renewed the great altar which the idolatrous priests 
apparentlyhad desecrated (2Chr. xv. 8). In his old 
age Asa suffered from the gout. He died greatly 
loved and honored in the 41st year ot his reign. 

(B. C. 956-916). In his zeal ap 
ism he did not spare his 

erah is closely connected with 
Ashtoreth and her worship 

Judg. iii. 7; 1 K. xviii. 19). 
Ash'k'elon, As'kelon, Apocr. As'- 
calon, one of the five cities of 
the lords of the Philistines 
(Josh. xiii. '■' ; 1 Sam. vi. 1 7 i. 
Samson went down from Tim- 
Bath to Ashkelton (Judg. xiv. 
ift| Q 

Ash'taroth, Ashtoreth, or Astarte. 

A famed goddess of the Zidon- 

jans (1 K. xi. 5). 
Asia. The passages in the N. T . 

where this word occurs, are used 

for a Roman province which 

embraced the western part of 

the peninsula of Asia Minor, 

and of which Ephesus was the 

Asiar'chae (chief of Asia, A. Y : w:m..i:-clad. 

Acts xix. 31 i. officers chosen annually by the 

cities of the province of Asia, of which Ephesus 

fiirl, rrjde, yijsh; e,i, o, silent; (u s; (hia sh; c, «n, as It; g as J, g aa In get; § aa z; $ as gz; n as in linger, link; th oa in thine. 



was, under Roman government, the metropolis. 
They had charge of the public games and relig- 
ious theatrical spectacles, the expenses of which 
they bore. 


Asmode'us (Tob. iii. 8, 17), the same as Abaddon 

or Apollyon (Rev. ix. 11; comp. Wisd. xviii. 25). 
Asp (pethen). The Hebrew word occurs: Deut. 

xxxii. 33; Job xx. 14, 16; Ps. lviii. 5, xci, 13; Is. 

xi. 8). That some kind of poisonous serpent is 

denoted is clear. 


iss. The species known to the ancient Jews are 
Asinus hemippus, which inhabits the deserts of 
Syria, Mesopotamia, and the northern parts of 
Arabia; the Asinus vulga?'is of the N. E. of 
Africa ; and probably the Asinus onager, which is 
found in Western Asia. Mr. Layard remarks 
that in fleetness the wild ass (Asinus hemippus) 


equals the gazelle, and to overtake them is a feat 
which only one or two of the most celebrated 
mares have been known to accomplish. 


As'sos, or As'sus, a seaport of the Roman prov- 
ince of Asia, in the district anciently called 
Mysia (Acts xx. 13, 14). 


Assyr'ia, Assh'ur, was a great and powerful coun- 
try lying on the Tigris (Gen. ii. 14), the capital 
of which was Nineveh (Gen. x. 11, &c). The 
boundaries of Assyria differed greatly at different 
periods. Scripture informs us that Assyria was 
peopled from Babylon (Gen. x. 11). As a coun- 
try, it was evidently known to Moses (Gen. ii. 14, 
xxy. 18 ; Num. xxiv. 22, 24). The fall of As- 
syria, prophesied by Isaiah (x. 5-19), was effected 
by the growing strength and boldness of the 
Medes. The government of the Assyrians was 
rude and inartificial; their religion coarse and 
sensual ; and their conduct of war cruel. 

) bo 


Asty'ages, the last king of the Medes, b. c. 595- 
560, or b. c. 592-558, who was conquered by 
Cyrus (Bel and Dragon, 1). 

Asyn'critiis, a Christian at Rome saluted by St. 

^Paul (Rom. xvi.' 14). 

Athali'ah, daughter of Ahab and Jezebel, married 
Jehoram the son of Jehoshaphat king of Judah, 
and introduced the worship of Baal. After the 
revolution, by which Jehu seated himself on the 
throne of Samaria, she killed the members of the 
royal family of Judah who escaped his sword (2 


rection with temples, altars, and other sacred 
Atonement, The day of. The great day of national 
humiliation, and the only one commanded in the 


Mosaic law. [Fasts.] The mode of its ob- 
servance is described in Lev. xvi., and the con- 
duct of the people is emphatically enjoined in 
Lev. xxiii. 26-32. 
Attali'a, a coast-town of Pamphylia, mentioned 
Acts xiv. 25. 


K. xi. 1). From the slaughter one infant named 
Joash, the youngest son of Ahaziah, was rescued 
(2 Chr. xiii. 11). The child was brought up and 
concealed in the Temple for six years, during 
which period Athaliah reigned over Judah. At 
length Jehoiada thought it time to produce the 
lawful king to the people. His plan was success- 
ful, and Athaliah was put to death. 


Ath'ens, the capital ot Attica, and the chief seat 
of Grecian learning and civilization during the 
golden period of Greece. St. Paul visited it in 
his journey from Macedonia, and remained there 
some time (Acts xvii. 11-34); comp. 1, Thess. iii. 
1). It produced many renowned philosophers, 
orators and generals. The Athenians were dis- 
tinguished for their attention to the worship of 
the gods, and the city w;is crowded in every di- 


At'talus, the name of three kings of Per- 
gamus who reigned respectively b. o. 241- 
197. 159-138 (Philadelphus), 138-133 
Angus'tus Caes'ar, the first Roman emperor. 
He was born b. c. 03. He was educated 
by his great- uncle Julius Caesar, and was 
made his heir. After the murder of Julius, 
and the victory at Actium, B. c. 31, the 
young man, then Caius Julius Caesar Oc- 
tavianus, was saluted Imperator by the senate, 
who conferred on him the title Augustus (b. c. 27). 
The first link binding him to N. T. history is his 
treatment of Herod after the battle of Actium. 
That prince, who had espoused Antony's side, 
found himself ■ 
pardoned, taken 
into favor, and 
even increased 
in his power. 
death in a. d. 
4, Augustus 
divided his 
domini o ns 
among his 
sons. Augus- 
tus died A. D. 
14, in his 76th 
year; but long 
before his 
death he had 
associated Ti- 
berius with him 
in the empire. 
Axe. Seven He- 
brew words are 1 
rendered "axe' 
in the A. V. The most common consisted of a 
head of iron (cf. Is. x. 34), fastened with thongs 
upon a handle of wood (Deut. xix. 5 ; 2 K. vi. 
5), for felling trees (Deut. xx. 19). The 


a. e, i, o, u, y, long; 6, e, I, 0, u, y, short; caxe,*ar, Ust, i&ll, what; Uiere, veil, tErm; pique, firm ; doue, for, do, wolf, food, Mot; 

n : 


city were united by a bridge. Here the Babylon- 
ish Talmud was compiled. 
Ba'bel, Towerof, only mentioned once in the Scrip- 
tare (Gen. xi. 4, 5). It was built of bricks, and 




"battle-axe " (Jer. H. 20) was probably a heavy 
mace or maul. 
Azari'ah, a common iiame in Hebrew, and especi 
ally in the families of th<3 ..crjcsts of the line of 

..' I I i 1 I ' ' I I IIUUH, 111 111 1(11. II , 1*1 

families of the .Rriests of tl 

\X> o% (>fi 



Az'zah. The more accurate rendering of Gaza 
(Deut. ii. 23; 1 K. iv. 24, Jer. xxv. 20). 



Ba'al. 1. A Reubenite, whose descendant Beerah 
was carried off by Tiglath-Pileser (1 Chr. v. 5). 
2. The son of Jehicl, brother of Kish, and grand- 
father of Saul (1 Chr. viii. 30, ix- 30). 

Ba'al, the supreme "male divinity of the Phoenician 
and Canaanitish nations, as Ashtoreth was their 
supreme female divinity. The plural Baalim is 
found frequently. The word means Lord. There 
can be no doubt of the very high antiquity of the 
worship of Baal. 

Ltes, but his designs were frustrated (Num. 
xxii.-xxiv. ). 
Baldness. Natural baldness is perpetually allnded 
to as squalor and 

misery i-*K. ii. 2^ Is. iii. 24 j 


Baal, geographirjl. This word occurs as the prefix 
or suffix to the names of several places in Pales- 
tine, and such places were either near Phoenicia. 
or in proximity to some other seat of heathen 

Ba'alis, king of the Ammonites at the time of the 
destruction of Jerusalem by Nebuchadnezzar 
(Jer. xl. 14). 

Ba'anah, son of Jlimmon, who with his brother 
Reehab murdered Ishbosheth. For this they 
were killed by David, and their mutillated bodies 
hung up over the pool at Hebron (2 Sam. iv. 2, 
5, 6, 9). 

Ba'asha, b. c. 953-031, third sovereign of the sep- 
arate kingdom of Israel. He conspired against 
Nadab, son of Jeroboam (1 K. xv. 27), and killed 
him with his whole family. Baasha died in the 
24th year of his reign, and was buried in Tirzah 
(Cant. vi. 4), his capital (1 K. xvi. 6 ; 2 Chr. xvi. 
1-6). . 

Ba'bel, Bab'ylon, is properly the carjital city of the 
country, which is calied in Genesis Shinar, and in 
the later books Chaldaea, or the land of the Chal- 
daeans. According to Herodotus, the city was 
built on both sides of the Euphrates. The entire 
area was about 200 square miles. The houses, 
frequently three or four s f ories high, were laid 
out in straight streets. The two portions of the 

the "slime" for mortar was probably bitumen. 

In one or other of the Babylonish temples the 

former Jews thought to recognize the tower itself. 

The predominant opinion was in favor of the 
great temple of Nebo at 

_-. _ . : Borsipna, the modern Birs- 

Bab'ylon, in the Apoca- 
lypse, is the symbolical 
name by which Rome is 
denoted (Rev. xiv. 8, xvii., 
Babylonish Garment, liter- 
ally "robe of Shinar" 
(Josh. vii. 21 ). Perhaps 
a variegated garment for 
which the Babylonians 
were celebrated. 
Ba'ca, The Valley of, a val- 
ley in Palestine, through 
which the exiled Psalmist 
sees in vision the pilgrims 
in their march towards 
Zion (Ps. lxxxiv. (5). 
Badger-Skins. There is 
much obscurity as to the 
word rendered "badger" 
(Ex. xxv. 5, xxxv. 7, &c); 
the ancient versions seem 

nearly all agreed that it denotes not an animal, 

but a color, either black or sky-blue 
the Hebrew may denote a seal. 

Ba'Iaam, the son of Beor, a man en- 
dowed with the gift of prophecy 
(Num. xxii. 5). He belonged to 
the Midianites. He seems to have 
lived at Pethor, a city of Meso- 
potamia. When the Israelites were 
encamped in Moab, Balak, the king, 
sent for Balaam to curse them. Ba- 
laam was prohibited by God from 
going. The king of Moab sent 
again. The prophet again refused, 
but was at length allowed to go. 
Balaam therefore proceeded on his 
journey. But God's anger was 
kindled at this self will, and the 
angel of the Lord stood in the way 
against him (2 Pet. ii. 10). Balaam 
predicted a magnificent career for 
the people whom he was called to 
curse. A battle was afterwards 
fought against the Midianites, in 
which Balaam was slain (Num. 
xxxi. 8). _ 

Ba'lak, king of the Moabites. 
Balak hired Balaam to curse 


Jer. xlvii. 5, &c). Artificial baldness marked 
the conclusion of a Nazarite's vow (Acts xviii. 
IS ; Num. vi. 9), and was a sign of mourning. 

Balm occurs in Gen. xxxvii. 25, xliii. 11 ; Jer. viii. 
22, xlvi. 11, li. 8; and Ez. xxvii. 17. It is im- 
possible to identify it with any certainty. 

Ban'quets, among the Hebrews, were common. 
The usual time of the banquet was the evening. 
The most essential materials next to the viands 
and wine, the last often drugged with spices 
(Prov. ix. 2; Cant. viii. 2), were perfumed 
unguents, garlands or loose flowers, white or bril- 
liant robes; after these, exhibitions of music, 
singers, and dancers, riddles, jesting and merri- 
ment. The separation of the women's banquet 
was -not a Jewish custom (Esth. i. 9). 

Bap'tism. An ordinance of the Christian Church, 
representing the washing away of our sins and the 
purification of our life, through a crucified and 
risen Redeemer (Rom. vi. 3, 4, 11). 

Barab'bas, a robber (John xviii. 40), who had com- 
mitted murder in an insurrection (Mark xv. 7 ; 
Luke xxiii. 19) in Jerusalem, and was in prison 
at the time of the trial of Jesus before Pilate. 

Ba'rak, son of Abinoam of Kedesh, was incited by 
Deborah, a prophetess of Ephraim, to deliver 
Israel (Judg. iv.). He utterly routed the Canaan- 
itesinthe plain of Jezreel (Esdraeloo i. 

Barba'rian "Every one not. a Greek," is the 

strict sense of the word in Pom. i. 14. 





the Israel- 


Barley was grown by the Hebrews (Lev. xxvii. 16; 

ffirl, rrtde, p^sli; e,i, o, silent; $ as B} $b M 8b; «, «h, as k; g as J, § as la get; § as i; j as gz; a as In linger, UivH; th as In thine. 





Deut. viii. 8; Ruth ii. 17, &c), who used it for 
baking into bread, chiefly amongst the poor 
(Judg. vii. 13; 2 K. iv. 42; John vi. 0, 13) ; for 
making into bread by mixing it with wheat, 
beans, lentils, millet, &c. (Ez. iv. 9); and as fod- 
der for horses U K. iv. 28). 

acquirements. His . 
fluencing Jere-14 

miah in favor of 
the Chaldaeana 

(Jer. xliii. 3 ; cf. 
xxxvii. 13); and 
he was thrown 
into prison with 
that prophet till 
the capture of 
Jerusalem, b. c. 
586. Nothing is 
known certainly 
of the close of his 
life. 2. The Book 
of, may be divided 
into two main 
parts, i.-iii. 8, and 
iii. 9-end. It was 
held in little es- 
teem among the 
J ews, and was fre- 


»es accused him of in- 


Bar'nabas, a name signifying "son of prophecy," 
or " exhortation," given by the Apostles (Acts 
iv. 30) to Joseph (or Joses), a Levite of the 
island of Cyprus, who was early a disciple of 
Christ. In Acts ix. 27, we find him iutroducing 
the newly converted 
Saul to the Apostles 
at Jerusalem. A 
variance took place 
between Barnabas 
and Paul on the 
question of taking 
with them John 
Mark, sister's son to 
Barnabas (Acts xv. 
36 ff.). They part- 
ed, and Barnabas 
took Mark, and^ 
sailed to Cyprus, his 
native island. Here 
the Scripture notices ancient Egyptian funeral procession. 

Sam. xi. 3), or Ammiel (1 Chr. iii. 5), the son of 
Ahithophel (2 Sam. xxiii. 34), and wife of Uriah 
the Hittitc. The child which was the fruit of her 
adulterous intercourse with David died ; but after 
marriage she became the mother of four sons, 
Solomon (Matt. i. 6), Shimea, Shobab, and 
Bay-tree (ezrach). Most of the Jewish doctors 

1 4v 4U5 /■■ 




of him cease. The Epistle attributed to Barna- 
bas is believed to have been written early in the 
second 'century. 

Bar'sabas. [Joseph Baksabas ; Judas Barsa- 

BarthoTomew, one of the Twelve Apostles (Matt. 



x. 3 ; Mark iii. 18 ; Luke vi. 14 ; Acts i. 13). It 
has been not improbably conjectured that he is 
identical with Nathaniel (John i. 45 ff. ). 

Bartimae'us, a blind beggar of Jericho (Mark x. 
46 if.). 

Ba'ruch. 1. Son of Neriah, the friend (Jer. xxxii. 



12), amanuensis (Jer xxxvi. 4-32), and faithful 
attendant of Jeremiah (Jer. xxxvi. 10 ff.; B. C. 
603). He was of a noble family and distinguished 

quently quoted both in the East and in the West 
as the work of Jeremiah. At the Council of 
Trent, Baruch was admitted into the Romish 

Barzil'lai. 1. A wealthy Gileadite who 
showed hospitality to David (2 Sam. 
xvii. 27). He declined the offer of end- 
ing his days at court (2 Sam. xix. 32- 
313). 2. A Meholathite, whose son 
Adriel married Michal, Saul's daughter 
(2 Sam. xxi. 8). . 

Ba'shan, a district on the east of Jordan, 
spoken of as the "land of Bashan " (1 
Chr. v. 11), and sometimes as "all 
Bashan" (Deut. iii. 10, 13; Josh. 
xii. 5). 

Basb'emath, daughter of Ishmael, the 
last married of the three wives of Esau 
(Gen. xxxvi. 3, 4, 13). In Gen. xxviii. 
9 she is called Mahalath, another of 
Esau's wives, the daughter ofElon the Hittite. 
This is probably due to a transcriber's error. 

Basin. The "basin" from which our Lord 
washed the disciples' feet was probably deeper 
and larger than the hand-basin for sprinkling. 

Bas'ket. The Hebrew terms are (1) Sal, used for 
holding bread. (2) Salsilloth, applied to the 
basket used in gathering grapes. (3) Tone, in _ 
which the first- fruits were presented. (I) O'lill), 
used for carrying fruit. (6) Dud, for carrying 
fruit, as on a larger scale for carrying clay to the 
brickyard, or for holding bulky articles. 

3a3'math, a daughter of Solomon, married to 
Ahimaaz (1 K. iv. 15). 

Bastard. The term is not applied to illegitimate 
offspring, but is restricted by the Rabbins to the 
issue of any connection within the degrees pro- 
hibited by the Law. 

Bat. (Lev. xi. 19; Deut. xiv. 18.) Many travel- 
ers have noticed the immense numbers of bats 
in caverns in the East, and Mr. Layard says 
that on a visit to a c.tvern these noisome beasts 
compelled him to retreat. 
Bath, Bathing. A prescribed part of the Jewish 
ritual of purification in cases of accident, lep- 
rous or ordinary uncleanness (Lev. xv., xvi. 
28, xxii. 6 ; Num. xix. 7, 19); as also after 
mourning, which always implied defilement 
(Ruth iii. 3 ; 2 Sam. xii. 20). 

Bath. . [Measures]. 

Bath'sheba (2 Sam. xi. 3, &c; also called Bath- 
shuainlChr. iii. 5), the daughter of Eliam (2 

understand by ezrach "a tree which grows in its 
own soil." 

Bdel'lium (Gen. ii. 12; Num. xi. 7). An odor- 
iferous exudation from a tree. 

Beans (2 Sam. xvii. 28 ; Ezra iv. 9). Beans 
are cultivated in Palestine, which produce many 
of the leguminous order of plants, such as lentils, 
kidney-beans, vetches, &c. 

Bear (1 Sam. xvii. 34; 2 Sam. xvii. 8). The 
Syrian bear (Ursus Syriacus), without doubt the 
animal mentioned in the Bible, is still found on 
the higher mountains of Palestine. 


Beard. Western Asiatics have always cherished 
the beard. The Egyptians, on the contrary, for 
the most part, shaved the hair of the face and 
head. It is impossible to decide with certainty 

v_ rs\}_. . 



the meaning of the precept (Lev. xix. 27, xxi. 
5) regarding the " corners of the beard." The 
custom was to shave or pluck it and the hair out 

a, t, i, o, u, y, long; &, e. i, 6, «l, $, abort; care, 4iir, list, IgU, v/bat; there, veil, term; J>Iquc, ffem; done, for, da, wolf, food, foot; 

— . 


4). It was the object ot 


In mourning; to neglect it in affliction (2 Sam. 
xix. 24), and to regard insult to it as the last out- 
rage (2 Sam. x. 4 
tion (2 Sam. xx ! 'i)', 

Bed and Bed-chamber. 
We distinguish in the 
Jewish bed five prin- 
cipal parts : 1. The 
mattress, which was 
limited to a mere mat, 
or one or more quilts. 
2. The covering. 3. 
Some fabric woven or 
plaited of goat's hair ; 
something hastily 
adopted to serve as a 
pillow. 4. The bed- 
stead was not always 
necessary, the divan, 
pouring from bottle skin, or platform along the 
side or end of an Oriental room, sufficing. 5. 
The ornamental portions were pillars and a can- 
opy (Jud. xiii. 9), ivory carvings, gold and silver, 
and probably mosaic 
work, purple and fine 
linen (Esth. i. G; 
Cant. iii. 9, 10). The 
ordinary furniture of 
a bed - chamber is 
given in 2 K. iv. 10. 
Bee {Deborah), Dent- 
i. 44 ; Judg. xiv. 8 ; 
Ps. cxviii. 12 ; Is.vii. 
18. That Palestine 
abounded in bees is 
evident. The honey- 
bee of Palestine is 
distinct. Swarms in 
the East are larger 
than with us, and, on 
account of the heat 
of the climate, their 
stings give rise to 
dangerous symp- 
toms. >-» r\ j »i 
Be-eTzebul, title of a 
heathen deity, to 
whom the Jews as- 
cribed the sovereign- 
ty of the evil spirits 
(Matt. x. 25, xii. 24; 
Mark iii. 22; Luke 
xi. 15 ff.). The cor- 
rect reading is Beel- 
zebul, and not Beelze- 
bub, as in the Syriac, 
Vulg., &c. 

Bee'roth, one rif> tjie 
four cities of the 
Hivites who deluded 
Joshua into a treaty 
of peace (Josh. ix. 17). 
Beer'sheba. One of the old places in Palestine, 
the southern limit of the country. There are two 
accounts of the origin of the name. 1. Accord- 
ing to the first, the well, Wjis, dug by Abraham 


and his chief captain are concerned, with Isaac 
instead of Abraham (Gen. xxvi. :;i-:;;:). There 
are at present on the spot two principal wills, 

and five smaller ones. J he two principal wells 
lie just a hundred yards apart. The larger of the 
two is 12 J feet diam., and about 411 feet to the 
surface of the water; the masonry reaches down- 
wards 28 J feet. The other well is 5 feet diam., 
and about 42 feet to the water. The curb-stone 
round the mouth of both wells are worn into 
ihcp grooves by the action of the ropes of so 
many centuries. 

Be'liemotli. There can be little doubt that by this 
word (Job xl. 15-24) the hippopotamus is intend- 
ed, since the leviathan, by almost universal con- 
sent, denotes the crocodile, the behemoth seems 
clearly to point to the hippopotamus, his associ- 
ate in the Nile. 

Be'kah. [Weights and Measures.] 

Be'la. One of the five cities of the plain spared 
at the Intercession of Lot (Gen. xiv. 2, xix. 22). 

Be'lial. Its meaning is worthlessness, and hence 
recklessness, lawlessness. The expression son or 



> wars with Tsrael characterized 
Bi nhadad fell sick, and sen( Hazaei 
i. 7-15 |. Benhadad'a 

ALTAR OF lsCRNT-oll I.Kl.v 

1 was du£ by 



and the name given, because there he and Abi- 
nielech ''sware" both of them (Gen. xxi. 31). 
2. The other ascribes the origin to an occurrence 
almost, precisely similar, in which both Abimelech 


man of Belial must be understood as meaning a 
worthless, lawless fellow. The term in 2 Cor. vi. 
15 is generally understood as an appellative of 

Bellows. They consisted of a leather, secured and 
fitted into a frame, from which a long pipe ex- 
tended. They were worked by the operator, with 
one under each foot, and pressing them alternate- 
ly while he pulled up each exhausted skin with 
^ string. The pipes appear to have been of reed, 
with a metal point to resist the action of the fire. 

Bells. In Ex. xxviii. 33, the bells alluded to were 
the golden ones, according to the Rabbis 72 in 
number, round the hem of the high- priest's 
ephod. The object was that his sound might be 

Belshaz'zar, the last king of Babylon. According 
to Dan. v., he was slain during a splendid fast 
in his palace. 

Bena'iah, son of Jehoiada the chief priest (l Chr. 
xxvii. 5). The exploits which gave him this 
rank are narrated in 2 Saui. xxiii. 20, 21 ; 1 Chr. 
xi. 22. Benaiah remained faithful to Solomon 
and was raised into the place of Joab as com- 
mander-in-chief of the whole army (ii. 35, iv. 4). 

Ben-am'mi, son of the younger daughter of Lot, 
and progenitor of the Ammonites (Gen. xix. 38). 

Benha'dad, the name of three kings of Damascus. — 
Bexhadad I. was either son or grandson of Rezon. 
His date is n. <•. 950. — Bi-N-nADAn II., son of the 

his 1 1 

to consult Eii.-L 
death was 
about B. C. 

890.— Bl. NHA- 
DAD III., son 

of Hazaei) 

and his suc- 

cessor on the 

tin '.ne of Sy- 
ria. When he 

succeeded to 

the throne, 

Jehoash beatB 

him in A ]>)i 

(2 K. xiii. 17, i||[_ 

25). The date "^ 

of Benhadad 

III. is ii. c. 

Ben'janiTn. The youngest of the children of Jacob, 

and the only one born in Palestine. Hi- birth 
took place on the road 
between Bethel and 
Bethlehem, ami his 
mother Rachel died 
in giving him birth, 
naming him Ben-oni. 
" sun of my Sorrow.'' 
This was by Jacob 
changed into Benja- 
min t ' len. xxxv. 10- 
18). Until the jour- 
in-vs of Jacob's sons 
and of Jacob himself 
into Egypt we hear 
nothing of Benjamin. 
Henceforward the his- 
tory of Benjamin is 
the history of the 

Be'ra, king of Sodom 
at the invasion of 
ChedorlaoiiM c I ' len. 
xiv. 2; also IV and 
Bera'chah, Valley of, m 
which Jehoshaphat 
and his people assem- 
bled to " bless'' Je- 
hovah (2 Chr. xx. 
Berg'a. A city of Mace- 
donia, mentioned in 
Acts xvii. 10, 15. It 
is now called Verria. 
Berni'ce ami Bcreni'ce, 
the eldest daughter of 
Herod Agrippa I. 
(Acts xii. 1, &c. ). 

She was married to her uncle Herod, king of 

Chalcis, and after his death (a. d. 48) lived under 

circumstances of great suspicion with her own 

brother Agrippa II., with whom she is mentioned 

Acts xxv. 1:3, 23. xxvi. 30:") 4 


Beryl (Ex. xxviii. 20, xxxix. 13; Cant. v. 14; 
Ez. i. 10, x. 9, xxviii. 13; Dan. x. G. The an- 
c'n-nt chrysolite or modern yellow topaz has a beV- 

lociy oimuui , in wjin.ii uuiii i\in nieiecii | xi is uitie is n. < . tj.n/. — i »r. .\ n aimh i i . , »< mi ui me; bicim ww ^dm»c ui iiujuciu yinu« 11/ 
Curl, r\jde, i>\u=)a; t, i, o, silent; $ as sj fh as so; «, cb, as It; g as j, g aa la get; 5 as x; J as gx; aula linger, UQik; tb as In thlm? 



in existence at Jacob's return to the country. Its 
earliest name was Ephbath or Ephratah (see 
Gen. xxxv. 16, 19, xlviii. 7). And long after the 
occupation by the Israelites we meet with its new 
name. After the conquest Bethlehem appears 
under its own 
name Bethlehera- 
judah (Judg. xvii. 
7 ; 1 Sam. xvii. 
12 ; Ruth i. 1, 2). 
The Book of Ruth 



ter claim to the tarshish of the Hebrew than the 
beryl of the A. V. 

Beth, the most general word for a house or habita- 
tion. It is more frequently employed in com- 
pound names of places than any other word. 

Beth-ab'ara, a place beyond Jordan, in which John 
was baptizing (John i. 28). Bethabara may be 
identical with Beth-bara, the ancient ford of Jor- 
dan, or with Beth-nimrah, nearly opposite Jeri- 

Beth'any, a village which, scanty as are the notices 

boat OF papynes (Ancient Nile). 
of it, is intimately associated with the most famil- 
iar acts and scenes of the last days of the life of 
Christ. It was situated "at" the Mountof Olives 
(Mark xi. 1 ; Luke xix. 29), about fifteen stadia 
from Jerusalem (John xi. 18), on or near the 
road from Jericho to the city (Luke xix. 29 ; 
comp. 1 ; Mark xi. 1, comp. x. 46), and close by 
Bethpage. Bethany is now known by a name 
derived from Lazarus, — el-'Azariyeh or Lazarieh. 
el- 'Azariy eh is a wild mountain hamlet of some 
twenty families. 

r— Rnnrr 


is a page from the domestic his- 
tory of Bethlehem. It is notable 
as the birthplace of David and 
Jesus Christ. The modern town 
of Beit-lahm lies to the E. of the 
main road from Jerusalem to 
Hebron, 6 miles from the former. 
On the top of a ridge lies the village in a kind of 
irregular triangle. The population is about 3000 
souls, entirely Christians. 


Beth-pe'or, a place, no doubt dedicated to the 
god Baal-peor, on the east of Jordan, oppo- 
site Jericho. 


Beth'el. So named by Jacob (Gen. xxviii. 19), 
who afterward made it his residence (Gen. xxxv. 
6). Abraham pitched his tent there. The "sons 
of the prophets" resided there. It was about ten 
miles north of Jerusalem. Its ruins still lie on 
the right hand side of the road from Jerusalem 
to Nablous under the scarcely altered name of 



Bethes'da. A reservoir or tank, with five "porch- 
es," close upon the sheep gate or "market" in 
Jerusalem (John v. 2). The porches — i. e. clois- 
ters or colonnades — were extensive. The large 
reservoir Birket Israil, close by the St. Stephen's 
Gate, is considered to be its modern representa- 

Beth'lehem, One of the oldest towns in Palestine, 


Beth'-phage, the name of a place on the Mount of 
Olives, on the road between Jericho and Jerusa 

lem. It was ap- 
parently close to 

Bethany (Matt. 

xxi. 1 ; Mark xi. 

1 ; Luke x i x. 

29), and to the 

eastward of it. 
Beth-sa'ida. 1 

(John xii. 21.) 

The native place 

of Andrew, Peter 

and Philip (John 

i. 44, xii. 21) in 

the land of Gen- 

nesareth (Mark 
vi. 45 ; comp. 53), and 
on the west side of the 
lake. 2. From Mark 
vi. 31-53, and Luke ix. 10-17, the Bethsaida at 
which the 5000 were fed must have been on the 
east of the lake (see illustration, p. 100). 
Bethu'el, the son of Nahor by Milcah ; nephew of 
Abraham, and father of Rebekah (Gen. xxii. 22, 



23, &c.) In xxv. 20, and xxviii. 5, he is called 
"Bethuel the Syrian." 

Bethuli'a, the city which was the scene of the chief 
events of the! 
Book of Jud- 
ith. Its po- 
sition is there 

Beu'lah, "mar- 
ried," the 
name the land 
of Israel is to 
bear, when 
"the land shall 
be married" 
(Is.-lxii. 4). 

Be'zer in the 
Wilderness, a 
city set apart 
by Moses as 
one of the 
three cities of 

Bible. The ear- candlestick. 

liest instance of such title occurs in Daniel, who 
refers to "the books" (Dan. ix. 2). The same 
word was applied by the Jews in Alexandria to 
the collected books of the Old Testament,whence 
the word Bible, or The Book, has been given to 
the collected books of the Old and New Testa- 
ments. The writers of the New Testament call 
the books of the Old Testament either The Scrip- 
ture (Acts viii. 32; Gal. iii. 22 ; 2 Tim. iii. 16), 
or The Scriptures (Matt. xxi. 42; Luke xxiv. 27), 
or The Holy Scriptures (2 Tim. iii. 15). Of the 
Latin equivalents, adopted by different writers 
(In strum entum, Testamentum), the latter perpetu- 
ated itself in the languages of medern Europe, 

" 4 I 


whence the terms Old Testament and New Testa- 
ment, though the Greek word properly signifies 
"Covenant" rather than "Testament." But the 
application of the word Bible to the collected 
books of the Old and New Testaments is not to 
be traced farther back than the fifth century of 
our era. 

Big'than and Big'thana. Eunuch (chamberlain, A. 
V.) in the court of Ahasuerus, one of those who 
conspired with Teresh against the king's life 
(Esth. ii. 21). 

Bil'hah, handmaid of Rachel (Gen. xxix. 29), and 


concubine of Jacob, to whom she bore Dan and 
Naphtali (Gen. xxx. 3-8, xxxv. 25, etc.). 
Bir'sha, king of Gomorrha at the time of the in- 
vasion of Chedorlaomer (Gen. xiv. 2). 

5. e, i, o, u, y, lung, a, £, i, 6, &, y, tUiort; care, far, last, lall, wbat^. Uteri, vg»l, Una; yX«ae, Xfrm; douc, for, do, wolf, food, foot; 



Birtndays. The custom of observing birthdays is 
very ancient (Gen. xl. 20, Jer. xx. 15); and in 
Job i. 4, &c., we read that Job's sons "feasted 
every one his day." It is probable that in Walt. 
xiv. 6, the feast to commemorate Herod's acces- 
sion is intended. 

Birthright. The advantages to the eldest son 
were not defi- 
nitely fixed in USB 
times. Great re- 
spect was paid 
to him in the 
household. A 
"double por- 
tion of the pa- 
ternal property 
was allotted by 
the Mosaic law 
(Deut- xxi. 15- 

Bishop. This 
word, applied in 
the N. T. to the 
ollicers of the 
Church who 
were charged 
with certain 
functions of su- 
had been in use 
before as a title 
of office. That 
the titles of 
bishop and elder 
were originally 
eq uivale nt is 
clear. o*"! A 

Bithyn'ia A province of Asia Minor, mentioned 
only in Acts xvi. 7, and in 1 Pet. i. 1. Bithynia, 
as a Roman province, was on the west contingu- 
ous to Asia. 

Bittern. The Hebrew word has been the subject 
of various interpretations. We believe the A. V. 
is correct. The bittern belongs to the Ardeidae, 
the heron family of birds. 

Blains, violent ulcerous infV-^ nations, the sixth 




figure repeatedly (Man. 
the eyes of the blind" is 

\-"i. 22), and "opening 

mentioned in propnecy 

as a peculiar attribute of the Messiah (Is. xxix. 
18, &c). Thf> Jews were charged to treat the 
blind with care (Lev. xix. xiv; Deut. xxvii. 18). 
Blindness wilfully iullicted is alluded to (1 Sam. 
xi. 2; J- ix. ijihh 4 4h 


Blood. To blood is ascribed in Scripture the mys- 
terious sacredness which belongs to life. 

Blood, Issue of. The menstruous discharge, or the 
fluxus uteri (Lev. xv. 19-30 ; Matt. ix. 20; Mark 
v. 25, and Luke viii. 43). The latter caused a 
permanent legal uncleanness, the former a tem- 
porary one, mostly for seven days, after which the 
woman was to be purified by the offering. 

Blood, Revenger of. It was, and is, a practice 


plague of Egypt (Ex. ix. 9, 10), called in Deut. 
xxviii. 27, 35, "the botch of Egypt. Probably 
the black leprosy, a fearful kind of elephantiasis. 
Blasphemy. Blasphemy was punished with stoning 
(Lev. xxiv. 11). On this charge both our Lord 
and St. Stephen were condemned to death by the 
Jews. It only remains to speak of "the blas- 
phemy against the Holy Ghost" (Matt. xii. 32 ; 
Mark iii. 28). It consisted i ^T/h "'ting to the 

t a 


power of Satan those unquestionable miracles 

which Jesus performed by " the finger of God" 

and the power of the Holy Spirit. 
Bias'tus, the chamberlain of Herod Agrippa I. 

(Acts xii. 20). . > JQ 
£iindness is common in the East. Blind beggars 

among nations of patriarchal habits, that th e 
nearest of kin should avenge the death of a mur" 
dered relative. The law of Moses was precise- 

1. The wilful murderer was to be put to death 
without compensation. The nearest relative be- 
came the authorized avenger (Num. xxxv. 19). 

2. The law of retaliation was 
not to extend beyond the of- 
fender (Deut. xxiv. 16 ; 2 K. 
xiv. 6 ; 2 Chr. xxv. 4 ; Jer. 
xxxi. 29, 30; Ezek. xviii. 20). 

3. The involuntary shedder of 
blood was permitted to take 
flight to one of the cities of ref- 
uge (Num. xxxv. 22, 23 ; Deut. 
xix- 4-6). 

Boaner'ges, signifying "sons of 

thunder," given by our Lord 

to the two sons of Zebedee 

(Mark iii. 17). 
Bo'az. 1. A wealthy Bethle- 

hemite, kinsman to Elimelech, 

the husband of Naomi. He 

married Ruth. Boaz is men- 
tioned in the genealogy of 

Christ (Matt. i. 5). 2. Boaz, 

the name of one of Solomon's 

brazen pillars in the temple 

porch. It was 18 cubits high (1 K. vii. 15, 21 ; 2 

Chr. iii. 15; Jer. Iii. 21). 
Booty, captives of both sexes, cattle, and whatever 

a captured city might contain. Within Canaan 

no captives were to be made (Dent, xx. Hand 

16); beyond, in warlike resistance, all womes 
and children were captives, and men put to death.. 
The W' is in Num. xxxi. 26-47. 

Bo'oz, Alatt. i. 5 ; Luke iii. 32. [Boaz.] 

Bottle. 1. The Arabs keep their watei, milk, and 
other liquors, in leathern bottles made of goat- 
skins. 2. \ essels of metal, earthen or glassware 
for liquids, were in use among the Greeks, Egyp- 
tians, Etruscans, and Assyrians, and no doubt 
among the Jews in later times. Thus Jer. xix. 
1, "a potter's earthen bottle." 

Boz'rah, in Edom — the city of Jobab, one of the 
early kings of that nation (Gen. xxxvi. '&■'> : 1 
Chr. i. 44). Its modern representative is el- 
Busaireh, S. E. of the Dead Sea. 

Bracelet. Men as well as women wore bracelets 
(Cant. v. 14). Layard says of the Assyrian 
kings: "The arms were encircled by armlets, 
and the wrists by bracelets." 

Brass. In most places of the O. T. the correct 
translation would be copper, although it may 
sometimes mean bronze, a compound of copper 
and tin. Copper was known at a very early 
period (Gen iv. 22). 

Bread. This as an article of l\> ii < hum a 

very early period : its use is found in Gen. xviii. 
6. The best bread was made o f wheat. "Barley" 
was used only by the very poor. The bread 
taken by persons on a journey (Gen. xiv. 23; 
Josh. ix. 12) was probably a kind of biscuit. 
Brick. In the walls of Babylon, the clay dug out 
of the ditch was made into bricks as soon as car- 
ried up, and burnt in kilns. The bricks were 
cemented with hot bitumen. The bricks at Nin- 
evah were chiefly sun-dried like the Egyptian, 
and usually from 12 to 13 inches square, and 3 j 
inches thick. The Jews learned the art of brick- 
making in Egypt, and we find the use of the 
brick-kiln in, David's time (2 Sam. xii- 31). 


Bridge. The only mention of a bridge is indirect- 
ly in the proper name Geshur, a district in Bashan. 
At this place a bridtre still exists, called the bridge 
of the sons of Jacob. 

Brimstone. The Hebrew is connected with ytpMT 

tUs-l, rnde, pn«b; e, i, o, silent; f u ij fb u sb; «,cb,u it, g a» J, 6 un in get; (ui;|u gz; q as la linger, ljujk; diub tbina. 


j / 



(Gen. vi. 14), and probably signified the gum or I 
resin from that tree ; hence transferred to inflam- 
mable substances, and especially to sulphur (Gen. 
xix. 24). 
Bull, Bullock, terms used synonymously with ox, 


oxen, in the A. V. Jn Is. li. 20, the "wild bull" 
("wild ox" in Deut. xiv. 5) was possibly one of 
the larger species of antelope. 
Burial, Sepulchres. [Tombs.] 1. A natural cave 
enlarged and adapted by excavation, or an arti- 
ficial imitation of one, was the standard type of 
sepulchre. Sepulchres were commonly prepared 
beforehand, aiid stood often in gardens, by road- 
sides, or even adjoining houses. Sepulchres were 


Cab. [Measures.] 

Cae'sar, always in the N. T. the Roman Emperor, 

the sovereign of Judaea (John xix. 12, 

15 j Acts xvii. 7). 

Caesare'a (Acts viii. 40, ix. 30, x. 1, &c.) 
was on the coast of Palestine, on the 
great road from Tyre to Egypt, and half 
way between Jopua and Dora. The dis- 
tance from Jerusalem was about 70 miles. 
It was the official residence of the Herod- 
ian kings, and of Pestus, Felix, and the 
other Roman procurators of Judaea. 

Caesare'a Philip'pi is mentioned only in the 
two first Gospels (Matt. xvi. 13; Mark 
viii. 27). The city was built on a lime- 


lators' having literally adopted the word calvaria, 
I. e. a bare skull. The popular expression 
'•Mount Calvary" is not warranted. 
Camel. It is clear from Gen. xii. 16 that camels 
were early known to the Egyptians. The Ethi- 


marked sometimes by pillars, or by pyramids. 
Such as were not otherwise noticeable were 
scrupulously "whited" (Matt, xxiii. 27). 2. 
"The manner of the Jews" included the use of 
spices, where they could command the means. 
It was the office of the next of kin to preside 
over the whole funeral office ; but a company of 
public buriers had become, it seems, customary 
in the times of the N. T. (Acts v. 6, 10. The 


stone terrace in a valley at the base of Mount 
Herruon. It has no O. T. history. 
Cage. The term in Jer. v. 27 is properly a 
trap. In Rev. xviii. 2, the Greek term means 
a prison. 

y Caia'phas, in full Joseph Caiaphar, high priest 
of the Jews under Tiberius (Matt. xxvi. 3, 57 ; 

g John xi. 49,^ xviii. 13, 14, 24, 28; Acts iv. 6). 

^ He was son-in-law of Annas. 

P Cain. The historical facts in the life of 
Cain, in Gen. iv., are briefly: — He was 
the eldest son of Adam and Eve ; he fol- 
lowed agriculture ; in a fit of jealousy he 
committed the crime of murder; he set- 
tled in the .land of-Nod, and built a city 


opians had camels (2 Chr. xiv. 15); the queen of 
Shebacame to Jerusalem with camels (1 K. x. 2); 
David took camels (1 Sam. xxvii. 2, &c). The 
species of camel which was in common use among 
the Jews of Palestine was the Arabian 
or one-humped. The dromedary is a 
finer breed, the Arabs call it theHeirie. 
Camphire (Heb. copher). There can be 
no doubt that "camphire" is an incor- 
rect rendering (Cant. i. 14, iv. 13). 
The margin has cypress." The sub- 
stance really denoted is the Lawsonia 
alba of botanists. 

Ca'na of Galilee, once Cana in Galilee, not far from 
Capernaum, memorable as the scene of Christ's 
first miracle (John ii. 1, 11, iv. 46) as of a subse- 
quent one (iv. 46, 54), and as the native place of 
Nathaniel (xxi. 2). The traditional site is about 
Ah miles north-west of Nazareth. The rival site 
is farthe 

r n &J) 43 


bier was borne by the nearest relatives. The 
grave-clothes were probably of the fashion worn 
in life. 3. Tombs were, in popular belief, in- 
vested with traditions. 

Burnt-offering. Applied to the offering which was 
wholly consumed on the altar. Throughout Gen- 
esis (see xv. 9, 17, xxii. 2, 7, 8, 13) the burnt- 
offering appears to be the only sacrifice referred 
to. The ceremonies are given in Leviticus. 

Butter, curdled milk (Gen. xviii. 8; Deut. xxxii. 
14; Judg. v. 25; Job xx. 17). Milk is generally 
offered to travelers ir, Palestine in a curdled or 

J£ — »* 


named after his son Enoch: his descendants 
are enumerated. 

Calamus. [Reed.] 

Caleb. 1. (1 Chr. ii. 9, 18, 19, 42, 50). 
Grandfather of Caleb the spy. 2. Son of 
Jephunneh, as the illustrious spy is usually 
designated. He and Oshea or Joshua the 
son of Nun were the only two who encour- 



sour state, "lebben," thick, almost like buttei. The 
Arab women make butter in a leather bag, hung 
on three poles, in the form of a cone, and drawn 
to and fro by two women." 
Bu'zi, father of Ezekiel the prophet (Ez. i. 3) 


aged the people to enter in 
boldly to the land. His subse- 
quent claim of land ; his con- 
quest of Hebron ; and his re- 
ward of his younger brother, 
are all related in Josh. xv. 
Calf. In Ex. xxxii. 4, we are 
told that Aaron, constrained by 
the people, made a molten calf 
of the golden earrings of the 
people, to represent the Elohim 
which brought Israel out of 
Egypt. Moses burnt the calf, 
and grinding it to powder scattered it 
over the water, which he made the peo- 
ple drink. 

Cal'vary, a word occurring in the A. V. oniy in 
Luke xxiii. 23, and there arising from the trans- 


Ca'naan. The fourth son of Ham (Gen. x. 6 ; 1 
Chr. i. 8); The progenitor of the Phoenicians 
and of various other nations. 

Ca'naan, The Land of, lit. "Lowland," a name de- 
noting the country west of the Jordan and Dead 
Sea. In later notices, we find it applied to the 
low maritime plains of Philistia 
and Phoenicia. '--, 

Ca'naanlte, The, the designation 
of the Apostle Simon, known as 
"Simon Zelotes." It occurs in 
Matt..x. 4; Mark iii. 18. 

Ca'naanites, The. 1. a tribe which 
inhabited a locality of the land 
west of the Jordan before the 
conquest; and 2. the peopla who inhabited gen- 
erally the whole of that country. 

Canda'ce, a queen of Ethiopia (Acts viii. 27). The 
name was that of a dynasty of Ethiopian queens. 

Candlestiok, which Moses was commanded to 
make, is described Ex. xxv. 31-37, xxxvii. 17- 



24. It is called (Lev. xxiv. 4) "the pure" and 
(Ecclus. xxvi. 17) "the holy candlestick." It 
required a talent of "pure gold," and was "of 

&» 6, *,«>«, J, long; *T«i h *. *. *• «*"»*» «toe, *ar, l&st, 1*11, vvb»ti il*uab vfi»». «o»; pique, «£nu; d&ue, *dr, d a . wjli, ftfixl, fcrtrta 




beaten work." Josephus, however, says of cast 
gold, and hollow. 

Canon of Scripture, The, may be described as "the 
collection of books which form the original and 
authoritative written rule of the faith and prac- 



O .— t ;• o 

Carving. 'I he arts of carving and engraving were 
in much request (Ex. xxxi. 5, xxxv. 33; 1 K. vi. 
• : Ps. lxxiv. Gj. 
Cassia. The aceouuis of cassia by ancient authors 



tice of the Christian Church. The word Canon, 
in classical Greek, is properly a straight rod. In 
patristic writings, the word is used as "a rule" in 
the widest sense. 

Canopy (Jud. x. 21, xiii. 9, xvi. 19). The canopy 
of Holofernes probably retained mosquito nets or 
curtains, although its description (Jud. x. 21) be- 
trays luxury and display. 

Cantioles, Seng of Songs, i. e, the most beautiful of 
songs, entitled in the A. V. The Song of Solo- 
mon. It is intended to display the victory of hum- 
ble and constant love over the temptations of wealth 
and royalty. We have the same evidence for its 
canonicity as that which is commonly adduced 
for the canonicity of any book of the 0. T. 

Caper'naum was en the western shore of the Sea 
of Galilee (Matt. iv. 13 ; comp. John vi. 24), in 
the "land of Gennesaret." It was called a ''city." 
and had its own synagogue (John vi. 59; Mark i. 
21; Luke iv. 33, 38_, vii. 1, comp. 8; Matt. viii. 8). 
Besides a garrison it had a customs' station, where 
dues were gathered by officers. The only interest 
attaching to Capernaum is as the residence of our 
Lord and his Apostles, the scene of so many 
mi-acles and "gracious words." At Nazareth He 
wa' "brought up," but Capernaum was emphati 
caj rHis "own city." 

ipernaum was € 


Ca'phar, one of the numerous words in the Bible 

to denote a village. « o 
Caph'tor, Caph'torim, the primitive seat of the 

Philistines (Deut. ii. 23; Jer. xlvii. 4; Am. ix. 7). 

or near to it m 

The country must be in Egypt, 

Cappado'cia, Cappado'cians (Acts ii. 9; 1 Pet. i. 1). 
In early times the name reached as far north- 
wards as the Euxine Sea. Cappadoeia is an ele- 
vated table-land. It was a good grain country, 
and famous for grazing. Its Roman metropolis 
was Caesarea. 

Captain. As a purely military title, Captain ans- 
wers to sar in the Hebrew army, and "tribune'' 
in the Roman. 

Captivities of the Jews. The two principle de- 
portations were, (1) that which took place B. c. 
598, when Jehoiachin with all the nobles, sol- 
diers, and artificers, was carried away ; and (2) 
that which followed the destruction of the Temple 
and the capture of Zedekiah b. c. 588. 

Carbuncle, a bright sparkling gem. Probably the 
smaragdus or emerald, j 


Car'chemish occupied nearly the site of Hier- 

Car'mel. In form a tolerably continuous ridge, at 
the W. end of Palestine about GOO, and E. about 
1600 feet above the sea. It is familiar through 
its connection with the history of Elijah and 
Elisha. It is now comrconly called Mar Elyas ; 
Kurmel being seldom heard. 

Car'pus, a Christian at Troas (2 Tim. iv. 13). 

Carriage. This word occurs only six times in tin 1 
text of the A. V.. and signifies what we now call 
"baggage." In the margin of 1 Sam. xvii. 20, 
and xxvi. 5-7, it is employed in the sense of a 
wagon or cart. 

Cart (Gen. xlv. 19, 27; Num. vii. 3. 7. S), a vehicle j 
drawn by cattle (2 Sam. vi. G), to be distinguished 
from the chariot drawn by horses. Carts and 
wagons were open or covered (Num. vii. 8), and 
were used for conveyance 


are confused. The cassia-bark of commerce is 
yielded by various kinds of Cinnamomum, which 
grow in different parts of India. 

Cas'tor and Pollux (Acts xxviii. 11). The twin 
sons of Jupiter and Leda ; the constellation 
Gemini. In art represented simply as stars hover- 
ing over a ship, or as young men on horseback, 
with conical caps and stars above them. 

Cats occur only in Baruch vi. 22. The context of 
the passage appears to point to the domesticated 

Caterpillar. The Hebrew words seem to be applied 
to a locust, perhaps in its larva state. 

ISft 444 1 I / 


Cave. The chalk}' limestone of which the rocks of 
Palestine consist, presents a vast number of 
natural fissures, many of which have been arti- 
ficially enlarged. 

Cedar. The Hebrew ercz, rendered "cedar." 
stands for that tree in most of the passages. The 
cedar of Lebanon is confined in Syria to one val- 
ley, of the Lebanon range. 

Ce'dron, the name of the brook Kidron, below the 
eastern wall of Jerusalem (John xviii. 1, only). 
Beyond was Gethsemahe. 

Ceiling. The ceilings of the Temple and the pal- 
aces of the Jewish kings were formed of cedar 
planks applied to the beam^ <S / 
_ J rfg^ni.Ti(r*liif||ji] ——.- -- 

the crow. 

Cen'chrea, the eastern harbor of Corinth St. 

Paul sailed from Cencbxeac (Acts xviii. 181, An 

organized church seems to have been formed 

here (Rom. xvi. 1). 

fOrl, rpde, prmh; e, 1, o, silent ; $ as s; (It. aa sb; c, ch, as k; J wj, gw lu get; § as z; j as gz; Q u la Un£ e *i link; tS» as la ga£ 




1 9 3 2 

Censer. " A small portable vessel of metal fitted to 
receive burning eoals from the altar, and on 
which the incense for burning was sprinkled (2 
Chr. xxvi. 18 ; Luke i. 9). The precepts regard- 
ing its use are in Num. iv. 14, and in Lev. xvi. 

Centurion. [Army.] 

Cephas. [Pkter.] 

Chain. Chains were used (1) as badges of office; 

(2f for ornament ; (3j for confining prisoners. 



Charger, a shallow vessel for receiving water or 
blood, also for offerings (Num. vii. 79). The 
daughter of Herodias brought the head of St. 
John the Baptist in a charger (Matt. xiv. 8); 

Ipf)l&¥fy a trencher or platter. 

Chariot. The earliest mention of chariots in 
Scripture is in Gen. xli. 43. They were regard- 
ed as among the most important arms of war, 
though the supplies appear drawn from Egypt. 
They were attached to one, two, and three horses. 

Che'bar, a river in the "land of the Chaldeans" 
(Ez. i. 3), on the banks of which some of the 
Jews were located at the captivity, and where 
Ezekiel saw his earlier visions (Ez. i. 1, iii. 15, 

23 >#75 

Che'dorla'omer, a king of Elam, who with three 
other chiefs made war upon the kings of Sodom, 
Gomorrah, Admah, Zeboim, and Zoar, and re- 
4 <tt(5^ctlhern to servitude (Gen. xiv. 17). 

Cheese, mentioned three times in the Bible, and 
under different Hebrew names (Job x. 10), ex- 
pressing various degrees of coagulation. 

Che'mosh, the national deity of the Moeabites 


Chalcedony, only in Rev. xxi. 19. The name is 
applied to one of the varieties of agate. 

Chalde'a. Located on both sides of the Euphrates, 
and having Babylon for its capital. It extended 
southward to the Persian Gulf, and northward as 
far as Ur-of the Chaldees. 

Chamberlain. Erastus, "the chamberlain" of Cor- 
inth, was one of those whose salutations to the 
Roman Christians are given (Rom. xvi. 23). The 
office was apparently that of public treasurer. 
The office held by Btastus, "the king's ehamber- 


lain," was different from this (Acts xii. 20). It 
was a post which involved great intimacy and in 
Suence with (lie king. 

Chameleon, the translation of the Hebrew coach, 
some kind of unclean animal, in Lev. xi. 30. 
Others suppose it to be the lizard, known as the 
".Monitor of the Nile," a largo strong reptile. 

Chamois. The translation in Deut. xiv. 5, is in- 

roll mou 


It is probable some mountain sheep is 

the capital of a pillar ; also possibly a 
Iding at the top of a building or work of 


(Num. xxi. 29; Jer. xlviii. 7, 13, 46). In Judg. 
xi. 24, also of the Ammonites. Solomon intro 
duced, and Josiah abolished, the worship of 
Chemosh at Jerusalem (1 K. xi. 7; 2 K. xxiii 

Cher'ethites and Pel'ethites, the life-guards of 
King David (2 Sam. viii. 18; 1 K. i. 38, 44, &c). 
Also "executioners and couriers." 

Che'rith, The Brook, the wady in which Elijah hid 
himself during the part of the three years' 
drought (1 K. xvii. 3, 5). The position of the 
Cherith has been much disputed. . Apparently on 
the east of Jordan. 45 


Cher'ubira. The symbolical figure so 
called, which finds a parallel in the religious in- 
signia of Assyria, Egypt, and Persia, e. g. the 
sphinx, the winged bulls and lions of Nineveh, 
&c. The Hebrew idea seems to limit the num- 
ber. A pair (Ex. xxv. 18, &c.) were on the 
mercy-seat of the ark; a pair overshadowed it in 
Solomon's Temple. It seems likely that the 
word "cherub" meant not only the composite 
creature-form, of which the man, lion, ox, and 
eagle were the elements, but, further, some pecu- 
liar and mystical form, which Ezekiel, being a 


priest, would know (Ez. x. 14), but which was 
kept secret from all others. 

Chest. This word is used for the Ark of the Cov- 
enant, with two exceptions (Gen. 1. 26; and 2 K. 

gcftflQD; 2 Chr. xxiv. 8-11). 

Chestnut-tret [Gen. xxx. 37; Ezek. xxxi. 8), 

IBS 451 


spoken of as one of the glories of Assyria, for 
which the "plane-tree" ought probably to have 
been substituted. The context indicates some 
tree which thrives best in moist situations. 
Chidbn;; '(Nachox's Threshing Floor.] 
Children. The blessing of offspring, especially of 
male, is highly valued among Eastern nations. 
As soon as the child was born, it was washed in a 
bath, rubbed with salt, and wrapped in swaddling 
clothes. On the 8th day the rite of circumcision, 
in the case of a boy, was performed, and a name 
given. The period of nursing was sometimes 
prolonged to three years (Is. xlix. 15; 2 Mace. vii. 
27). Nurses were employed in some cases (Ex. 
ii. 9; Gen. xxiv. 59). The time of weaning was 
an occasion of rejoicing (Gen. xxi. 8). Daugh- 

baal (From Tyrian Coin). 

ters usually remained in the women's apartments 
till marriage, or were employed in household 
work (Mace. iii. 19). The firstborn male chil- 
dren were regarded as devoted to God (Ex. xiii. 
13; Num. xviii. 15; Luke ii. 22). The authority 
of parents was very great, as also the reverence 
paid them. 

Chil'ion, the son of Elimelech and Naomi, and 
husband of Orpha (Ruth i. 2-5, iv. 9); "an Eph- 
radhite.of Bethlehem-judab." 

Chinhereth, Sea of (Num. xxxiv. 11; Josh. xiii. 
27), the inland sea, which is most familiarly 
known as the "lake of Gennesareth." It seems 1 
likely that Chinnereth was an ancient Canaanite 

Chi'os. The position of this island is described in 
Acts xx. xxi. Its length is about 32 miles, and 
its breadth from 8 to 18. 


Chit'tim, Kit'tim, a family or race descended fron? 
Javan (Gen. x. 4; 1 Chr. i. 7). Chittim is fre- 
quently noticed in Scripture. Josephus consider- 

S, e, i, o, a, y, long; &, 6, i, 6, u, y, abort; caxe, tax, l&at, tali, M/tv}l, Ulece, veil, Una; pique, firm ; doue, tor, do, woli, food, t out; 




i) 2 { > 

Chu'za, Chuzas, house-steward of Herod An 



ed Cyprus as tlio original Beat of the Chittim. 
The name Chittim, which at the first applied to 
Phoenicians only, passed over to the islands they 
had occupied. 
Chlo'e, a woman mentioned in 1 Cor. i. 11. was visited by him, Gal.'i. 21 : Ac 

1 fH 454 1 2 < 'ifyir 

kviii. 3). 
;iii(Ak, a province in the 8. E. 
It was the native country of Si 


Chora'zin, on& orf -die"? cities named in Matt. xi. 21; 
Luke x. 13. Its sit£ is uncertain. 

Christ. [JesusUM.H 

Christian. Th£ j|s£ijr$BS (Acts xi. 26), were first 
called Christians at Antioch on the Orontes, some- 
where about a. d. 43. It is clear that the appel- 
lation was not assumed by the Christians them- 
selves. They were known to each other as breth- 
ren, disciples^ believers, etc. 

Chronicles, First arid fVecond Books of. The con- 
stant tradition of the Jews is that these books 
were for the most pare compiled by Ezra. The 
genealogies are obviously from some register, in 
which were preserved the genealogies of the 
tribes and families ; while the history is from the 
same documents as. tj^e Books of Kings. 

Chronol'ogy. (JS^i- principal systems of Biblical 
Chronology have been founded, which may be 
termed the Long System, the Short, and the Rab- Qcitjl£ri-K 
binical. The Rabbinical Chronology accepts the tt/tera, £ 

of Asia Minor. 
Paul ; hence it 
ts ix. 30 ; and 

Cinnamon, a w <■ 1 1 - 
known aromatic >u!j- 
Btance. It is men- 
tioned in Ex. XXX. 
23, Prov. vii. 17: 
Cant. iv. 1-1, Rev. 
xviii. 13. It is now 
found in Sumatra, 
Borneo, China, Ac, 
but chit fly Ceylon. 

Cin'ner<rth, All, the 
small enclosed dis- 
trict north of Tiberi- 
as, afterwards known 
as "the plain of Gen- 

Circumcision was pe- 
culiarly, though not 
exclusively, a Jewish 
rite. It was enjoined 
upon Abraham as the 
token of the Gov- 

't" Cape Matal . 
ClaVaifir? a Christian woman 



iv. 21 ; a British maiden, daughter of king 4 

dubnua, an ally of Rome. She appears to have 

IWefcWriU the wife of Pudens. 

clau'dius, fourth Roman emperor, reigned from 4 1 
to 54 a. ii. lie was the son of Nero Drusus, was 
born in Lyons, Aug. 1, B. c. 9 or In, audi 
private and unknown till the day of his being 
Called to the throne. January 24, a. D. 41. 

biblical numbers, but makes the most arbitrary 

Chrys'olite (ReV.^x^^JO), identical with the mod- 
ern Oriental topaz, the tarshish of the Hebrew 

Chrys'oprase (B$v, ^^ 20), sometimes found in 
antique Egyptian jewelry set alternately with bits 
of lapis-laznli. nt ~« 

Church. The d|rj?aji<tnj of the word is uncertain. 
Eeclesia, the Greek word for Church, originally 
meant an assembly called out by authority. This 

enant (Gen. xvii.). It 
was thus made a con- 
dition of Jewish nation- 
ality. Every male child 
was to be circumcised 
when eight days old 
(Lev. xii. 3) on pain of 
death. Slaves were cir- 
cumcised (Gen. xvii. 
12, 13); and foreigners 
must have their males 
circumcised before al- 
lowed to partake of the 
passover (Ex. xii. 48), 
or become Jewish eiti- 

Cis, the father of Saul 
(Acts xiii. 21), usually 


a receptacle for 

to the thrqne, .January 24, 

water, either conducted 
from an external spring 
or proceedingfrom rain- 
fall. The largest sort 
of public reservoirs is 
usually called in A. V. 
"pool;" the smaller 
"cistern." Both pools 
and cisterns are frequent 
throughout Palestine. 


is the ordinary classical sense. But in the N. T. 
the word has lost its primary signification. 
Chu'shan-Rishathoa'im, kiiii; of Mesopotamia, who 
oppressed Israel eight years in the generation 
following Joshua ( Judg. iii. 8). 

f&rl, rgde, prish; *, i, o, silent; ( ui) (hiail>!<, ch. a* k; fir u J 


mainly for water upon its cisterns 
of which almost every private 
house possesses one or more. The 
water is conducted into them from 
the roofs of the houses during 
the rainy season. Empty cisterns 
were sometimes used as prisons 
and places of confinement. 
Cithern (1 Mace. iv. 54), a musical 
instrument, resembling a guitar, 
£g 'Orohabljj of Greek origin. 
; C'viiss of Refuge, six LevMcal cities 
chosen for refuge to the involun- 
tary homicide until released by 
the death of the high-priest (Num. 
xxxv. 6, 13, 15; Josh. xx. 2, 7. 
9). There were three on each 
side of Jordan. 
Citizenship. This term has refer- 
ence to the usages of the Roman 
empire. The privilege of Roman 
citizenship was acquired 1 y pur- 
chase (Acts xxii. 28), by military 
services, by favor, or by manu- 
mission. The right once obtained 
descended to children (Acts xxii. 
28). Among the privileges a man could not be 
bound or imprisoned without trial (Acts xxii. 29), 
still less be scourged (Acts x\i. 37). Another 
fti^ihfee was the appea! (Acts sxv. 11). 
(Acts Exvi i, 16), a ^ s nail 
as lo get 


j'-olfay? 'As the sediment of water remaining in pits 
or in streets, used in 0. T. (Is. lvii. 20: Jcr. 
xxxviii. 6; Ps xviii. 42), and in N. T (John ix. 
6), a mixture of sand or dust with spittle. It is 
also found in the sense of potter's clay (Is. xii. 
2-3). Another use of clay was for sealing Club 
xxxviii. 14). Our Lord's tomb may have been 
tksj sealed (Matt, xxvii. 

Clsra*eW; (Phil. iv. 2;, a fellow-laborer of St. Paul, 
when at Philippi. It was 1" lieved that thjs 
Ol£n|ent was identical with the Bishop of Rome. 

C130 pas, one of the two going to Emmaus on the 
dav of the xe^urrection. (Luke xxiv. 1>). It is a 

20( 4o« 






whether identical with Clcophas or 
John xix. 25. 
[Cljeopas; ALrHAErs.] 

;ui;{ugz;nulii linger, link; tb oa la thine. 

LU "■— ■ 

■' - ' - ■ '■ ' 






lus (1 Mace. sv. 23 ; Acts xxvii. 7), a harbor 
passed by St. Paul. Jt was situated at the S. W. 
of the peninsula of Asia Minor, between the 
islands of Cos and lihodes (see Acts xxi. 1). 

Cook. In the N. T. the "cock" is mentioned in 
Matt. xxvi. 34, Mark xiv. 30, xiii. 35, &c. We 
know that tlie domestic cock and hen were known 
to the ancient Greeks and Romans. The Romans 
prized these birds both as articles of food and for 

Cockle (Job xxxi. 40) may signify bad or smutted 

Coele-Syr'ia, ''the hollow Syria," was the name 
given by the Greek's to the remarkable valley be- 
tween Libanus and Anti-Libanus, stretching a 
distance of nearly a hundred miles. Tbe term 
was also used in a wider sense. 

Coffer, a movable box hanging from the side of a 
cart (1 Sam. vi. 8, 11, 15). 

College, The (2 K. xxii. 14). It is probable that 
this was the "lower city," built on the hill Akra. 

Colony v a designation of Philippi, in Acts xvi. 12. 

Colons; The natural colors noticed in the Bible 
are white, black, red, yellow, and green. The 
Hebrews appear to have had no scientific knowl- 
edge of colors. 


Cfl'ney, a gregarious animal in Palestine, living in 
caves and clefts of rocks, and erroneously identi- 
fied with the Rabbit or Coney. The Hyrax satis- 


fies the references to it. Its color is gray or 
brown ; it is scarcely the size of the domestic cat. 
having long hair, short tail, and round ears. 


11 J ,"l r ' ■ i ii - ir i ■ i -i 


Num. xxx.). Upon these rules the traditionists 
enlarged. A person might exempt himself from 
any inconvenient obligation under plea of corban. 
It was practices of this sort that our Lord repre~ 
handed (Matt. xv. 5; Mark vii. 11). 
Cord. The materials varied. The strongest rope 
was probably made of strips of camel hide; the 
finer sorts of flax Is. xix. 9). In the N. T. the 
term is applied to the whip our Saviour made 
(John ii. 15), and the ropes of a ship (Actsxxvii. 


Corian'der. The plant has a round tall stalk ; i' 
bears flowers, from which arise spicy seed-corn 

Colos'se (more properly Colos'sae), a city on the 
Lycus. , Hierapolis and Laodicea were in its 
neighborhood. Colossae fell as these two cities 
rose in importance. It was close to the great 
road from Ephesus to the Euphrates. Here Paul 
founded or confirmed a church. 

Colossians, The Epistle to the, written by St. Paul 
during his first captivity at Rome (Acts xxviii. 
16). It was addressed to the Christians of the 
city of Colossae, and was delivered by Tychicus, 
whom the Apostle had sent both to them (ch. iv. 
7, 8) and to the church of Ephesus (ch. vi. 21). 
The epistle seems called forth by the information 
St. Paul had received from Epaphras (ch. iv. 12 ; 
Pkilem. 23) and Onesimus. 

Concubine The concubine's condition was a defi- 
nite one. With regard to the children of wife 
and concubine, there was no such difference as 
our illegitimacy implies; the latter were a supple- 
mentary family to the former. A concubine 
would generally be either (1) a Hebrew girl 
bought ; (2) a Gentile captive ; (3) a foreign slave 
bought ; or (4) a Canaanitish woman. Tbe rights 
of (1) and (2) were protected by law (Ex. xxi. 

^ 9 lo 

Congregation. This describes the Hebrew peo- 
ple in its collective capacity as a holy communi- 
ty, held by religious bonds. Sometimes it is used 

in abroad sense (Ex. xii. 19). 
Convocation, applied to meetings of a religious 
Cdirra&'S&ter, in contradistinction to congregation. 
Co'os, Acts xxi. 1. [Cos.] 
Cop'per,' always rendered "brass," except in Ezr. 


viii. 27, and Jer. xv. 1-2. It was used by the an- 
cients for common purposes. We read of cop- 
per, possessed in countless abundance (2 Chr. iv. 
18), and used for every kind of instrument. 
Cor'al, the rendering of the Hebrew ramoth, in 

u 4b3 .1.36 


7; Deut. xxi. 10-14), but (3) was unrecognized, 
and (4) prohibited. Free Hebrew women also 
might become concubines. 


Job xxviii. 18, and in Ez. xxvii. 16). Pliny says 
that the Indians valued coral as the Romans 
valued pearls. 

Corban,' an offering to God, particularly in fulfill- 
ment of a vow. The law laid down rule3 for 
vows, 1. affirmative; 2. negative (Lev. xxvii.; 


marked with fine striae. It is mentioned twice 
in the Bible (Ex. xvi. 31; Num. xi. 7). 
Corinth. This city is alike remarkable for its emi- 
nence in Greek and Roman history, and its inti- 
mate connection with early Christianity. It was 
a place of great mental and commercial activity ; 
its wealth was proverbial ; and the vice and profli- 

facy of its inhabitants universally acknowledged, 
'he worship of Venus was attended with shame- 
ful licentiousness. St. Paul planted Christianity 
here'bstween a. n 51 and 53. 
Corinthians, First Epistle to the, was written by St 
Paul toward the close of his stay at Ephesu, 

20 / 


(Acts xix. 10, xx. 31). This was addressed to 
the whole body of the (Acts xviii. 8, 10). Judaeo- 
Gentile (Acts xviii. 4) church of Corinth. Cor 
rinthians, Second Eptsti.e to the, was written 
a few months subsequently, and thus about the 
autumn of a. d. 57 or 58, previous to the Apos- 
tle's stay in Achaia (Acts xx. 3). The place 
whence written was Macedonia. 
Cormorant. The representative in the A. V. of 
the Hebrew words kaath and shalae. As to the 
former, see Pelican 1 . Shalae occurs only as the 
name of an unclean bird in Lev. xi. 17; Deut. 

Corn. The most common kinds were wheat, barley, 
spelt (A.V. Ex. ix. 32, and Is. xxviii. 25,"rie;" Ez. 
iv. 9, "fitches"), and millet. Corn-crops are 

a., e, i, S, u, f, long; u. £, I, S, A, f, short; care, far, list, fftll, what; there, veil, term; pique, tfrm; d6ue, fdr, do, wolf, food, fo'ot; 

■ ... ■ ■, . ' . ' ■ L — -U-'— «J. ^»^W«j»" IL ' . ' L 

r-.r.'f- • <- - ■■■!■' 



etil. reckoned at twentyfold what was sown. From 
Solomon's time (2 Chr. ii. 10, 15) Palestine was 
a corn-exporting country, and her grain was 
largely taken by her commercial neighbor Tyre 
(Ez. xxvii. 17; comp. Am. viii. 5). 


Corne'lius, a Roman' centurion in Caesarea (Acts 
x. 1, &c). With his household he was baptized 
by St. Peter, and thus became the first-fruits of 
the Gentile world to Christ. 

Corner. Thei'bbrA^!' of the field was not allowed 
(Lev. xix. 9) to be wholly reaped. 
It formed a right of the poor to 
carry off what w.a.5,^ left. 

Cor'ner-stone.-' S&meT'tof the cor- 
ner-stones in the ancient Tem- 
ple foundations are 17 or 19 feet 
long, and 7£ feet thick. 

Cornet, a ]ouJ4feijB3jrig instru- 
ment, of the horn of a ram, of 
a chamois, or of an ox, and 
used by the Hebrews for signals, 
for announcing the "Jubilee" 
(Lev. xxv. 9), for proclaiming 
the new year, for the purposes 
of war (Jer. iv. 5,19; comp. Job 
xxxix. 25), as well as for senti- 
nels at the watch-towers (Ez. 
xxxiii. 4, 5). 

Cos or Co'os, a srnjfttjifefend of the 
Grecian Archipelago. St. Paul, 
on the return from his third 
journey, passed the night here. 
The chief town (of same name) 
was on the N. E., to which, per- 
haps, reference is made in the 
Acts (xxi. 1). 

Council. 1. Th$i great! council of the Sanhedrim, 
at Jerusalem. 2. The lesser courts (Matt. x. 17; 
Mark xiii. 9); two at Jerusalem, and one in each 
town of Palestine. 3. A land of jury or privy 
council (Acts xxv. 12). 


"crane." According to the testimony of most 
of tin" ancient versions, sits denotes a ".-wallow." 
Cres'oens (2 Tim. iv. 10), an assistant of St. Paul, 
(•fcatd,fo have been one of the seventy disciples. 
Crgte, the modern Candid. This large island. 
which closes in the Greek Archipelago on 
the 8., extends 140 miles between its ex- 
treme points of Cape Salmone 
(Acts xxvii. 7) on the E. and Cape 
Criumctopon on the W. In early 
times it was celebrated for its hun- 
dred cities. The circumstances of 
St. Paul's recorded visit are in Acts 
xxvii. 7). 
Cris'pus, ruler of the Jewish syna- 
gogue at Corinth (Actsxviii. 8); bap- 
tized with his family by St. Paul (1 
Cor. i. 14). Tradition makes him 
liishop of Aegina. 
Cross. The Latin cross, on which our 
Lord suffered, was in the form of 
the letter T, and had an upright 
above the crossbar, on which the s 
"title" was placed. There was a 
projection from the central stem, on 
which the body of the sufferer rested, 
to prevent the weight from tearing 
away the hands. Whether there was 
also a support to the feet is doubtful 
inscription was generally placed above the 
criminal's head. It is a question whether 
tying or binding to the cross was the more com- 
mon method. That our Lord was nailed, accord- 
ing to prophecy, is certain. The cross on which 
our Saviour suffered is said to have been discov- 
ered a. d. 32G. 1 r> lj 

— r—r 



tirtdkoifc excellent cucumbers, me 
Cum'minils. xxviii. 2~>, 27; Matt. 


aers. This occurs in Num. xi. 5. 

lelons, &c. 

xxiii. 23), aD 
umbelliferous plant something like fennel. The 
seeds have a bitterish warm taste with an aromatic 


e cups of 

tal or earthen- 



Crown. 1 his 


I'ourt, An operf-enefcsnre, applied in the A. V. 
to the enclosures of the Tabernacle and the Tem- 
ple (Ex. xxvii. 9, xl. 33; 1 36, &c.). 

Crane. The A. V. is incorrect in rendering sus by 


is was of ancient and universal use. 
Both the ordinary priests and the high-priest wore 
mitres or crowns. The laurel, pine, or parsley 
crowns given to victors in the great games of 
Greece are finely alluded to by St. Paul (1 Cor. 
ix. 2 "»; 2 Tim. ii. 5, etc.). 
Crown of Thorns, Matt, xxvii. 29. Our 
Lord was crowned with thorns in mock- 
ery. The object seems to have been 
insult, and not the infliction of pain. 
Crucifix'ion was in use among the Egyp- 
tians (Gen. xl. 19), the Carthaginians, 
the Persians (Esth. vii. 10), the Assy- 
rians, Scythians, Indians. Germans, and 
from the earliest times among the Greeks 
and Romans. It was unanimously con- 
sidered the must, horrible form of death. 
Cruse, a vessel for holding water, such as 
carried by Saul when after David (1 
Sam. xxvi. 11, 12, 10), and by Elijah 
(IK. xix. 6). 
Crystal. The Greek word occurs in Rev. 
iv. 0, xxii. 1. It may mean either 'ice" 
or "crystal." 
Cubit. [Mkascrks.] 
Cuckoo. The Hebrew word occurs twice only 
(Lev. xi. 16; Deut. xiv. 15), as some unclean 
bird, and may indicate some of the larger petrels 
east of the Mediterranean. 



ware, were possibly borrowed, in shape and de 

sign, from Egypt and from the Phoenicians. 

Egyptian cups were with handles or without. I 

Solomon's time all his drinking vessels wereo' 

gold (IK. x. 21). 
Cupbearer. An officer of high rank with Egyptian, 

Persian, Assyrian, as well as Jewish monarehs ( ! 

K. x. 5). The chief cupbearer, or butler, to the 

_ .-—*=- j king of E.irypt was the means o 

raising Joseph to his high po 
sition (Gen. xl. 1, 21, xli. 9) 
Nehemiah was cupbearer to the 
king of Persia (Neh. 1. 11, 


Curtains. Three Hebrew terms 
are translated by thisw rd, used 
frequently in Ex. and once in 
Num. and Isa. Jn Isaiah (xl 
22) the meaning of the Hebrew 
t»v*n(his doubtful. 
tfusn, a son of Ham, apparently 
the eldest, and a territory occu- 
pied by his descendants. 1. In 
the genealogy of Noah's chil- 
dren Cush seems an individual, 
for it is said "Cush begat Nim- 
rod" (Gen. x. 8; 1 Chr. i. 10). 
2. Cush as a country appears 
African in all passages except 
Gen. ii. 13. We may thus dis- 
tinguish a primeval and a post- 
diluvian Cush. The former was 
encompassed by Gihon. The 
latter probably was Ethiopia 
above Egypt. The Cushites appear to have 
spread along tracts extending from the higher 
Nile to the Euphrates and Tigris. 
Cutting- off from the People. [EXCOMMUNICATION.] 


Li:d into CAPTIVITY. 

ground of the prohibition will be found in the 
superstitious or inhuman practices prevailing 
among heathen nations. 

f&rl, rnde, p^utU: e, i. o, silent; 5 as s; cJb, as sn; c, cb, as k; & as J, g aa In get; $ u 1; | as gz; g uls linger, Unit; ti» as In t hine . 



to each, and wore struck to 
latter consisted of two 
larger p 


Cymbal, Cymbals, a percussive musical instrument. 
Two kinds are mentioned in Ps. cl. 5, "loud cym- 
bals" or castagnettcs, and ' 'high-sounding cym- 
bals." The former consisted of four small plates 
of brass or some metal ; two plates were attached 

aether. The 

larger plate's, one held 

in each hand. 
CyprSl. The Hebrew 

word is only in Is. xliv. 

14. The true cypress is a 

native of the Taurus. 

The Hebrew points to 

some tree with a hard 
Cyprus. This island was 

in the Mediterranean. 

The first notice of it in 

the N. T. is in Acts iv. 

36, as the native place 

of Barnabas. In Acts 

xi. 19, 20, it appears 

with the earliest spread- 
ing of Christianity, and 

again with the journeys 

of St. Paul (Acts xiii. 

4-13, xv. 39, xxi. 3), 

and with his voyage to 

Rome (xxvii. 4). The 

island became a Roman province ( b. c. 58). 
Syre'ne, the principal city of that part of northern 

Africa anciently called Cyrenaica. Many Jews 

lived in Cyrene. Simon, who bore our Saviour's 

cross (Matt, xxvii. 32; Mark xv. 21; Luke xxiii. 

26) was a native of Cyrene. Jewish dwellers in 

Cyrenaica were in Jerusalem at Pentecost (Acts 

ii. 10). Christian converts from Cyrene contrib- 
uted to the first Gentile church at Antioch (xi. 


L>yre iiius, 



is still shown at Pasargadae. An inspired prophet 
(Is. xliv. 28) recognized in him "a shepherd" of 
the Lord, an "anointed" king (Is. xlv. 1 j. The 
edict of Cyrus for the rebuilding of the Temple 
(2 Chr. xxxvi. 22, 23; Ezr. i. 1-4. iii. 7, iv. 3, v. 
13, 17, vi. 3) was in fact the beginning of Judaism. 


me a son ; therefore she called his name Dan," i. 
e. "judge." The records of Dan are meagre. 
Onty one son is attributed to him (Gen. xlvi. 23;; 
but when the people were numbered in Sinai, his 
tribe contained 62,700 men able to serve. 2. The 
well-kuown city, the most northern landmark of 


a^gon (1 Sam. v. 3, 4), the national god of the 
Philistines. Temples of Dagon were at Gaza 


the Roman name of Quirinus. The full name is 
Publius Sulpicius Quirinus. He was consul b. c. 
12, and made governor of Syria after the banish- 
ment of Archelaus in a. d. 6. He made, both in 
Syria and in Judaea, a census. There is good 
n-ason for believing that Quirinus was twice gov- 
fjbfjo^ of Syria. 

y rus, . 


sian empire (see Dan. 


vi. 28, x. 1, 13; 2 Chr. xxxvi. 22, 23). In b. c. 
546 (?) he defeated Croesus. Babylon fell before 
his army, and the ancient dominions of Assyria 
were added to his empire (b. c. 538). His tomb 

(Judg. xvi. 21-30) and Ashdod (1 Sam. v. 
5, 6; 1 Chr. x. 10). Dagon was represented 
with the face and hands of a man and the 
tail of a fob (1 Sam. v. 5). 
Dalmaira'tb.a, a town on the west side of the 
Sea of Galilee near Magdala (Matt. xv. 39, 
and Mark viii. 10). [Magdala.] 
Dalma'tia, a mountainous district on the 
Adriatic Sea. St. Paul sent Titus there (2 
Tim. iv. 10), and himself preached in its 
neighborhood (Rom. xv. 19). 
Danrafis, an Athenian woman converted by 
St. Paul (Acts xvii. 34). Perhaps the wife 
of Dionysius the Areopagite. 
Damas'cus, one of the most ancient and im- 
portant of the cities of Syria. It is in a 
plain east of the great chain of Anti- 
Libanus. According to Josephus, Damas- 
cus was founded by Uz, the son of Aram, and 
grandson of Shem. It is first mentioned in con- 
nection with Abraham (Gen. xiv. 15, xv. 2). 
Certain localities in Damascus are shown as the 
site of Scriptural events. A "long wide thor- 
oughfare," leading to the palace of the Pasha, is 
"called by the guides 'Straight'" (Acts ix. 11). 
The house of Judas is shown. That of Ananias 
is also pointed out. The point of the walls at 
which St. Paul was let down by a basket (Acts ix. 

425; 2 Cor. xi. 33) is also .shown, 
iaa. 1. Fifth son of Jacob, and the first of Bil- 
hah, Rachel's maid (Gen. xxx. 6). The origin 


of the name is in the exclamation of Rachel — 
"God hath judged me (dananni) . . . and given 


Palestine, in the common expression "from Dan 

" ' t$ Beersheba." 
lance. ' The dance is spoken of in Holy Scripture 
as symbolical of rejoicing, and is often coupled 
for the sake of contrast with mourning, as in 
Keel. iii. 4 (comp. Ps. xxx. 11; Matt. xi. 17). 

Dance. By this word is rendered the Hebrew 
machol, a musical instrument of percussion. It is 
believed to have been made of metal, open like a 
ring ;; had many small bells attached. 

Daniel. The fourth of "the greater prophets." 
Nothing is known of his parentage or family. 
He appears, however, to have been of royal or 
noble descent (Dan. i. 3), and to have possessed 
personal endowments (Dan. i. 4). He was taken 
to Babylon a captive, where he rose to great 
honor on account of his wisdom. His eminence 
is recorded in Ezejs, xiv. 13. 14, 28 : ii. 3. 

219 47? ToO 


The Book of. This is one of the most wonder- 
ful books of the 0. T. Its comprehensive pre- 
dictions embrace the history of the world, as also 
that of the Church under the Jewish and Chris- 
tian dispensations, from the times in which he 
lived unto the end of all things. He alone fore- 
told the precise time when the Messiah should be 
born. The first six chapters on historical, the 
remainder strictly prophetical. 
Daniel, Apocryphal Additions to. The Greek trans- 
lations of Daniel, like of Esther, contain several 
pieces not found in the original. The most im- 
portant of these are in the Apocrypha of the 
English Bible under the titles of The Song of the 
Three Holy Children, The History of Susannah, and 
The History of . . . Bel and the Dragon. They 
indicate the hand of an Alexandrine writer; and 
it is not unlikely that the translator of Daniel 
wrought up traditions already current, and ap- 
pended them. 

% e, i, 5, Q, y, lon<; : a. S. i, 6, A, y, ebort^ care, fur, last, iftll, wbat ; tbere, veil, term; pXqae, firm; doue, f Or, do,, wolf , food, foot; 



Dario (A.. V. "dram;'' Ezr. ii. 69; Neh. vii. TO, 
71, 72), a gold coin current in Palestine in the 
period after the return from Babylon. 

Darius the name of several kiugs of Media and 


Persia. Three are mentioned in the 0. T. 1. 
Darius the Medb (Dan. xi. 1, vi. 1), "the son of 
Ahasuerus of the seed of the Medes" (ix. 1), 
who succeeded to Belshazzar (Dan. v. 31; ix. lj. 
Daniel was advanced by him to the highest dig- 
nity (Dan. vi. 1, ff.). He is probably "Asty- 
ages,'' the last king of the Medes. 2. Darius 
the son of Hystaspes the founder of the Perso- 
Arian dynasty. He restored to the Jews the 
privileges they had lost (Ezr. 
v. 1, &c; vi. 1. &c). 3. Dar- 
ius the Persian (Neh. xii. 


32), as also specifications of the parts of the 
natural day. la the N< T. we have four watches, 
a division borrowed from the Creeks and Romans. 
These were, 1. from twilight till 9 o'clock (Mark i 
xi. 11; .John xx. 1'.)); 2. midnight, from 9 
till 12 o'clock (Markxiii. 35); 3. till 3 in the 
morning (Mark xiii. 35; 3 Mace. v. 2:;); 4. 
till daybreak (John xviii. 28). The word 
held to mean "hour" is first found in Dan. 
iii. 0, 15, v. 5. 
Daysman, an old English term, meaning um- 
pire or arbitrator (.)ob ix. 33 I. 
Dea'con. The oliice appears in the N. T. as 
the co-relative of Bishop. [Bishop.] The 
two are mentioned in Phil. i. 1; 1 Tim iii. 2. 
8. It appears first as implying subordinate 
activity (1 Cor. iii. 5; 2 Cor. vi. 4). The 
narrative of Acts vi. is commonly referred 
to as giving an account of the institution of 

ill is ,',tliee. > 

Dea'coness, The word diakonos in Rom. xvi, 
1 (A. V. "servant") has led to the conclu- 
sion that there existed in the Apostolic age 
an order of women exercising in relation to 
their own sex functions analogous to those 

ea. This name appears not to have existed 
until the 2d century alter Christ. In the 0. T. 
the lake is called "the Salt Sea." 

1. The nurse of Rebekah (Gen. xxxv. 
A prophetess who judged Israel (Judg. 
She lived in Mount Ephraim (Judg. iv 


birthplace of Apollo and his Bister Anemia 

De'ma'sf pmbalily :i contraction from Demetrius, or 
Demarchus, a companion of St- Paul (Ehilem. 


1). 2. 
iv. v.) 

ness in 
cribe d 

ague of Dark- 
Egypt has been as- 
to non-miraculous 
The darkness "over^ 

all the land" (Matt, xxvii. 45) c 
attending the crucifixion lias 5s§§pl ! ^ 
been similarly attributed to an aftgjHi 

Dates, 2 Chr. xxxi. 5, marg. 
[Palm Tree.] . _ 

Daugh'ter. Thte wdrtl/s used in 
Scripture also for granddaugh- 
ter or other femalejlescendant. 

David, youngestj-^b/i^if Jesse. 
His mother's name is unknown. § 
His father was of great age in * 
David's youth (1 Sum. xvii. 
12). He became Israel's 
greatest king. He also wrote 
most of the Psalms. His his- 
tory, with that of his family, 
embraces a large and interest- 
ing space in the sacred writings. He died at 
about the age of seventy, and "was buried in the 
city of David." Christ being a lineal descend- 
ant, is called Uthe S,on of David." 

Day. The civflld«3><Vjmes in different nations: 
the Babylonians reckoned it from sunrise to sun- 
rise; the Romans from midnight to midnight; 


5). Lapidoth was probably her husband, and 
not Barak. She was gifted with prophetic com- 
mand (Judg. iv. 6, 14, v. 7). Under her direc- 
tion Barak encamped on Tabor. Deborah's 
prophecy was fulfilled (Judg. iv. '.)). 
Decap'olls (Matt. iv. 25, Mark v. 20, and vii. 31), 
a general appellation for a large district extend- 
ing along both sides of the 



the Athenians from sunset to sunset. The He- 
brews adopted the latter reckoning (Lev. xxiii. 


Vlus (1 
in the 


Dedication, Feast of the, the 
festival to commemorate the 
purging of the Temple and 
rebuilding of the altar 
after Judas Maccabaeus 
had driven out the 
lOB. c. 1G4. 
JsV%ongs of, a title 
given to fifteen Psalms, 
from cxx. to exxxiv. 
inclusive. Pi 1 g r i m 
songs, sung by the peo- 
ple as they went up to 

Delilah, a woman of I he 
valley of Sorek, be- 
loved by Samson (Judg. 
xvi. 4-18). There 
seems little doubt that 
she was a Philistine 
•>*)jitiesAn. [Samson.] 

xv. 23), a small island «j}<ia$W>i 
Sea, celebrated as theTbtpttty? 


24; Col. iv. 14). Later (2 Tim. iv. 10) we find he 
Jfe£isffe4)thc apostle through love of this world. 
Deme'trius, a maker of silver shrines a< Ephesns 
Acts xix. 2t). These were small m< lels of the 
great temple Ephesian Artemis, with her statu-, 
carried on journeys, and placed on houses, as 
charms. Demetrius I., surnamed Soter, son of 
Selencus Philopator, and grand- 
son of Anteochus the Great. 
Demetrius II., "The Victorias" 
(Nicator), elder son of Demet- 
rius Soter. He was, with his 
brother, sent by his father with 
treasure to Cnidus when Alex. 
Balas laid claim to the thr- 

2W) 1 

lemon. Its usage is various. In 
the Gospels demons are spoken 
of as spiritual beings, at enmity 
with God, and 1 ra er to 

afflict man. They "believe and 
tremble" (James ii. 19); they 
recognize the Son of God (Matt 
viii. 29; Luke vi. 41), and the 
gT33 power of His name (Acts xix. 
15); and look in terror to the 
judgment to come (Matt. viii. 
Demo'niacs, frequently in the N. 
_ T. applied to persons under the 
-- possession of a demon. It is 
concluded that, since the symp- 
toms of the affliction were fre- 
quently those of bodily disease, the demoniacs 
were merely persons suffering under unusual dis- 
eases of body and mind. But we are led to the 
literal interpretation of these passages, that there 
are subjects of the Evil One, wdio, in the days of 
the Lord and His Apostles especially, were per- 
mitted to exercise a direct influence over the 
«9i»l&;in.d bodies of certain men. 
Dena'rius, A. A', "penny," Matt, xviii. 28 a Ro« 
man silver coin in the time of Our Saviour and 
the Apostles. From the parable it would seem 
that a denarius was then the ordinary pay for a 

as tin u the ordinary pay f i 


bor (Matt xx. 2, 
the rendering 

4. 7 

o, 10, 13 . 

the Creek 


f&rl, rnde, P^sh; e, i, o, silent; f us; (b as sn; c, ch, as k; £ aa j, g aa in get; s u i; j ts gi; n as In linger, link; tb as In thine. 


■Vk jJEliDhJ 

which signifies "proconsul" (Acts xiii. 7, 8, 12, 
xix. 38). 
Ter'be (Acts xiv. 20. 21, xvi. 1, xx. 4). It was in 
the eastern part of the great upland plain of Ly- 

Desert. A "desert," iu the historical books, de- 


Is to consider that the ma'aloth were really stairs, 
and that the shadow of some column or obelisk 
fell on a greater or smaller number, according as 
\he.suiY was low or high. 
Diamond. A precious stone, the third in 
the second row on the breastplate of the 

high-priest (Ex. xxviii. 18, xxxix. 

11). Some suppose the "em- 

, — 


countries after the return from the Babylonian 
Div'ina'tion. Numerous forms of divination are 
mentioned, such as by rods (Hos. iv. 12); by 


definite locality, and not answering to 
tj A$n conception of a "desert." 
Deuteron'omy — "the repetition of the law" — con- 
sists chiefly of three discourses delivered by 
Moses shortly before his death. Subjoined are 
the Song and Blessing of Moses, and the story of 
his death. Modern critics say that Deuteronomy 
is of later origin than the other four books of the 
Pentateuch ; but the book bears witness to hs 
own authorship (xxxi. 19), and was of course 
added by a later hand, and perhaps formed orig- 
inally the beginning of the book of Joshua. • 

lan'a. The Ephesian Diana is to 
be identified with Astarte and other 
female divinities of the East. The 
head wore a mural crown, each 
hand held a bar of metal, and the 
ower part ended in a rude block. 
This idol was believed to have 
fallen down from heaven (Acts 
xix. 35). 

"idrachmon. [Money ; Shekel.] 
id'ymus, that is, the Twin, a sur- 
name of the Apostle Thomas 
itolui xi. 16, xx. 24, xxi. 2). 
Di'nah, the daughter of Jacob by 
Leah (Gen. xxx. 21). She accom- 
panied her father from Mesopo- 
tamia to Canaan, and was vio- 
lated by Shechem the son of 
Hamor, the chieftain of the territory 
(Gen. xxxiv.) Shechem proposed the 
usual reparation by paying a sum and 
marrying her (Gen. xxxiv. 12). The sons of 
acob demanded, as a condition, the circumcision 

b demanded, as , 


20.9 & 

Devil. The name describes Satan as slandering 
God to man, and man to God. 

Dew. This in summer is sc copious in Palestine 
that it supplies to some extent the absence of 
rain (Ecclus. xviii. 16, xliii. 22). 

Di'adem. What the "diadem" of the Jews was, 
we know not. That of other nations of antiquity 
was a fillet of silk, two inches broad, bound 
round the head and tied behind. Its color was 
generally white, sometimes blue, and enriched 
with gems (Zech. ix. 16) and gold (Rev. ix. 7). 

Oi'al. The word ma'aloth is the same as that ren- 


dered "steps" in A. V. (Ex. xx. 26; 1 K. x. 19), 
and "degrees" in A. V. (2 K. xx. 9, 10, 11; Is. 
xxxviii. 8), where we should read the "degrees", 
rather than the "dial" of Ahaz. The best course 

of the Shechemites. They assented ; and on the 
third day, when the pain and fever resulting from 
the operation were at the highest, Simeon and 
Levi, own brothers to Dinah, at- 
tacked them unexpectedly, slew 
all the_ males, and plundered 
their city. 

Dionys'ia, "the feast of Bacchus," 
which was celebrated with wild 
extravagance and licentious en- 

Dionys'ius the Areopagite (Acts 
xvi-i. 34), an eminent Athenian, 
converted to Christianity by the 
preaching of St. Paul. He is 
said to have been first bishop of 

Diony'sus (2 Mace. xiv. 33; 3 
Mace. ii. 2!)), also called Bac- 
chus, the god of wine. 

Diot'rephes, a Christian men- 
tioned in 3 John 9, of whom 
nothing is known. 

Dish. [Basin ; Charger.] In 
ancient Egypt, and also in 
Judaea, guests at the table 
handled their food with the fingers. 
Dispersion, The Jews of the, or simply The Dis- 
persion, was the general title applied to 
those Jews who remained settled in foreign 


arrows (Ez. xxi. 21); by cups (Gen. xli7. 5); Ter- 
aphim (Zech. x. 2; Ez. xxi. 21; 1 Sam. xv. 23) 
[Terapaim]; by the liver (Ez. xxi. 21); by dreams 
(Deut. xiii. 2, 3; Judg. vii. 13; Jer. xxiii. 32); 
oracles (Is. xli. 21-24, xliv. 7). Moses forbade 
every species. At our Lord's coming, imposture 
was rampant. Hence the lucrative trades of such 
men as Simon Magus (Acts viii. 9), Bar-jesus 
(Acts viii. 6, 8), and others, as well as the dealers 
in magical books (Acts xix. 19). 



ivorce. The law regulating this subject is found 
Deut. xxiv. 1-4, and the cases in which th3 right 
of a husband to divorce his wife was lost, are 
stated ib. xxii. 19, 29. The ground of divorce 
the Jewish doctors differed in. 

Do'eg, an Idumaean, chief of Saul's herdmen. 
When Ahimelech gave David the sword of Go- 
liath, he gave information to Saul, and himself 
executed the king's order to destroy the priests of 
Nob, with their families (1 Sam. xxi. 7, xxii. 9, 
1ft, 22; Ps. Hi.). 

Dog, aii animal frequently mentioned in Scripture. 
It was used by the Hebrews as a watch for houses 


(Is. Ivi. 10), and for guarding flocks (Job xxx. 
1). Then, as now, troops of hungry and semi- 
wild dogs used to wander about the fiells and 
cities, devouring dead bodies and other offal (1 

»« e, », o, u, y, long; a, u, I, 6, 6, }>, eliort; care, lai, last, iftll, wfa^ tbere, vejl, tina; pique, tbrm; doue, Jdr, d$}, wyU, ftfed, tQ'o%i 


R. xiv. 11, xvi. 4, xxi. 19, 23, xxii. 38; 2 K. ix. 

10, 36; Jer. xv. 3; Ps. lix. 6, 14). 
Oor'cas. [Tabitha.] 
Do than, first mentioned (Gen. xxxvii. 17) with 

the history of .Joseph. It next appears as the 

residence of Elisha (2 K. yi- 13}. Later we 




Eartn'eaware. [Pottery.] 

Earth* Earthquakes, more or less violent, 
are of frequent occurrence in Palestine. The 
most remarkable occurred in the reign of Uzziah 
(Am. i. 1; Zech. xiv. 5). Prom Zech. xiv. 1, we 
infer a convulsion. An earthquake occurred 




encounter it under the name of Dothaim (Jud. 

iv. 6, vii. 3, 18, viii. 3). It was 12 miles to the 

N. of SebasteJSaniar.ia). 
Dove. The d£vfef s < ''!$l£dity °f flight is alluded 

in Ps. Iv. 6; its plumage in 

Ps. Ixviii. 13; its voice in 

Is. xxxviii. 14, Nali. ii. 7; 

its hamili ssness in Matt. x. 

16; its simplicity in Hos. 

vii. 11, and its amativeness 

in Cant, i. 15, ii. 14. Doves 

are domesticated in many 

parts of the East. 
Jove's Dung. Various ex- 
planations have been given 

of 2 K. vi. 25. Bochart 

has labored to show that it 

denotes a species of cicer, 

"chick-pea," which he says 

the Arabs call sometimes 

improperly ''dove's or spar- 
row's dung." 
Drachm (2 Mace. iv. 10, x. 

20, xii. 43; Luke xv. 8, 9), 

a Greek silver coin, varying 

in weight. In Luke (A. V. 

"piece of silver") denarii 

seem to be intended. 
Drag'on. The iranslators of 

the A. V. have rendered 

"dragon" the two Hebrew 

words Tan and Tannin, 

which appear distinct in 

meaning. I. The former babylonish column. 

refers rather to some wild beast than to a serpent. 

II. The word tannin seems to refer to any great 

monster, whether of land or sea, being more 

usually applied to some kind of serpent or reptile. 

are never referred to as vehicles of divine revela- 

Dress. The art of weaving hair was known to the 
Hebrews at an early period (Ex. xxvi. 7, xxxv. 
6). Wool, we may presume, was introduced at a 
very early period (Gen. xxxviii. 12; Lev. xiii. 

47; Deut. xxii. 11; &c). It is 

probable that the acquaintance 

of the Hebrews with linen, and 

perhaps cotton, dates from the 

captivity in Egypt (1 Chr. iv. 

21). Silk was not introduced 

until a very late period (Rev. 

xviii. 12). The use of mixed 

material, such as wool and flax, 

was forbidden 'Lev. xix. Ii) ; 

Dent. xxii. 1 1 !. 
Drink, Strong. The following bev- 
erages were known to the Jews: 

1. Beer, introduced from Egypt. 

It was made of barley ; certain 

herbs were used for hops. 2. 

Cider, noticed as apple-wine. 3. 

Honey -wine, of two sorts. 4. 

Date-wine. 5. Various others are 

enumerated by Pliny. 
Dromedary. [Camel.] 
Drusil'la, daughter of Herod 

Agrippa I. (Acts xii. 1, 10, ff.) 

and Cypros. She was married to Azizus, kinj 

of Emesa. Soon after, Felix, procurator of 
Judaea, brought about her seduction, and tookj 
her as his wife. Felix had by Drusilla a son, 
who, with his mother, perished in the eruption of 
Vesuvius under Titus. 
Dulcimer, a musical instrument (Dan. iii. 5, 15), 

probably the bagpipe. 
Dung. The uses of dung were twofold, as manure 
and as fuel. The mode of applying manure to 
trees was by digging holes about their roots and 
inserting it (Luke xiii. 8). 
Particular directions were laid 
down in the law to enforce 
cleanliness with regard to 
human ordure (Deut. xxiii. 
12, ff.). The difficulty of pro- 
curing fuel in Syria, Arabia, 
and Egypt, has made dung in 
all ages valuable as a substi- 
itujel Si 

Dungeon. [Prison.] 
Du'ra, the plain where Nebu- 
chadnezzar set up the golden 
image (Dan. iii. 1), sometimes 
identified with a tract on the 
left bank of the Tigris, where 
Ihe name Dnr is still found. 
Dust. [Mouhxixo.] 


at the time of our Saviour's crucifixion | Matt, 
xxvii. 51-54), which may be deemed miraculous 
from the conjunction of circumstances, 
lias*. The Hebrew terms, descriptive of the east, 
differ ; (1 kedem properly means that which is be- 
fore or in front of; (2) mizrach means the place of 
the sun's rising. And hence the application of 
the term (Gen. xxv. 6) to the lands lymgimmedi- 
atcly eastward of Palestine, viz. Arabia, Meso- 
potamia, and Babylonia ; on the other hand miz- 
rach is used of the far east (Is. xii. 2, 25, xliii. 

set! of the far. east (Is. 


The Hebrew word ma 


denote a particular species of 
the Falcomdae, as in Lev. xi. 
13; Deut. xiv. 12, but the term 
is used also to express the 
griffon vulture. Four distinct 
kinds of eagles have been ob- 
served in Palestine, viz. the 
golden eagle, the spotted 


eagle, the imperial eagle, and the very com- h>6i ^^% H)« 

The figure of an Easter. This word in Acts xii. 4, is noticeable as 


In the Apocalypse it is applied metaphorically to 
"the old serpent, called the Devil, and Satan.' 

Dram. [DariO.J / '. \ 

Dreams. Under the Christian dispensation, while 
t>»e read frequently of trances and visions, dreams 

mon Cireaetos gallicus. 
eagle has been long a favorite military en 
sign. The Persians so employed it ; as also 
(lie Assyrians and the Romans. 
Earnest (2 Cor. i. 22. v. 5 ; Eph. i. 14). The 
Hebrew word was used generally for pledge 
(Gen. xxxviii. 17), and in its cognate forms 
for surety (Prov. xvii. 18) and hostage (2 K. 
xiv. 14). 
Ear'rings. The material was generally gold 
(Ex. xxxii. 2), and their form circular. 
They were worn by women and youth. The 
earring appears to have been regarded with 
erstitious reverence. 

The earth was regarded as the universe 
itself, every other body — the heavens, sun, moon, 
and stars — being subsidiary to it. There seem 
tracesoftheideathatthe world wasadisk(l6.xl. 22) 
bordered by theocean, with Jerusalemasitscentre. 


an example of want of consistency in the trans- 
lators. At the last revision Passover was substi- 
tuted in all passages but this. 

E'bal, Mount, a mount in the promised land, on 
which, according to the command of Moses, th< 
Israelites were to "put" the curse which should 
fall upon thera if they disobeyed Jehovah. TL« 
blessing consequent on obedience was on Mount 
Gerizim (Deut. xi. 2H-29). Ebal and Gerizim 
are the mounts which form the sides of the fertile 
valley in which lies Nablits. 

E'bed-Me'lech, an Aethiopian eunuch in the service 
of king Zedekiah, through whose interference 
Jeremiah was released (Jer. xxxviii. 7, ff. , xxxix. 


Eb'en-e'zer ("the stone of help"), a stone set up 
by Samuel after a signal defeat of the Philis- 
tines, as a memorial of the "help" from Jehova.. 

fcirl, rtjde, pnsh; e, i, o, silent; $ as s; $tk as sh ; «, «b, as k; § as J, £ aa In get; s as z; 3 as gz; n as la linger, link; tb as in tnlne. 





(1 Sum. vii. 12). Its position is between Mizpeh 

" |EN. 

Sz. xxvii. 15). The best kind of ebony is 
yielded by tlie Diospyros ebenum, a tree which 
; grow£ in Ceylon and Southern India. 
Ecbat'ana. Many commentators in Ezr. vi. 2, 


translate it "in a coffer." In the apocryphal 
books Ecbatana is frequently mentioned (Tob. 
iii. 7, xiv. 12, 14; Jud. i. 1, 2; 2 Mace. ix. 3,&c). 
Two cities of the name seem to have existed in 
ancient times, one the capital of Northern Media, 
the other the metropolis of Media Magna. 

Ecclesias'tes. The title is in Hebrew Koheleth, a 
feminine noun, signifying one who speaks publicly 
in an assenibly, and hence rendered Eeclesiastes. 

Ecclesias'ticus, one of the books of the Apocry- 
pha, called in the Septuagint The Wisdom of 
Jesus the Sox of Sirach. . We, know, nothing off 
the author. 

probably a country residence of the kings of Da- 
s' dom, Idume'a, or Idumae'a. The name Edom 
was given to Esau when he sold his birthright to 
Jacob for a meal of 
lentil pottage. The 
name Edom signifies 
"red" (Gen. xxv. 29- 
34). The country which 
the Lord gave to Esau 
was called the "field of 
Edom" (Gen. xxxii. 
3), and his descendants 
were called the Edom- 



Egyptian High-Priest v s Dress. 


Eclipse of the Sun. Passages in the prophets 
hide to this phenomenon (Am. viii. 9; Mic. iii. 6; 
Zech. xiv. 6; Joel ii. 10, 31, iii. 15). _ The dark- 
ness at the crucifixion cannot be attributed to an 
eclipse, as the moon was at the full at the time of 
the, Passover. 

E'dar, Tower of, named only in Gen. xxxv. 21. 
According to Jerome it was 1000 paces from Beth- 

Eden. 1. The first residence of man, called Para- 



dise. The latter is a word of Persian origin, and 
describes an extensive pleasure land. 2. One of 
the marts which supplied Tyre with embroidered 
stuffs. 3. Beth-Eden, "house of pleasure;" 

Education. Nothing is 
more carefully incul- 
cated in the Law than 
the duty of parents to 
teach its precepts and 
principles (Ex. xii. 26, 
xiii. 8, 14; Deut. iv. 5, 
9, 10; vi. 2, 7, 20, &c), 
yet there is little trace 
among the Hebrews of 
education in any other 
Eg'lah, one of David's 
wives during his reign 
in Hebron (2 Sam. iii. 
5; IChr. iii. 3). Ac- 
cording to tradition,- she 
was Miehal. 

Eg'lon. 1. A king of the Moabites (Judg. iii. 12, 
ff. ), who crossed the Jordan and took "the city 
of palm-trees." He was slain by Ehud. 2. A 
town of Judah in the low country (Josh. xv. SO). 
Egypt, the northeastern angle of Africa. Its 
limits appear always nearly the same. In 
Ezekiel (xxix. 10, xxx. 6) spoken of as ex- 
tending from Migdol to Syene, the same 
limits as at present. The name of Egypt in 
the Bible is "Mizraim." The Arabic name 
of Egypt, Mizr, signifies "red mud." Egypt 
is also called in the Bible "the land of 
Ham" Ps. cv. 23, 27; comp. lxxviii. 51). j 
The common ancient Egyptian name of the ffif 
country is written in hieroglyphics KEM. j| 
Under the Pharaohs Egypt was divided into |T 
Upper and Lower, "the two regions." The __ 
general appearance of the country cannot 5 
have greatly changed since the days of 
Moses. The whole country is remarkable 
for its extreme fertility. The inundation of 
the Nile fertilizes and sustains the country, 
arid makes the river its chief blessing. The 
Nile was on this account anciently worshipped. 
As early as the age of the Great Pyramid it 
must have been densely populated. 
E'hua. Son of Gera of the tribe of Benjamin 
(Judg. iii. 15), the second Judge of the Israel- 
ites. He was chosen to destroy Eglon. He 
was very strong, and left-handed. 

Ek'roiu A Philistine 
town. AJiir, the mod- 
ern representativedies 
5 miles S. W. of Ram- 
leh. In the Apocry- 
pha it appears as Ac- 
caron (1 Mace. x. 
$&fft t&ly). 

E'l'ah. 1. Son and suc- 
cessor of Baasha,king 
of Israel (1 K. xvi. 
8-10); his reign lasted little more than a 
year. He was killed, while drunk, by 
Zimri. 2. Father of Hoshea, the last king 
of Israel (2 K. xv. 30, xvii. 1). 
Elah, The Valley of. A valley in which the 
Israelites were encamped asrainst the Philis- 
tines when David killed Goliath (1 Sam. 
xvii. 2, 19). 
E'lam seems to have been the name of a man, 
the son of Shem (Gen. x. 22; l_Chr. i. 17). Com- 
monly, however, the appellation of a country 
(Gen, xiv. 1, 9; Is. xi. 11; Jer. xxv. 25, &c). 
E'lath, E'loth, the name of a town in the land of 
Edom, and situate at the head of the Arabian 
Gulf, which was thence called the Elantic 

Guif> *:> 

El-Beth'el, the name Jacob bestowed on the place 

at which God appeared to Mm when flying from 
Esau (Gen. xxv. 7). 

El'dad and Me'dad, two of the 70 elders to whom 
was communicated the prophetic power of Moses 
(Nuui.xi. 16,26). 

Elder. The term elder or old man was one oi ex- 
tensive use, as an official title, among the He- 
brews and the surrounding nations. It had refer- 

■i> 4 -i o U U 1 7o 

ence to various offices (Gen. xxiv. 2, 1. 7; 2 Sam. 
xii. 17; Ez. xxvii. 9). AVherever a patriarchal 
system is in force, the office of the elder will be 
found. The earliest notice of the elders as a po- 
litical body is at the time of the Exodus. Lastly 
at the commencement of the Christian era, when 
they are noticed as a distinct body from the San- 
hedrim, (Luke xxii. 66; Acts xxii. 5). 
E.ea'zar, third son of Aaron, by Elisheba, daugh- 
ter of Amminadab. With his brother Ithamar he 
ministered as a priest during their father's life- 
time, and immediately before his death was in- 
vested on Mount Hor with the sacred garments, 
as the successor of Aaron in the office of high- 


xx. 28). The time of his death is 

priest (Num 

not mentioned. 
El-elo'he-Is'rael, the name bestowed by Jacob on 

the altar he erected facing the city of Shechem 

(Gen., xxxiii. 19, 20). 
Elephant. The word is found as the marginal 

reading to Behemoth, in Job. xl. 15. "Elephant's 

teeth" is the marginal reading for "ivory" in 1 K. 

x. 22; 2 Chr. ix. 41; are mentioned in the 1st and 

244 5 



2d books of Maccabees, as used in warfare (1 

Mace, vi.) 
Elha'nan. A distinguished warrior in the time of 

King David, who performed a memorable exploit 

against the Philistines. 
E'li xvas descended from Aaron through Ithamar, 

the youngest of his two surviving sons (Lev. x. 1. 

2, 12; comp. 1 K. ii. 27, with 2 Sam, viii. 17; 1 

a, e, i, 5, u, y, long ; &, e. I, 6, A, f, ehort; care, Sax, list, fall, wh $t; there, veil, term; pique, firm; ddue, t&v. do. wolf, food, foot; 





Chr. xxiv. 8); supposed to have been the first of 
his line who held the office. From him it ap- 
pears to have passed to his grandson, Ahitub ( I 
Sam. xiv. 3), and it remained in his family till 
Abiatharwas "thrust out" by Solomon (1 K. ii. 
26, 27; i. 7), and the high-priesthood passed back 
to the family of Eleazar in the person of Zadok 
(1 K. ii. 85). Its return to the elder branch was 
part of the punishment denounced against Eli for 
his culpable negligence (1 Sam. ii. 22-25). Not- 
withstanding this blemish, the character of Eli is 
marked by eminent piety. In addition to high- 
Driest, he was judge, being the immediate prede- 
ci isor of his pupil Samuel (1 Sam. vii. 6, 15-17), 
the last of the, judges. He died at the advanced 
age of 08 years (LSam. iv. 15). 
Eli'ada. 1. Olii^e! 'Bavid's sons, born to him 
after his establishment in Jerusalem (2 Sam. v. 
16; 1 Chr. iii. 8). 2. A mighty man of war (2 
Chr. xvii. 17| |i T 2'> 
Eli'akim. Son of Ilifkiah; master of Hezekiah's 

h ousehold 
( " over the 
house, ' as Is. 
^ xxxvi. 3), 2K. 
xviii. 18, 26, 
37. He suc- 
ceeded Shebna 
in this office 
(Is. xxii. 15— 
20). Eliakim 
was a good 
man (Is. xxii. 
20; 2 K. xviii. 
37, xix. 1-5 ; 
Is. .xxii. 21). 
Eli'am. Father 
of Bathsheba, 
the wif e o f 
David (1 Sam. 
xi. 3). 

Ell'as, the form Su'whiG^ the name of Elijah is 
given. *\f\W 

Elie'zer. 1. Abra^iWsjchief servant, "Eliezer of 
Damascus (Gen. xv. 2). 2. Second son of Moses 
and Zipporah, to whom his father gave this name 
(Ex. xviii. 4; 1 Chr.^xxiii. 15, 17) ; 
Eli'hu. One ofc^ljs-^iterlocutors in the book of 
Job He is described as the "son of Barachel 
the Buzite," and thus of the family of Buz, son 
of Nahor, and nephew of Abraham (Gen. xxii. 

Eli'jah. There ii tipfte'isonage in the 0. T. whose 
career is a more remarkable fascination. "Elijah 
the Tishbite of the inhabitants of Gilead," is all 
that is given us of his parentage and locality 
His chief characteristic was his hair, long and 
thick, and hanging down his back. His ordinary 



appears before Ahab, aad proclaims the venge- 
ance of Jehovah. It is plain that Elijah had to 
fly. Perhaps it was at this juncture that Jezebel 
''cut off the prophets of Jehovah" (1 K. xviii. 
4). He was directed to the brook Chcrith, 



ing the rest of his long life. Elisha presents the 
most complete contrast to Elijah. The collection 
of his sayings and doings, preserved from the 8d 
to the 9th chapter of the 2d book of Kings, is 

full of testimonies to this contrast. We can 


Thenceforward his life is made up of wonderful gather that his dress was the ordinary garment o 
..■■■■in ^ ■""'•' ' 


clothing consisted of a girdle of skin round his 
loins, which he tightened when about to move 
quickly (1 K. xviii. 46). But in addition to this 
he occasionally wore the "mantle," or cape, of 
sheepskin. In this mantle, in moments of emo- 
tion, he would hide his face (1 K. xix. 13), or 
when excited would roll it up as into a kind of 


miracles and events, such as the prolonging of 
the widow's meal ; the restoring the child to life ; 
the burning up of the sacrifice, with the slaughter 
of the prophets; the consuming of the fifties; 
the selection of Elisha ; and, finally, his depart- 
ure from earth in the whirlwind. 
Elim'elech, a man of Judah, who dwelt in Bethle- 
hem-Ephratah in the days of the Judges. In 
consequence of a dearth he went with his wife 
Naomi, and his two sons, Mahlon and Chilion, to 
dwell in Moab, where he and his sons died with- 
out posterity (Ruth i. 2, 3, &c). 
Eliph'alet, the last of thirteen sons born to David 
-5 in "Jerusalem (2 Sam. v. 16; 1 Chr. xiv. 7). 
El'ipliaz. 1. The son of Esau and Adah, 
the father of Teman (Gen. xxxvi. 4; 1 
Chr. i. 35, 36). 2. The chief of the 
"three friends" of Job. He is called 
"the Temanite;" hence a descendant o 
Eliph'elet, the name of a son of David, 
born to him in Jerusalem ( 1 Chr. iii, 6). 
Eiis'aheth, the wife of Zacharias and mother 
of John the Baptist. She was of the 
priestly family, 
and a relation 
(Luke i. 30) of 
the mother of our 

ftj)5 f1 f 

Elise us, the form 
in which the 
name Elisha ap- 
pears in the Apocrypha 
andN. T. (Ecclus. xlviii. 
12; Lukeiv. 27). 
Eli'sha, son of Shaplmt of 
Abel-meholah ; the at- 
tendant and disciple of 
Elijah, and his successor 
as prophet of Israel. 1. 
The earliest mention of 
his name is in 1 K. xix. 
16, 17). Our introduc- 
tion to him is in the 
fields of his native place. 
Elijah, on his way from 
Sinai to Damascus, lights 
on his successor engaged 
in the labors of the fk-ld. 
To cross to him, to throw over his shoulders the 
rough mantle, was to Elijab but the work of an 
instant. Elisha delayed merely to give the fare- 
well kiss to his father and mother, and preside at 
a parting feast, and then followed the great 
prophet. Seven or eight years pass, during which 
we hear nothing of him. But he reappears, to 
become the most promineut figure in history dur 


an Israelite, the beged (2 K. ii. 12), that his hair 
was worn trimmed behind, and that he used a 
walking-staff. For 55 years he held the office of 
"prophet in Israel" (2 K. v. 8). After the de- 
parture of his master, Elisha returned to dwell at 
Jericho (2 K. ii. 18). As in the case of his pre- 
decessor, his life is made up of remarkable mir- 
acles and events, among which are the destruc- 
tion of the scoffing children; the multiplying of 
the widow's oil ; the restoring of the Shnnemite's 
child to life ; the curing of the pottage ; the heal 
ing of Naaman and 1he smiting ofGchazi; t'. 
causing of the.lost axe to swim ; and the smiting 


of the Syrian warriors with blindness. 
Eli'shah, the eldest son of Javan (Hen. x. 4). The 

residence of his descendants is described in Ez. 
'as the "isles of Elishah. 

1. Son of Ammihud, the "prince" or 

"captain" of Ephraim in the wilderness of Sinai 

(Num. i. 10, ii. 18, vii. 48, x. 22). Grandfather 

to the great Joshua. 2. A son of King David, 

born to him in Jerusalem (2 Sain. v. 16: 1 Chr. 

iii. 8, xiv. 7). 3. Another son of David (1 Chr. 

Mk |> totalled Elishua. 
Elish'eba, wife of Aaron (Ex. vi. 23); daughter of 

Amminadab, and sister of Naashon the captain 

of Judah (Num. ii. 3] 
Elishu'a, one of David's sons, born in Jerusalem 

(2 Sam. v. 15; 1 Chr. xiv. 5). 
El'kanah. 1. Son. or rather grandson (see 1 Chr. 

vi. 22, 23, [7, 8]), of Korah. 2. A Kohathite 

Levite, father of Samuel the illustrious Judge 

end Prophet (1 Chr. vi. 27, 341 
El 'kosh, the birthplace of the prophet Nahum ; a 

villain of Galilee. 
Elm, Hos. iv. 13. See Oak. 
E'lon, a Hittite, whose daughter wasone of Eseu's 

wives (Gen. xxvi. 34, xxxvi. 2). 

ataff. His introd uction is startling : he suddenly 

«Orl, rgde, ^ah77, i, o, silent; $ as s; jh. aa sb; «, ch, as Is; § aa ), g as In get; S aa z; s as gx; n as In linp— , Unit; «» as In tbte 


■ ■m— 

l ■ i.-—. fSm 


Elpa'let, one of David's sons born in Jerusalem (1 

Chr. xiv. 5). 
E'M, Neh. vi. 15; 1 Mace. xiv. 27. [Months.] 


were going when our Lord appeared to them on 
the way (Luke xxiv. 13). Luke makes its dis- 
tance from Jerusalem sixty stadia (A. V. " three- 
score furlongs"), or about 7} miles. 
Em'maus, or Nicop'olis (1 Mace. iii. 40), a town 


El'ymas, the Arabic name of the Jewish magus or 
sorcere* Barjesus (Acts xiii. 6, ft'.). 
Embalming. It was. most general among the 
Egyptians (Gen. 1. 2, 26). Of the Egyptian 
method there remain two accounts, which have a 
general agreement. The embalmers removed the 
brain and the intestines, and then filled the cavi- 
ties with spices. This done, the body was sewn 
up, steeped in natron for some days, and then 
delivered to the re- 
latives of the de- 
ceased, who provid- 
ed for it in a wooden 
case, in the shape ot 
a man, in which the 
dead was placed, 
and deposited in an 
erect position 
against the wall of 
the sepulchral cham- 
Embroiderer. Em- 
broidery by the loom 
was exten sively 
practiced among the 
ancients. In ad- 
dition to the Egyp- 
cymbals. tians, the Babyloni- 

ans were celebrated for it ; but embroidery with 
the needle was a Phrygian invention of later 

Em'erald, a precious stone, first in the second row 
on the breastplate of the high-priest (Ex. xxviii. 



in the plain of Philistia, 22 Roman 

En, beginning many Hebrew words, 

spring or.fountain. 
Enchant'ments. These methods of imposture were 

signifies a 


E'noch, The Book of. The first trace of its 
existence is generally found in the Epistle 
of St. Jude (14, 15), but the words of the Apostle 
leave it uncertain 
whether he derived his 
quotation from tradition 
or from writing. 1 1 is 
uncertain whether the 
Greek text was the 
original, or a transla- 
tion from the Hebrew. 
The book consists of a 
series of revelations 
supposed to have been 
given to Enoch and 

E'non, a place "near to 
Salim," at which John 
baptized (John iii. 23). 
It was west of the Jor- 
dan and abounded in 
water. This is indi- 
cated by the name, sig- 
nifying ''springs." 



18, xxxix. 11), imported from Syria (Ez. xxvii. 
16), used as a seal or signet (Ecclus. xxxii. 6), as 
an ornament (Ez. xxviii. 13), and one of the 
foundations of Jerusalem (Rev. xxi. 19. Tob. 
xiii. lfi). 
Em'erods (Deut. xxviii. 27; 1 Sam. v. 6, 9, 12, vi. 
4, 5, 11). Probably hemorrhoidal tumors, or 
bleeding piles, are intended. 

E'mims, a tribe or family of gigantic stature which 


originally inhabited the region along the eastern 
side of the Dead Sea. The Moabitea termed 
them Emim — that is. "terrible men" (Deut. ii. 
Emnian'uet, Matt. i. 23. [Immanuel.] 
Era'maus, the village to which the two disciples 


strictly forbidden in Scripture (Lev. xix. 26; Is. 
xlvii. 9, &c), yet we find them still flourishing at 
the Christian Era (Acts xiii'. 6, 8, viii. 9, 11; Gal. 
v. 20; Rev. ix. '21). 
En'-dor, a phice long held in memory by the Jew- 
ish people as connected with the great victory 
over Sisera and Jabin. Here the witch dwelt 
whom Saul consulted (1 Sam. xxviii. 7). The 
distance from the slopes of Gilboa to Endor is 7 
or 8 miles. 
En'gedi, a town on the western shore of the Dead 
Sea (Ez. xlvii. 10). Its site is about the middle 
of the western shore of the lake, at the fountain 
of Ain Jidy. Saul was told that David was in the 
"wilderness of Engedi;" and he took 3000 men 
and went to seek him (1 Sam. xxiv. 1-4). The 
vineyards of Engedi were celebrated by Solomon 
(Ca»t. i. 14). 
Engine, a term applied to military affairs in the 
Bible. The engines were to propel missiles 
from the walls of a besieged town : one, 
with which the Hebrews were acquainted, 
was the battering-ram described in 
Ez. xxvi. 9, and still more precisely 
in Ez. iv. 2, xxi. 22. 
Engra'ver. His chief business was 
cutting names or devices on rings 
and seals ; the only notices are Ex. 
xxviii. .11, 21 , 30. 
En-liak'kore, the spring which burst 
out in answer to the cry of Samson 
after his exploit with the jawbone 
" xv. 19). 

1. The eldest son of Cain 
(Gen. iv. 17), who called the city 
which he built after his name (18). 2. 
The son of Jared and father of Methuselah 
(Gen. v. 21, ff.; Luke iii. 28 ; see Gen. v. 22-24). 
The phrase "walked wi'h God" is elsewhere only 
used of Noah, and is to be explained of a life spent 
in immediate converse with the spiritual world- 

En-rd'gel, a spring. Here 

Jonathan and Ahimaaz 

remained, after the flight of David (2 Sam. xvii. 
17);, and here Adonijah held the feast (1 K. i. 9). 

Ensign. The character of the Hebrew military 
standards is a matter of conjecture ; they prob- 
ably resembled the Egyptian, which consisted of 
a sacred emblem, such as an animal, a boat, or 
the king's name. 

Epaene'tus, a Christian at Rome, greeted by St. 
Paul in Rom. xvi. 5, and designated as his be- 
loved, and the first fruit of 
Asia unto Christ. 

Ep'aphras, a fellow-laborer 
with the Apostle Paul (Col. 
i. 7). He was with St. 
Paul at Rome (Col. iv. 12), 
and seems to have been a 
Colossian by birth. Epaph- 
ras may be the same as 
gl^ Epaphrbai'tus (Phil. ii. 25, 
r iv. 18). See above under 


E'phes-dam'mim, a place be- 
tween Socoh and Azekah, 
at which the Philistines were 
encamped before the affray 
in which Goliath was killed 
(1 Saui r xvii. 1). 

Ephesians, The Epistle to the, 
was written by St. Paul dur- jmajna. 

ing his first captivity at Rome (Acts xxviii. 16), 
apparently immediately after the Epistle to the 
Colossians, and (a. d. 62) when his imprisonment 
had not assumed the severer character. It was 
addressed to the Christian church at Ephesus. 
Its contents may be divided into doctrinal and 
hortatory and practical. 

Eph/eSus, the capital of the Roman province of 
Asia, and an illustrious city in the district of 
Ionia. Conspicuous at the head of the harbor of 
Ephesus was thegreattemple of Diana or Artemis, 
the tutelary divinity of the city. The magnifi- 
cence of this sanctuary was a proverb throughout 

'5v 515 


the civilized world. A large manufactory grew 
up there of portable shrines, which strangers 
purchased, and devotees carried with them. The 
city was celebrated for its magical arts. Ephesus 

&, e, I, o, u, j?, long; a, e, i, 6, A, f, siiurt; ears, far, l&st, *aU,vtfvjt; there, veil, tSrm; pique, firm; done, fdr, tig, wplf, food, foot; 


ilself was a "free city,' ' and Lad its own assem- 
blies and its own magistrates. The Jews were 
established there in considerable numbers (Acts 
ii. 9, vi. 9). The first seeds of Christian truth 
were possibly sown at Ephesus immediately after 


the Great Pentecost (Acts ii). The whole place 
is now desolate. « rt 

Ephod, a sacr^J^BiJiJnt of tne high-priest (Ex. 
xxviii. 4), but afterwards worn by ordinary priests 
(1 Sam. xxii. 18), and deemed characteristic of 
the office (1 Sam^iL 28, xiv. 3; Hos iii. 4). 

E'phraim, the second son of Joseph by his wife 
Asenath. He was born before the beginning of 
the seven years of famine, 17 years before Jacob's 
death (Gen. xlvii. 28). Before Joseph's death 


E'phraim, Gate of, one of the gates of Jerusalem 
(2 K. xiv. 13; 2 Chr. xxv. 23), probably at or 
near the present ''Damascus gate." 

E'phraim, The Wood of, a wood, or forest, E. of 
Jordan, in which the fatal battle was fought 

~P~— — rjs. be I With I he. anuies of I >;i\ ill and nf 
"sf 1 Absalom ^2 Sum. x\ili. Ii'. 
a Ephra'in, a city of Israel, which with 
HI its dependent hamlets Abijah and 
the army of Judah captured from 
Jeroboam (2 Chr. xiii. 19). 
Eph'ratah, or Eph'rath. The ancient 
name of Bethlehem-Judah, as is 
manifest from Gen. xxxv. 16, 19, 
Eph'ron. The son of Zochar, a Ilit- 
tite, from whom Abraham bought 
the field and cave of Machpelah 
(Gen. xxiii. 8-17: xxv. 9, xlix. 2^, 
oil, 1. 13,). 
Epicu'reans, The, derived their name 
from Epicurus (342-271 n. c). True 
pleasure and not absolute truth was 
the end, experience and not reason {K 
the test on which he relied. When " 
St. Paul addressed "Epicureans and 
Stoics" (Acts xvii. 18) at Athens, the phil- 
osophy of life was reduced to the teaching 
of those two antagonistic schools. 
Epistle. The epistles of the N. T. in form 
harmonize with Greek and Roman customs. 
They begin (Ileb. and 1 John excepted) with 
the names of the writer, and those to whom 
addressed. Then follows the salutation. 
Then the letter. After the letter the indi- 
vidual messages. When done the Apostle 



irrevocably the covenant blessing. Esau married 
his cousin Mahalath (xxviii. 8, 9), and soon 
afterwards established himself in Mount Seir. 

He was resi( 

when Jacob ru- 


Ephraim's family had reached the third genera 
tion (Gen. 1. 23), the time of the affray mentioned 
in 1 Chr. vii. 21. To this period, too, must be 
referred the circumstance alluded to in Ps. lxxviii. 
9. The boundaries of the tribe are given in Josh, 
xvi. 1-10. 

E'phraim. In *'Bafil>liizor which is by Ephraim" 
was Absalom's sheep farm, at which took place 
the murder of Amnon (2 Sam. xiii. 23). There 
is no clew to its situation. 

E'phraim, a city to which our Lora retired with his 


disciples when threatened with violence by the 
pnests (John xi. 54). Perhaps Ophrah and Eph- 
raim are identical. 


added (Gal. vi. 11) the authenticating autograpn. 
Er. First born of Judah. ''The Lord slaw him" 

(Gen. xxxviii. 3-7; Num xxvi. 19). 
Eras'tiis. One of the attendants or deacons of St. 
Paul at Ephesus (Acts xix. 22). Probab- 
ly the same with Erastus who is again men- 
tioned in 2 Tim. iii. 20. 
Esa'ias, the form of the name of the prophet 

Isaiah irr the N. T. 
E'sar-had'don, one of the greatest of the 
kings of Assyria, was the son of Sennach- 
erib (2 K. xix. 37). Nothing is 
really known of Esar-haddon until 
his accession (ab. b. c. 680; 2 K. xix. 
37; Is. xxxvii. 38). He appears one 
of the most powerful of all the As- 
syrian monarchs. His Babylonian 
reign lasted thirteen years, from B. c. 
680 to b. c. 007. 
E'sau, the eldest son of Isaac, and 
twin-brother of Jacob. The singular 
appearance of the child at his birth 
originated the name (Esau means 
hairy, Gen. xxv. 25). Even in the 
womb the twin-brothers struggled to- 
gether (xxv. 22). Jacob in his 
brother's distress robbed him of that 
which was dear as life to an Eastern 
patriarch. Esau married at 40, and 
contrary to the wish of his parents. 
His wives were both Canaanites (Gen. xxvi. 
34, 35). The next episode is doubly painful 

turned from Padan-aram, and had become rich 
and powerful. It does not appear that the broth- 
ers again met until 20 years afterwards. They 
united in laying Isaac's body in the cave of Mach- 
pelah. Of Esau's subsequent history nothing is 

E'say, the form of the name of Isaiah in Ecclus. 

jxiviii, ■20, 21- 2 Esd. ii. 18. 

lisdrae'Ion, the Greek form of the Hebrew word 
Jezreel, the battle-field on which Gideon tii 
umphed, and Saul and Jonathan were overthrown 
(Judg. vii. 1, sq.; 1 Sam. xxix and xxxi.). Two 
things are worthy of notice: 1. Its wonderful 
richness. 2. Its desolation. It is the home of 
the. wild wandering Bedouin. 

Es'dras. The form of the name of Ezra the scribe 
in 1 and 2 Esdras. Esdkas, First Book of, the 
first in order of the Apocryphal books in the Eng- 
lish Bible. It was never known to exist in He- 
brew, and formed no part of the Hebrew Canon. 
Esdras, The Second Book ok. Though this 
book is included among those ''read for examples 
of life" by the English Church, no use of it is 
there made in public worship. 

Esh'ool, one of Abrahau 

ompanipms in his pv, 

2 d2v 

Jacob, through the craft, of his mother, secures 1 


suit of the foul kings who had carried off Lot 
(Gen. xiv. 13, 24). 

SUrl, rpde, ptxsh; «■, i, o, silent; { «a i j {b ts sU; «,«b, M k; 6 as j, g aa in get; s as z; j as gz; q as la linger, link; ft m In « *»'" ■ * » 






Esh col, The Valley, or the Brook of, a wady near 
Hebron, explored by the spies sent by Moses 
Num. xxxiii. 9; Deut. i. 24). 

Esh'taol, a town of Judah. Here .Samson spent 




his boyhood, and hither his body was brought 
(Judg. xiii. 25j xvi. 31, xviii. 2, 8, 11, 12). 

EBsg'nes, a Jewish sect, distinguished by an aspi- 
ration after ideal purity rather than by any special 
code of doctrines. All things were held in com- 
mon, without distinction of property. 

Es'ther, the Persian name of Hadassah, daughter 
of Abihail. Esther was a beautiful Jewish 
maiden, whose ancestor Kish had been among 

The country described by the Hebrews 
as ' 'Gush" lay to the S. of Egypt. The inhabi- 
tants of Ethiopia were a Hamitic race (Gen. x. 
6). Shortly before our Saviour's birth a native 
dynasty of females, holding the official 
title ot Candace (Plin. vi. 35), held sway 

in Ethiopia. One of these is the queen 

noticed in Acts viii. 27. 
Ethio'pian Woman. The wife of Moses is 
^described in Num. xii. 1; elsewhere 
said to have been the daughter of a Mid- 
Eubulus, a Christian at Rome mentioned 

by St. Paul (2 Tim. iv. 21). 
Euiti'ce, mother of Timotheus (2 Tim. 


Eu'riuch. The law (Deut. xxiii. 1 ; comp. 
Lev. xxii. 24) is repugnant to thus treat- 
any Israelite. The origination of the 
practice is ascribed to Semiramis, and is no 
doubt as early as Eastern despotism itself. 
The court of Herod of course had its eunuchs, 
as had also that of Queen Candace (Acts viii. 
27)4 J 3 

Euo'dias, a Christian woman at Philippi (Phil iv. 
2). The name is correctly Ei odia. 

Euphra'tes is probably a word signifying "the good 
and abounding river." The Euphrates is the 
largest, the longest, and by far the most impor- 
tant of the rivers of Western Asia. It rises in 
the Armenian mountains and flows into the Per- 
sian Gulf. The entire course is 1780 miles. The 
Euphrates is first mentioned in Gen. ii. 14. We 


Ex'ecutioner. Potiphar was "captain of the ex- 
ecutioners'' (Gen xxxvii. 36). The "captain of 
the guard" occasionally pe/formed the duty of an 
executioner (1 K. ii. 25, 34). The post was of 



the captives from Jerusalem. She was an orphan, 
brought up by her cousin Mordecai, who had an 
office in the household of Ahasuerus king of 
Persia. When Vashti was dismissed the choice 
fell upon Esther. The plan of Haman to kill 
all the Jews, and its frustration by Esther are 
fully recorded in the book of Esther. 
Es'ther, Book of, one of the latest of the canonical 
books of Scripture. The,- - ♦!■■ i is not known, 1 


but may have been Mordecai himself. Those who 
ascribe it to Ezra, or the Great Synagogue, may 
have meant that Ezra edited and added it to the 
canon of Scripture. 

E'tam. A place in Judab, fortified by Rehoboam 
(2 Chr. xi. 6). Here, according to Josephusand 
the Talmudists, were the sources of the water 
from which Solomon's gardens were fed, and 
Bethlehem and the Temple supplied. 

E'tam, The Bock, a cliff or lofty rock, into a cleft 


next hear of it in Gen. xv. 18. 
Euroc'lydon, the name given (Acts xxvii. 14) to 
the gale which off Crete seized the ship in which 
St. Paul was ultimately wrecked on the coast of 
Eu'tychus, a youth at Troas (Acts xx. 9) who sit- 
ting in a window, and having fallen asleep while 
St. Paul was discoursing far into the night, fell 
from the third story, and taken up dead, was 
miraculously restored by the Apostle. 
Evangelist means»"the publisher of glad tidings." 
In Eph. iv. 11, the "evangelists" appear after the 
'apostles" and "prophets," and before the 
''pastors" and "teachers." The Apostles, 
so far as they evangelized (Acts viii. 25, xiv. 
_7; 1 Cor. i. 17), might claim the title 
Eve, the name given in Scripture to tbe first 


high dignity. 
Ex'odus, the second book of the Law or Penta- 
teuch. It may be divided into two principal 
parts: I. Historical, i. 1-xviii. 27; and, II. 
^Legislative, xix. 1-xl. 38. 

Ex'brcist. That some possessed the power of ex- 
orcising, appears in Matt. xii. 27. What means 
were employed by real exorcists we are not in- 
formed. The power of casting out devils was 

bestowed by Christ 

upon the Apostles 

(Matt. x. 8) and the 

seventy disciples (Luke 

x. 17-13), and was 

(Mark xvi. 17) exer- 
cised by believers after 

His Ascension (Acts 

xvi. 18). 
Ezg'kiel, one of the four 

greater prophets, the 

son of Buzi, and taken 

captive eleven years be- 
fore the destruction of 

Jerusalem. His call 

took place "in the fifth 

year of king Jehoia-, 

chin's captivity," b. c. 

595 (i. 2). He lived in 

the highest considera- 
tion among his companions in exile, and their 
elders consulted him on all occasions (viii. 1, xi. 
25, xiv. 1. xx. 1, &c). His mission extended 
over twenty-two years. He is said to have been 
murdered in Babylon. The book is divided into 
two great parts — of which the destruction of 
Jerusalem is the turning-point. In the Apoca- 
lypse there are many parallels and obvious allu- 
sions to the later chapters (xl.-xlviii.). 
E'zel, The Stone. A well-known stone near Saul's 
residence, the scene of the parting of David and 
Jonathan (1 Sam. xx. 19). 
Ez'ra, called Esdras in the Apocrypha, the famous 
Scribe and^ Priest, descended from Hilkiah the 
high-priest in Josiah's reign. All that is really 
known of Ezra is contained in the four last chap- 
ters of the book of Ezra and in Neb., viii, and 



ojt chasm of which Samson retired after his 

slaughter of the Philistines (Judg. xv. 8, 11). 
Eth'anim. [Months.] 
Ethba'al, king of Sidon and father of Jezebel (1 

K. xvi. 81). The date of Ethbaal's reign maybe 

yi ven as about b. c. 940-908, 


woman. The account of Eve's creation and sin 
is found at Gen. ii. 21, 22. 
E'vil-mero'dach (2 K. xxv. 27), the son and suc- 
cessor of Nebuchadnezzar. He reigned but a 
short time, being (b. c. 659) murdered by Nerig- 


xii. 26. To him is ascribed the settling the canor* 
of Scripture, and restoring, correcting, and edit- 
ing the whole sacred volume. 
Ez'ra, Book of, is a continuation of the books of 
Chronicles. Likethesebooks,itconsistsofcontem- 
porary historical journals kept from time to time. 

S. e, I, 5, a, f, long; 6, e, I, 0, 0, f, slwrt; o&re, iar, last, fall, wbft(*.til&c», vgjl, ttrmj pique, tfrm; doue, tdv, da, wjU, food, icTot; 


eable. Of the fable, as distinguished from the 

the parable, we have two examriles in the Bible, 



or pure fat of an animal, and the fat which 

waij intermixed with the lean (Ueh. viii. 10). 
Father. The position and authority of the father 
aa the head of the family are 
_ expressly assumed ami 
sanctioned in Srripl are. 

Fathom. [Mkasukks.] 

Feasts. [Festivals.] 

Fe'lik, a Roman procu- 
rator of Judaea, appoint- 
ed by the Emperor 
Claudius. lie ruled in 
a mean, cruel, and profli- 
gate manner. St. Paul 
was brought before Felix 
inCaesarea. He was re- 
manded to prison and 
kept two years, in hopes 
of extorting money from 
him (Actsxxiv. 20, 27). 
At the end of that time 
Porcius Festus was ap- 
pointed to supercede 
Felix. The wife of Felix 
was Drusilla, daughter 
of Herod Agrippa I., 
the former wife or Azizus 
king of Emesa. 

Fenced Cities. The forti- 



every male Israelite was commanded "to appear 
before the Lord" (Deut. xxvii. 7; Neh. vm. P- 

12). II. Alter the captivity, the Feast of Purim 


(1) that of Judg. ix. 8-15; (2) that of 2 K. xiv. 
9. The fables alluded to (1 Tim. i. 4, iv. 7 ; Tit. 
i. 14; 2 Pet. i. 16) do not appear such. 

Fair Ha'vens, a harbor in the island of Crete 
(Acts xxvii. 8), still known by its own Greek 

Fairs, a word which occurs only in Ez. xxvii., 
seven times (ver. 12, 14, 10, 19, 22, 27, 33): in 
the last of these rendered "wares," the true 
meaning of the word throughout. 

Fallow-deer, the Hob- word mentioned only in 
Deut. xiv. 5, and in 1 K. iv. 23. Probably the 
size ot a stag, and lives in herds. 

Famine. The- first famine recorded is that of 
Abraham (Gen. xii. 10). We hear no more of 
times of scarcity until the great famine of Eg}'pt 
which '"was over all the face of the earth." 
In Arabia, famines are of frequent occurrence. 

Farthing. Two names of coins in the N. T. are 
rendered in the A. V. by this word. — 1. quadrans 
(Matt.v. 26; Mark xii. 42), a coin current in 
Palestine in the time of our Lord. It was equiv- 
alent to two lepta (A. V. "mites"). 2. (Matt. 
x. 29; Luke xik 61. A. small as, assarium. 

Fasts. I. One fast "only was appointed by the law, 
that of Atonement. There is no mention of any 
other periodical fast in the 0. T., except in Zech. 
vii. 1-7, viii. 19. II. Public fasts were occasion- 
ally proclaimed to express national humiliation, 
and to supplicate divine favor. III. Private 
occasional fasts are recognized in one passage of 
the law (Num. xxx. 13). IV. In the N. T. the 
only references to the Jewish fasts are the men- 
tion of "the Fast" in Acts xxvii. 9, and the allu- 
sions to the weekly fasts (Matt. ix. 14; Mark i" 
18; Luke v. 33, xviii. 12; Acts x. 30). 
originated after the captivity. V. The 



of the personal will, which gives to fasting all its 
value, is expressed in the old term in the law, 
afflicting the soul. 
Fat. The Hebrews distinguished between the suet 


fications of the cities of Palestine, regu- 
larly fenced, consisted of one or more 
walls crowned with battlemented par- 
apets, having towers at regular inter- 
vals (2 Chr. xxxii. 5; Jer. xxxi. 38). 
Ferret. One of the unclean creeping 
things mentioned in Lev. xi. 30, 
probably a reptile. Rabbinical writers 
identify the hedgehog. 
Festivals. I. The religious times or- 
dained in the Law fall under three 
heads: (1.) those connected with 
the Sabbath; (2.) The historical or 
great festivals ; (3. ) The Day of 
Atonement. (1.) Immediately con- 
nected with the Sabbath are : (a) The 
weekly Sabbath itself, (b) The sev- 
enth new moon or Feast of Trumpets, 
(e) The Sabbatical Year. (d) The 
Year of Jubilee. (2.) The great feasts 
are: (a) < The Passover. (6) The Feast of Pen- 
tecost, of Weeks, of Wheat-harvest, or, of the 
First Fruits, (c) The Feast of Tabernacles, or 
of Ingathering. On each of these occasions 


(Esth. ix. 20, sq.) and that of the Dedication (1 
Mace. iv. 50) were instituted. 

Fes'tus Por'cius, successor of Felix as procurator 
of Judaea (Acts xxiv. 27), sent by Nero 00 a. d. 
Festus heard the cause of St. Paul in the pres- 
ence of Herod Agrippa II. and Bernice his sister 
(Acts xx.-. 11, 12). He died probably 62 a. d. 

Fetters. Fetters were usually made of brass, and 
also in pairs. Iron was occasionally employed 
(Pfl. cv. 18, cxlix. 8). 

Fever (Lev. xxvi. 10; Deut. xxviii. 22). Inter- 
mittent fever and dysentery, the latter often fatal, 
are ordinary Arabian diseases. 

Fig, Fig-tree. The fig-tree is very common in 
Palestine (Deut. viii. 8). Mount Olivet was 
famous for its fig trees, and they are still found 

Fir (Is. xiv. 8; Ez. xxvii. 5, &c). "Fir" in the 
A. V. represents probably one or other of the 
following trees : 1. Pinus sylvestris, or Scotch 
fir: 2. Larch; 3. Cupressus sempervirens, or 

Fire, represented as . the symbol of Jehovah's 
presence, and the instrument of his power (Ex. 
iii. 2, xiv. 19, &c. ). Fire for sacred purposes 
obtained elsewhere than from the altar was called 
"strange fire," and for the use of such Nadah 
and Abihu were punished with defith (Lev. x. 1, 
2; Num. iii. 4, xxvi. 61). 

Firepan. Two articles so called : one, like a 
chafing-dish, to carry live coals for the incense ; 
another, like a snufler-dish, used in trimming the 

Firkin. [Weights and Measures.] 

First-horn. Under the Law, the eldest son was re- 
garded as devoted to God, and was to be redeemed 
by an offering. The eldest son received a double 
portion of the father's inheritance (Deut. xxi. 
17). Under the monarchy, the eldest son usually 


succeeded in the kingdom (1 K. i. 30, ii. 221. 
The male first-born of animals was also devoted 
to God (Ex. xiii. 2, 12, 13, xxii. 29, xxxiv. 13 

drl, r^de, p^sU; #, i, o, silent; 5 as e ; fix as sb ; «, «b, as k; g as J, g as in get; { u x; 1 ta gi; g ai la Unger, Uglc; thulo thine. 

__ . — . ______ 


First-fruits. The Law ordered in general, that 
thetiist of first- fruits should be offered in God's 
house (Ex. xxii. 29, xxiii. 19, xxxiv. 27). 

Fish. The Hebrews recognized fish aa one of the 


great divisions of the animal kingdom. The 
Mosaic Law (Lev. xi. 9, 10) pronounced unclean 
such as were devoid of fins and scales. In Pal- 
estine, the Sea of Galilee was and still is remark- 
ably well stored with fish. Jerusalem derived its 
supply chiefly from the Mediterranean (comp. Ez. 
xlvii. 10,. 

Fitohes (i. c. Vetches), the representative of two 
Hebrew words sussemeth and ketsaeh. As to the 
former see Rye. Ketsaeh denotes without doubt 
the Nigella snliua, an herbaceous annual plant. 


lag. It seems probable that some specific plant 
is denoted in Job viii. 11. In Gen. xli. 2, 18, it 
is perhaps the Cyperus esculentus. Ex. ii. 3, 5; 
Is. xix. 6, denote ''weeds of any kind." 

Flagon. In 2 Sam. vi. 19; 1 Chr. xvi. 3; Cant. ii. 
5; Hos. iii. 1, it really means a cake of pressed 
raisins. In Is. xxii. 24, is commonly used for a 
bottle or vessel. 

Flax. It seems probable that the cultivation of 
flax for linen was by no means confined to Egypt. 
That it was grown in Palestine before the con- 

— — ' ' ' --" ■ " •' ■ ' n ' • ' "' — 


sects, which God sent to punish Pharaoh; see Ex. 
viii. 21-31; Ps. lxxviii. 45, cv. 31. It seems not 
improbable that common flies are intended. 
Food. The diet of Eastern nations has been in all 
ages light and simple. As compared with 
our habits, the points of contrast are the 
small amount of animal food consumed, the 
variety of articles used as accompaniments 
to bread, the substitution of milk for our 
liquors, and the combination of heterogene- 
ous elements in the same dish, or meal. 
The chief point of agreement is the large 
consumption of bread. 
Forest. Although Palestine has never been 
a woodland country, yet no doubt there was 


r. The 



much more wood formerly than at present. 
Fortunalnis (1 Cor. xvi. 17 1, one of three Cor- 
' inthians, the others being Stephanas and Achai- 
cus, who were at Ephesus when St. Paul wrote 
his first Epistle. 
Foun'tain. The springs of Palestine, though short- 
lived, are remarkable for their abundance and 
beauty. In Oriental cities generally public foun- 
tains are frequent. 

Fuller. The trade of the fullers, sc far as men- 
tioned in Scripture, appears chiefly \n cleansing 
garments and whitening them. The substances 
used are natrum (Prov. xxy. 20; Jer. ii. 22) and 

soap (Mai. iii. j . — 

2). Other sub- f<wl \ 

stances also are 
mentioned , 
which identify 
the Jewish with 
the Roman pro- 
cess, as urine 
and chalk. The 
trade of the ful- 
lers appears to 
have been car- 
ried on at Jer- 
usalem outside 
the city. 
Fullers' Field, 
The, a spot near 
Jerusalem (2 
K. xviii. 17; 
I Is. vii. 3, 
| xxxvi. 2), so 
I close to the 
walls that a 
person speak- 
ing from there 
could be heard 
on them (2 K. 
.xviii; 17,26). 
Fur'nace. Vari- 
ous kinds of 
furnaces are no- 
ticed, such as a 
smelting or cal- 
cining furnace 
(Gen. xix. 28; Ex. 

kiln (Is. xxxiii. 12), a refining furnace (Ez. xxn. 
18, ff.); a large furnace built like a brick-kiln 
(Dan. iii. 22, 23); the potter's furnace (Ecclus. 
xxvii. 5); the blacksmith's furnace (Ecclas. 
xxxviii. 28). The Persians used the furnace as 
a means of inflicting punishment (Jei. xxix. 22 ; 
Hos. vii. 7). 


quest by the Israelites appears from Josh. ii. 6. 
That flax was one of the most important crops in 
Palestine appears from Hos. ii. 5, 9. 

Flea, mentioned in ] Sam. xxiv. 14, xxvi. 20. 
Fleas are abundant in the East, and 
afford the subject of many proverbial ex- 

Flour. [Bread.] 

Flute, a musical instrument mentioned 
amongst others (Dan. iii. 5, 7, 10, 15) as 
used at the worship of the golden image 
Nebuchadnezzar set up. 

Flux, Bloody (Acts xxviii. 8), same as our 
dysentery, which in the East is generally 
epidemic and infectious, and then as- 
sumes iis worst form. 

Fly/ Flies. 1. Zebub occurs in Eccl. x. 1 and Is. 


Fowl. Several Hebrew and Greek words are 
thus rendered in the A. V. Of these the 
most common is 'oph, a collective term for 
all kinds of birds. 
Fox (Heb. shual). Probably the "jackal" is 
the animal signified in almost all the pass- 
ages in the O. T. where the Hebrew term 
occurs. The shu'alim of Judg. xv. 4 are 
evidently '"jackals." 
Frankincense, a vegetable resin, brittle, glit- 
tering, and of a bitter taste, used for the purpose 
of sacrificial fumigation (Ex. xxx. 34-36). It is 
obtained by successive incisions in the bark of a 
tree called the arbor thuris, the first of which 


vii. 18, and is probably a generic name for any 
nsect. 2. 'Arob, the name of the insect, or in- 


yields the purest and whitest kind. The Hebrews 
imported their frankincense from Arabia (Is. lx. 

6; Jer. vi. 20), and from Saba. 

Frog, mentioned in Ex. viii. 2-7, &c. In the N. 
T. the word occurs once only, in Rev. xvi. 13. 
There is no question as to the animal meant. 
The only known species in Egypt is the edible 
frog of the continent. 

Frontlets, or Phylacteries (Ex. xiii. 16 ; Deut. vi. 
8, xi. 18, Matt, xxiii. 6), strips of parchment on 
which were written four passages of Scripture 
(Ex. xiii. 2-10, 11-17; Deut. vi. 4-9, 13-23) in ink. 
They were then rolled up in a case of black calf- 
skin, andplacedatthobendoftheleftarm. Those 
on the forehead were on four strips of parchment. 

fish-god (from Kimroud). 

3, 10), especially a Iime- 


'al, soi 

Ga'al, son of Ebed, aided the Shechemites in their 
rebellion against Abimelech (Judg. ix.). 



rab'batha, f 

place, also called "Pavement, 

GaVbatha, the Hebrew or Chaldee appellation of a 

where the judg- 
ment-seat or bema was, from which Pilate deliv- 
ered our Lord to death (John xix. 13). The 
place was outside the praetorium. It seems as if 
Gabbatha designated the elevated Bema ; and the 
"pavement" was possibly some mosaic or tessel- 

■ 54d / / 


lated work, either forming the bema itself, or the 
flooring of the court round it. 
Ga'bricl, used in Dan. viii. 16, ix. 21, and in Luke 

a, e, I, o, u, f, long; 5, e, i, 0, U, ?> abort; care, fiir, list, XftU, wbft; tb«re v veil, term; pique, tfrm; doue, fOr, dfl, wolf, food, lOOti 

'-'-»". i '. 

» " ' . ' " , .. ■ - 


■■■ ' 


i. 19, 26. In the ordinary traditions, Jewish and 
Christian, Gabriel is spoken of as one of the 
archangels. In Scripture he is set forth only as 
the representative of the angelic nature. 
Gad, Jacob's seventh son, the first-born of Zilpah, 

, : 


Gal'eefl, the name given by Jacob to the heap 
which he and Laban made on Mount Gilead (Gen. 
xsxi. 47, 48; comp. 23, 25). 

Gal'ilee, originally a little '-circuit" of country 
round Kedesh. In the time of our Lord, Pales 
tine was divided into Judaea, Samaria, and Gali- 
lee (Acts ix. 31; Luke xvii. 11. Galilee was di 
vided into "Lower'' and "Upper." Lower Gali- 
lee was one of the richest and most beautiful sec- 
tions of Palestine. The chief towns were Ti- 
berias, Tarichaea, and Sepphoris. The towns 
most celebrated in N. T. history are Nazareth, 
Cana, and Tiberias (Luke i. 20; John li. 1, vi. lj. 
To Upper Galilee, the name "Galilee of the Gen- 
tiles" is given (Is. ix. 1; Matt. iv. 15). Caper- 
naum, our Lord's home, was in Upper Galilee 
(Matt. iv. 13, ix. 1). The Apostles were all 
Galileans by birth or residence (Acts i. 11). 

Galilee, Bea of. [Gexnesareth.] 

Gall denotes that which is bitter. Some bitter, 
and perhaps poisonous plant. 

Gallery, an architectural term, describing the por- 
ticos or verandas in Eastern houses. It is doubt- 
ful, however, whether the Hebrew words, so 
translated, have reference to such object. 

Galley. [Ship.] 

Gal'llm (heaps"), the native place of the man to 
>Zi . * ( •' O ■+ o -v --w J. 

e first*. 


Leah's maid, and whole-brother to Asher (Gen. 

xxx. 11-13, xlvi. 16, 18). The word means either 

''fortune" or "troop" (Gen. xxx. 11; comp. xlix. 

19). At the time of the descent into Egypt seven 

sons are ascribed to him. 
Gad, "the seer" (1 Chr. xxix. 29; 2 Chr. xxix. 

25; 2 Sam. xxiv. 11; 1 Chr. xxi. 9), a "prophet" 

who joined David when in the hold (1 Sam. xxii. 

5). He wrote a book of the Acts of David (1 

Chr. xxix. 29). 

ad'ara, a strong city east of the Sea of Galilee. 

A large district was attached to it. Gadara is 

evidently identical with the "country of the Gad- 

arenes," or Gergesenes (Matt. viii. 28; Mark v. 

1; Luke viii. 26, 37). Gadara derives its greatest 

interest from Matt. viii. 28-34; Mark v. 1-21; 

Luke viii. 26-40. The most interesting remains 

of Gadara are its tombs, which dot the cliffs 

round the city. 
Ga'ham, son of Nahor, Abraham's brother, by his 

concubine Reumah (Gen. xxii. 24). 
Gai'us. [John, Seco-nd and Third Epistles of.] 
Gala'tia, literally ttrJe}'Gallia" of the East. The 

Roman province of Galatia may be described as 

the central region of the peninsula of Asia Minor. 

The prevailing speech of the district was Greek. 
Galatians, The Epistle to the, was written by the 

Apostle St. Paul, and appears called forth by the 


whom Michal, David's wife, was given (1 Sam. 
xxv. 44). 

Gallio, Junius Annaeus Gallio, the Roman pro- 
consul of Achaia when St. Paul was at Corinth, 
a. D. 53, under the Emperor Claudius (Acts xviii. 
12). Jerome says he committed suicide in 65 

A. D. 


machinations of Judaizing teachers. It was 
written at Corinth (Acts xx. 2, 3), apparently the 
winter of a. d. 67 or 58. 

Saibanum, one of the perfumer, in the sacred in- 
cense (Ex. xxx. 34). It is a resinous gum of a 
brownish yellow color, and strong, disagreeable 


Gamaliel. A Pharisee and celebrated doctor of 
the law, who gave prudent worldly advice in the 
Sanhedrim respecting the treatment of the fol- 
lowers of Jesus of Nazareth (Acts v. 34, ff.). He 
was the preceptor of St. Paul. He was Presi- 
dent of the Sanhedrim under Tiberius, Caligula, 
and Claudius, and died shortly before the de- 
struction of Jerusalem. 


3ATH S3 

O Q A n 

GabfesT Anions the Greeks « rery < ity of any 
possessed its theatre and Btadinm. At Ephesus 
an annual contest was held in honor of Diana. 

It is probable tl);it St. Paul was present when 
these games were proceeding. A direct refereuca 


is made in 1 Cor. xv. 32. St. Paul's Epistles 
abound with allusions to the Greek contests at 
which he may well have been -present during his 
first visit to Corinth. These contests (2 Tim. iv. 
7; 1 Tim. vi. 12) were divided into boxing, wrest- 
ling, leaping, running, quoiting, and hurling the 
spear;, vj rt 

Gam'inadims (Ez. xxvii. 11). The rendering 
"guards," furnishes the simplest explanation. 

Gar'den. Gardens in the East are enclosures, on 
the outskirts of towns, planted with various trees 
and shrubs. They were surrounded by hedges of 
thorn (Is. v. 5), or walls of stone (Prov. xxiv. 
31). For further protection lodges (Is. i. 8; Lam. 
ii. 6) or watchtowers (Mark xii. 1) were built in 
them. The gardens of the Hebrews were planted 
with flowers and aromatic shrubs (Cant. vi. 2, iv. 
16), besides olives, fig-trees, nuts, or walnuts 
(Cant. vi. 11), pomegranates, and others for do- 
mestic use (Ex. xxiii. 11; Jer. xxix. 5; Am. i.\ 
14). Gardens of herbs, or kitchen-gardens, ai 
mentioned in Deut. xi. 10, and 1 K. xxi. 2. 

Garlio (Num. xi. 5), the Allium Sativum of Lin- 
naeus', which abounds in Egypt. 

Garrison. The Heb. words so rendered are de- 
rivatives from the root natsab to "place, erect." 

Gate. The gates of eastern cities are sometimes 
taken as representing the city itself. They were 
used as places of public resort (Gen. xix. 1, 
xxiii. 10), for public deliberation, administration 
of justice, or of audience for kings and rulers, or 
ambassadors (Deut. xvi. 18 ; Josh. xx. 4: Judg. 
ix. 35, &c). They were carefully guarded and 
closed at nightfall ; contained chambers over the 
gateway (2 Sam. xviii. 24). The doors were two- 
leaved, plated with metal, closed with locks and 
fastened with metal bars (Deut. iii. 5; Pa. cviL 

2.J- ool i-:4 


16; Is. xlv. 1, 2). The gateways nere often rich- 
ly ornamented. Sentences were inscribed on and 
above the gates (Deut- n. 9; is. liv. 12; Rev. xxi. 

Gath, a city of the Philistines (Jos h. xiiL dj 1 Sam. 

«Orl, jn*ae, ppsh; «, i, o, ellent; « u b; <Ji m six ; «, «to, as k ; £ ae J. ." is la feet; f«sj5«s«xj»Mia liefer. U«ki ti. -» » tiua*. 





vi. 17), and the native place of the giant Goliath 
1 Sam. xvii. 4, 23). It probably stood upon the 
hill now called Tell-es-Safleh, 10 miles E. of Ash- 

Gath-he'pher, or Git'tah-he'pher, now Yafa, (Josh 

i>)4 a:)- ; 2**2 • __ 


xix. 12, 13), celebrated as the native place of the 
prophet Jonah (2 K. xiv. 25). 
Ga'za (properly Azzah), one of the five chief cities 
of the Philistines. It is the last town in the S. 
W. oif Palestine, on the frontier towards Egypt. 
Its name means "the strong." In Gen. x. 19 it 
appears. The passage where Gaza is mentioned 
in the N. T. (Acts viii. 26) is full of interest. 
Ge'b'al," a proper name, occurring in Ps. lxxxiii. 
7. One and the same city with the Gebal of 
Ezekiel (xxvii. 9), a maritime town of Phoenicia. 
Ged'eon. The Greek form of the Hebrew name 
Gideon (Heb. xi. 32). 

Geha'zi, the servant of Elisha. He was sent on 
-_^BSB 3== 5^_ ■ two occasions to 

-•^s^ g the Shunammite 

(2 K. iv.); ob- 
tained fraudu- 
lently money and 
garments from 
Naaman; was 
smitten with lep- 
rosy, and dis- 
missed the pro- 
f phet's service (2 
K. v.). Later 
he is mentioned 
as relating to 
the flood. King Joram the 

great things Elisha had done (2 K. viii.). 
Gehen/na. [Hinnom.J 

Gemari'ah. 1. Son of Shaphan the scribe. He 
had a chamber in the house of the Lord (Jer. 
xxxvi.). 2. Son of Hilkiah, bearer of Jere- 
miah's- letter to the captive Jews (Jer. xxix.). 
Geneal'ogy. The promise of Canaan to the seed 
of Abraham ; the separation of the Israelites ; 
the expectation of Messiah from the tribe of 
Judah ; the hereditary priesthood of Aaron ; the 
succession in the line of David ; and the division 
and occupation of the land, gave a deeper impor- 
tance to the science of genealogy among the 
Jew,-; than perhaps any other nation. 
Geneal'ogy of Jesus Christ. The N. T. gives us 
the genealogy of but one person, that of our 
Saviour.. The following will explain these gene- 

' ' '" ' i • - - -i - i- 


throne of David. St. Luke s is Joseph's private 
genealogy. 3. Mary, the mother of Jesus, was 
in all probability the daughter of Jacob, and first 
cousin to J osi |>h her husband. 

Ggn'era'tion. In the Patriarchal age a generation 
seems to have been 100 years (Gen. xv. 16; comp. 
13, and Ex. xii. 40); but subsequently the reckon- 
ing was from thirty to forty years (Job. xlii. 16). 

Gen'esis, the first book of the Law or Pentateuch, 
so called from its title in the Septuagint, that is, 
Creation. The book begins with the creation of 


the world. Five principal persons are the pillars, 
so to spe»k, on which the whole superstructure 
rests: &.darn, Noah, Abraham, Isaac and 
Gennes'aret, Land of (Matt. xiv. 34 ; Mark vi. 53). 
It is generally believed that this term was applied 
to the fertile crescent-shaped plain on the west- 
ern shore of the lake. Mr. Porter gives the 
length as three miles, and the greatest breadth as 
about one mile. 


Gennes'aret, Sea of, called in the 0. T. "the Sea 
of Chinnereth," or "Cinneroth" (Num. xxxiv. 
11; Josh. xii. 3). The lake is also called in the 
N. T. "the Sea of Galilee," and "the Sea of 
Tiberias." Most of our Lord's public life was 
spent in its environs. This region was the most 
densely peopled in>U Palestine. The sea is an 


*ies: 1. They are both the genealogies of 
Joseph i. e. of Jesus Christ as legal son of Joseph 
and Mary. 2. The genealogy of St. Matthew is 
Joseph's genealogy as legal successor to the 


oval shape, about thirteen geographical 
miles long, and six broad. The water 
is sweet, cool, and transparent, and the 
beach everywhere pebbly. It abounds in fish 
now as in ancient times. 
Gentiles. In the 0. T. the Heb. signified the sur- 
rounding nations, foreigner.'; as opposed to Israel 

*" "" ' — ' — " 


(Neh. v. 8), and wasused with an invidious mean- 
ing. In the N. T. it is used as equivalent to 
Greek. But the A. Y^i^, not consistent in its 


translation of the word Hellen, sometimes ren- 
dering it by "Greek" (Acts xiv. 1, xvii. 4; Rom. 
i. 1G. x. 12), sometimes by "Gentile" (Bom. ii. 
9, 10, iii. 9; 1 Cor. x. 32). The latter use seems 
to have arisen from the almost universal adoption 
of the Greek language. 

Gerah. [Weights axd Measures.] 

Ge'rar, a very ancient city south of Gaza. It oc- 
curs chietly in Genesis (x. 19. xx. 1, xxvi. 10). 

Gergesenes. [Gadara.] 

Gerlz'im. The Samaritans, through whom the 
tradition, of the true site of Gerizim has been 

V* <f» 


preserved, are probably not wrong when they 
point out still — as they have done Irom time im- 
memorial — Gerizim as the hill upon which Abra- 
ham's "faith was made perfect. The altar Jacob 
built was not on Gerizim, though probably about 
its base, between it and Ebal. Here was like- 
wise his well (John iv. 6), and the tomb of his 
son Joseph (Josh. xxiv. 32), both of which are 
still shown. 
Ger'izites, 1 Sam. xxvii. 8. [Gerziter.] 
Ger'shom, the first-born son of Moses and Zip- 
porah.(]j!x. ii. 22, xviii. 3). 

Ger'shon, the eldest of the three sons of Levi, 
born before the descent of Jacob's family into 
Egypt (Gen. 
xlvi. 11; Ex. vi. 

1G 975 
Gethsem'ane. A 

small "farm" 

(A. V. "place;" 

Matt. xxvi. 36; 

Mark xiv. 32), 

situated across 

the brook Ked- 

ron (John xviii. 

1). There was 

a "garden," or 

rather orchard, 

attached to it, 

to which the~ 

olive, fig, and 

pome gran ate 

doubtless i n - 

vited resort by 

their hospitable 

shade. And we 

know from the 

Evangeli sts Syrian goat. 

Luke (xxii. 39) and John (xviii. 2) that our 

Lord ofttimes resorted thither with his disciples. 

Gez'er, an ancient city of Canaan, whose king, 

Horam, or Elam, coming to the assistance of 

S, e, i, o, u, y, long) &, £, i, O, tt, y, ebort; care, far, list, fgll, what; tb«re, veil, term; pique, firm; douc, for, do, wolf, food, fdbt; 

■ i ■ ii i r ---Li-. 



Lachish, was killed with all his people by Joshua 
ten of in Gen, 

(Josh. 33, xii. 12], 
' First 


vi. 4, under 


the name Nephilim. They were most probably 

the pious Sethites, though the opinion in the 

Jewish and early Christian Church is that they 

were angels. 2. The Rephaim, a name which 

frequently occurs. The earli- 
est mention of them is in Gen. 

xiv. 5). 
Gib'eah, a word employed in the 

Bible to denote a "hill." It 

gave its name to several towns 

and places in Palestine, doubt- 
less on or near a hill. 
Gib'eon, one of the four cities 

of the Hivites, which made a 

league wilh Joshua (ix. 3-15), 

and escaped the fate of Jericho 

and Ai (comp. xi. 19). 
Gib'eonites, The, the people of 

Gibeon, and perhaps also of 

the three cities associated with 

Gibeon (Josh. ix. 17) — Hiv- 

ites. Saul killed some, and 

devised a general massacre of 

the rest (2 Sam. xxi. 1. 2, 5). 

This was expiated many years 

after (4, 6, 9). 
Gid'eon, a Manassite. He was 

the fifth recorded Judge of 

Israel, and greatest of them 

all. When we first hear of 

him he was grown up and had 

sons (Judg. vi. 11, viii. 20), 

and (vi. 12) we conclude had 

distinguished himself in war 

against the roving bands who 

had oppressed Israel for seven years. His call to 

be a deliverer, and his destruction ot Baal's 

altar, are related in Judg. vi. 
Gier-eagle, an unclean bird (Lev. xi. 18 and Deut. 

xiv. 17); doubtless the Egyptian vulture. 
Gift. The Hebrew possesses no less than fifteen 

different expressions for the one idea. The 


when the position of the parties demanded it (1 
Sam. x. 27). 

Gi'hon. 1. The second river of Paradise (Gen. ii. 
13). 2. A place 
near Jerusalem, the ^^ 

scene of the anoint- '= S BB| 
ing ot Solomon as ^j 
king(l K. i. 33,38, ^J 
45). g§§j 

Gilbo'a, a, mountain 
range on the east- 
ern side of the plain £Q„ '^£$£4 
of Esdraelon, rising 
over the city of 
Jezreel (comp. lj 
Sam. xxviii. 4 with ' 
xxix. 1). It is 
mentioned (1 Sam. 
xxxi. 1; 2 Sam. i. 
6, xxi. 12; 1 Chr. 
x. 1, 8). 
dread. 1. A moun- 
tainous region 
bounded by the Jor- 
dan, by Bash an, by 
the Arabianplateau, 
and by Moab and 
Ammon(Gen. xxxi. 21; Deut. 
iii. 12-17). The name signi- 
fies "a hard rocky region." 
Gil'eadites, The (Judg. xii. 4, 5; Num. xxvi. 29; 
Judg. x- 3), a branch of Manasseh, descended 
from Gilead. 



paintings we know that the invention is as re- 
mote as 3500 years ago. Fragments, too, of wine 
vases as old as the Exodus have been discovered 



nature of presents was as various as were the oc- 
casions. The mode of presentation was with 
much parade. The refusal was a high indignity. 
No less an insult was it, not to bring a present 

Gil'gaf.' The site of the first camp of the Israel- 
ites on the west of the Jordan, and where the 
twelve stones were set up (Josh. iv. 19, 20, comp. 
3); where also they kept their first passover in 
Canaan (v. 10). 

Gi'loh, a town in the mountainous part of Judah ; 
the native place of Ahithophel (2 Sam. xv. 12). 

Gin, a trap for birds or beasts. It consisted of a 
net (Is. viii. 14), and a stick to act as a spring. 

Girdle," in the East worn both by men and women. 
The common girdle was made of leather (2 K. i. 
8; Matt. iii. 4). A finer girdle was made of 
linen (Jer. xiii. 1; Ez. xvi, 10), embroidered with 
silk, or with gold and silver thread (Dan. x. 5; 
Rev. i. 13, xv. 6), and frequently studded with 
gold and precious stones or pearls. 

Git'tites, the G00 men who followed David from 
Gath, under Ittai the Gittite (2 Sam. xv. 18, 19). 
"Gittite" may have been so named from the 
town of Gittaim in Benjamin (2 Sam. iv. 3; Neh. 
xi. 33)-, or from Gath-rimmon. 

Gittith, a musical instrument, supposed to have 
been used by the people of Gath, or employed at 
the festivities of the vintage (Ps. viii., lxxxi., 
1 xx xiv.). 

Glass. The Heb. word occurs only in Job xxviii. 
17, wherein A. V. itis rendered "crystal." From 


in Egypt. The art was known to the ancient As- 

Gleaning. The gleaning of fruit trees, as of corn 
fields, was reserved for the poor. 

Glede,' the old name for the common kite (Deut. 

xiv. i3). 5.54'} 

Gnat, mentioned only by our 
Saviour in Matt, xxiii. 24. 

Goad (Judg. iii. 31; 1 Sam. xiii. 
21). The Hebrew in the latter 
passage probably means the 
point of the ploughshare. The 
former refers to the goad, the 
long handle of which might be 
used as a weapon. 

Goat. There appear two or 
three varieties of the common 
goat bred in Palestine and 
Syria, but whether identical 
with those of the ancient Heb- 
rews' it is not possible to say. 

Goat, Scape. [Atonement, Day 


Gob (2 Sam. xxi. 18, 19), the 
scene of two encounters be- 
tween David's warriors and 
the Philistines. Given also as 
God.' Throughout the Hebrew 
two chief names are used for 
the one true divine Being — 
Ei.ohim, translated God, and 
Jehovah, translatedZo/'d. Elo- 
him is the plural of Ei.oah (in 
Arabic Allah). It is either 
what grammarians call the 
plural of majesty, or it denotes 
the fulness of divine strength, the sum of the 
powers displayed by God. 
Gog. [Magog.] 

Gold, used as an emblem of purity (Job xxiii. 10) 
Gold was known from 

and nobility (Lam. iv, 1),.. 


the earliest times (Gen. ii. 11). It was used for 
ornaments, &c. (Gen- xxiv. 22). Coined money 
was not known to the ancients. Gold was ex- 

tfiu-l, rgde, push; e, i, o, silent; f as s ; $h as sh ; c, «u, as k; g as J, g as in get; s as z; J as gz; q as In linger, link; th as la tkine. 




tremely abundant in ancient times (1 Chr. xxii. 
11; 2 Chr. i. 15, ix. 9; Nah. ii. 9; Dan. iii. 1). 
Goigo'tha, the Hebrew name of the spot at which 


is applied to the four inspired histories of the life 
and teaching of Christ contained in the N. T., 
of which separate accounts are given in their 
^) Gourd. 1. (Jon. iv. 6-10.) The plant in- 

•> 1 • o 7 I 24 ' 


our Lord was crucified (Matt, xxviii. 33; Mark 
xv. 22; John xix. 17), interpreted the "place of 
a skull." The name arises from (1) being the 
spot where executions ordinarily took place, and 
abounded in skulls; or (2) it may come from the 
look or form of the spot itself, bald, round, and 
Goli'atn, a famous giant of Gath (1 Sam. xvii.). 
He was possibly descended from the old Rephaim, 
of whom a scattered remnant took refuge with 
the Philistines (Dent. ii. 20, 21; 2 Sam. xxi. 22). 
His height was "six cubits and a span;" taking 

the cubit at 21 
inches, 10.]- feet 
high. But the 
LXX. and Jo- 
sephus read 
"four cubits and 
a span." The 
scene of his com- 
bat with Di/,vid 
was the Valley 
of the Tere- 




1. The 

son of 


Japheth (Gen. 
x. 2, 3), gener- 
ally recognized 
as the progenitor 
of the early Cim- 
merians, of the 
later Cimbri and 
the otherbranch- 
es of the Celtic 

Gomor'rah, in the 
N. T. written Gomor'rha, one of the five "cities 
of the plain" that joined battle with Chedor- 
laomer (Gen. xiv. 2-8). Four out of the five 
were afterwards destroyed by fire from heaven 
(Gen. xix. 23-29). Of these Gomorrah seems 
second to Sodom in importance. [Sodom.] 
Gopher Wood (Gen. vi. 11). Two conjectures have 
been proposed : 1. That the "trees of Gopher" 
are any trees of the resinous kind, such as pine, 
fir, &c. 2. That Gopher is cypress. 
Go'shen, the name of a part of Egypt where the 
Israelites dwelt for the whole period of their so- 
journ in that country. It was between Joseph's 


residence at the time and the frontier of Pales- 
tine (Gen. xlvi. 29). 

Gospels. The name Gospel (goo d message or news) 
a, e, I, 5, fl, J, long; a, e, I, 6, tt, f, ebort; 


tended, and which Afforded shade to 
Jonah before Nineveh, is the castor-oil 
plant. 2. With regard to the "wild gourds" of 
2 K. iv. 30, there can be no doubt that it is a 
species of the gourd tribe, which contains plants 
of »- very bitter and dangerous character. 

Gov'ernor. This English word is the representa- 
tive of no less than ten Hebrew and four Greek 

Grasshopper. [Locust.] 


Greaves ( 


(1 Sam. xvii. 6), a piece of defensive 
armor which reached from the foot to the knee. 
But in this passage it would appear to have been 
a kifld of shoe or boot. 
Greece, Greeks, Grecians. In Gen. x. 2-5 Moses 
mentions the descendants of Javan as peopling 
the isles of the Gentiles. Prophetical notice of 
Greece occurs in Dan. viii. 21, &c. The name of 
the country, Greece, occurs once in N. T. (Acts 
xx. 2) as opposed to Macedonia. [Gentiles.] 


or 629). The prophet commences by announcing 
his office and important mission (i. 1), and closes 
with Hie lnagnihceut Psalm in chap, ui., a com- 
position unrivul- 


Habergeon, ;■ coat 

of mail covering 

the neck and 

Haohilah, The 

Hill, a hill ap- 
parently in the 

wood in the 

neighborhood of 

Z'mh (I .Sam. 

xxiii. 19; comp. 

11, 15, 18). 
Ha'dad, originally 

the indigenous 

appellation of the 

Sun among the v 

Syrians, and 

thence trans- 
ferred tO the EGYPTIAN GATEWAY. 

king, as the highest of earthly authorities. The 
title appears an official one, like Pharaoh. 

Ha'dad-rim'mon, according to Zech. xn. 11, a 
place in the valley of Megiddo, named after two 
Syrian idols, where a lamentation was held for 
the death of Josiah. 

Hadare'zer, son of Rehob (2 Sam. viii. 3), was pur 
sued by David, and defeated (1 Chr. xviii. 3, 4). 

Hadas'sah, early name of Esther (Esth. ii. 7). 

Ha'des. The habitation of the dead ( Luke x.15, xvi, 
23; Actsii.27,31; Rev.i.18, vi.8, xx. 13,14. N.R.). 

Hado'ram. The form assumed in Chronicles by the 
name of the intendant of taxes under David, Solo- 
mon, and Rehoboam (2 Chr. x. 18). In Kings 
the name is Adoxiram ; in 2 Saai. xx. 24 Adoram. 


a'gar, an Egyptian woman, the handmaid, or 
slave, of Sarah (Gen. xvi. 1), whom the latter 
gave as a concubine to Abraham. It is recorded 
that "when she saw that she had conceived, her 
mistress was despised" (4, and Sarah, with anger, 
reproached Abraham. Hagar fled. By the 
fountain in the way to Shur, the angel of the 
Lord charged her to return and delivered the 
prophecy in ver 10-12. On her return, she gave 
birth to Ishmael. Mention is not again made of 
c^. Hagar until the feast at the weaning of 
Isaac, when Sarah saw Ishmael mocking ; 
and we now read of her expulsion. The 
name of Hagar occurs when she takes a 
wife to Ishmael (xxi. 21); and in the gene- 
alogy (xxv. 12). 


Grove. A word used, with two exceptions, to 
translate Asherah which is probably an idol. In 
the religion of the ancient heathen world groves 
play a prominent part. 

Gur, The going up to, an ascent at which Ahaziah 
received his death-blow while flying from Jehu (2 
K. ix. 27). 


HaVakkuk, the eighth in order cf the minor 
prophets. He probably delivered his prophecy 
about the 12th or 13th year of Josiah (b. c. 630 


Hagarenes', Ha'garites, a people dwelling east of 
Palestine (1 Chr. v. 10, 18-20). The same peo- 

{>le are mentioned in Ps. lxxxiii. 6. It is be» 
ieved they were named after Hagar. 
Hag'gal, the tenth of the Minor Prophets, and 

©axe, iiir, list, ffell, wto^t; Uiere, veil, term; plant. Xfrmi d6ue, tor, d fl , wyU, ftfWJ, ic%&2 


first of those who prophesied after the Captivity. 
According to tradition, Haggai was born in Baby- 
lon, was a young man when he came to Jerusa- 
lem, and was buried with honor near the sepid- 







chres of the priests. The Book op. The style 
of Haggai is generally tame and prosaic, though 
at times it rises. to severe invective. 

Hag'gith, one of David's wives, the mother of 
Adonijah (2 Sam. iii. 4; 1 K. i. 5; 1 Chr. 
Hi. 2). „ | 

Ha'i. The form in. which the well-known 
lace Ai appears in the A. V. on its first 
introduction (Gen.. xii. 8, xiii. 3). 

Hair. The Hebrews were alive to the im- 
portance of the hair as an element of per- 
sonal beauty. In affliction the hair was 
cutoff(Is._i'ii. 17, 24, xv. 2). # Tearingthe J 
hair (Ezr. ix. 3) and letting it go dishev- 
elled were tokens of grief. The favorite 
color was black (Cant. v. 11). Pure white 
hair was deemed characteristic of the 
Divine Majesty (Dan. vii. 9; Rev. i. 14). 
The chief beauty of the hair consisted in 
curls, natural or artificial character. The 
Hebrews anointed the hair profusely with 
ointments. It appears to have been the 
custom of the Jews in our Saviour's time 
to swear by the hair (Matt. v. 3G). 

Hall, used of the court of the high-priest's 
house (Luke xxii. 55). In Matt, xxvii. 
27, and Mark xv. 16, synonymous with 
"praetorium," which in John xviii. 28 is 

Hallelujah. [Alleluia.] 

Ham. 1. The riarrie/pf one of the three 
sons of Noah, apparently the second in 
age. It signifies "warm" or "hot." Of 
the history of Ham nothing is related ex- 
cept his irreverence to his father, and the 
curse pronounced. The sons of Ham are 
stated to have been "Cushand Mizraim and Phut I 
and Canaan" (Gen. x. 6; comp. 1 Chr. i. 8). 
Egypt is recognized as the "land of Ham" in the | 

cut off the Jews he was hanged on the gallows he 
bad erected for Mordecai. 
Ha'math, the principal city of Upper Syria, was in 
the valley of the Orontes, which it commanded, 
the Hamathites were a 
Hamitic race, and are in- 
cluded among the descend- 
ants of. Canaan (Gen. x. 18). 
Hammed'atha, father of the 
infamous Haman (Esth. iii. 
1. 10, viii. 5, ix. 21). 
Ham'melech, lit. "the king," 
unnecessarily rendered a 
proper name (Jer. xxxvi. 26, 
xxx viii. 6). 
Ha'mon-gog, The Valley of, 
the name to be bestowed on 
a ravine after the burial there 
of "Gog and all his multi- 
tude" (Ez. xxxix. 11, 15). 
Hanan'eel, The Tower of, a 
tower which formed part of 
the wall of Jerusalem (Neh. 
iii. 1, xii. 39). 
Hanani'ah. 1. A false prophet 
in the reign of Zedekiah 
king of Judah. In the 4th 
year of his reign, b. c. 595, Hananiah 
withstood Jeremiah the prophet, and prophesied 
in the temple (Jer. xxviii.). Hananiah corrobo- 
rated his prophecy by taking from. the neck of 

*S2'I 579 2 

Deut. vii. 23). 2. The work of the carpenter is 
often mentioned (Gen. vi. 14; Ex. xxxvii.; Is. 
xliv. 13). Jewish carpenters must have been 
able to carve with some skill (Is. xii. 7, xliv. 13). 


Bible (Ps. lxxviii. %L cy, 23, cvi. 22). 
Ha'man, the chief ihiniBter or vizier of king 
Ahasuerus (Esth. iii. 1). After his attempt to 


Jeremiah the yoke he wore by Divine command 
(Jer. xxvii.) and breaking it. But Jeremiah was 
bid to tell Hananiah that for the wooden yokes 
broken he should make 
__ yokes of iron, so firm was 

the dominion of Babylon 
destined to be for seventy 
years. Jeremiah added 
this rebuke and prediction 
of Hananiah' s death. 2. 
The Hebrew name of 
Shadrach. He was of the 
house of David, according 
to tradition (Dan. i. 3, 6, 
7, 11, 19; ii. 17). 3. Son 
of Zerubbabel (1 Chr. iii. 
19), from whom Christ 
derived his descent. He 
is by St. Luke called Jo- 
Hand'ioraft (Acts xviii. 3, 
xix. 25; Rev. xviii. 22), 
with iron, working in brass, 
or copper alloyed with tin, 
bronze, is mentioned as 
practised (Gen. iv. 22). The worker in gold and 
silver must have found employment in very early 
times (Gen. xxiv. 22, 53, xxxv. 4, xxxviii. 18; 


3. Masons employed by David and Solomon were 
Phoenicians (1 K. v. 18; Ez. xxvii. 9). For 
ordinary building, mortar was used ; sometimes, 
perhaps, bitumen (Gen. xi. 3). The use 
of whitewash is remarked (Matt, xxiii. 27). 
Houses infected with leprosy were required • 
to be re-plastered (Lev. xiv. 40-45). 4. 
Ship and boat building must have been ex- 
ercised (Matt. viii. 23, ix. 1; John xxi. 3, 
8). Solomon built, at Ezion-Geber, ships 
for his foreign trade. 5. The perfumes 
used imply practice in the art of the 
"apothecaries." 6. The arts of spinning 
and weaving wool and linen were carried 
on. The loom with beam (1 Sam. xvii. 7), 
pin (Judg. xvi. 14), and shuttle (Job vii. 
6), was as early as David's time (1 Sam. 
xvii. 7). We read also of embroidery with 
gold and silver threads (Ex. xxvi. 1, xxviii. 
4; xxxix. 6-13). 7. Besides these arts, 
dyeing, dressing cloth, and tanning and 
dressing leather were practiced (Josh. ii. 
15-18; 2 K. i. 8; Matt. iii. 4; Acts ix. 43). 
Tent-makers are noticed in the Acts (xviii. 
3), as also the potters. 8. Bakers are 
noticed:(Jer. xxxvii. 21; Hos. vii. 4). 
Hangings Hangings. (1.) The "hanging" 
was a curtain or "covering" to close an 
entrance (Ex. xxvi. 36, 37, xxxix. 38). 
(2.) The "hangings" were used for cover- 
ing the walls of the court of the Taber- 
nacle (Ex. xxvii. 9, xxxv. 17, xxxviii. 9; 
Num. iii. 26, iv. 26). 
Han'nah, one of the wives of Elkanah, and 
;'.;"; mother of Samuel (1 Sam. i. ii.). 
Ha'ran. 1. Third son of Terah, and youngest 
brother of Abram (Gen. xi. 26). Three children 
are ascribed to him— Lot (27, 31), and two 
daughters, viz., Milcah, who married her uncle 


Nahor (29), and Iscah (29). Haran was born in 
Ur of the Chaldees, and he died there while hio 
father was living (i!8). 2. Haran or CharraK 
(Acts vii. 2, 4), name of the place whither Abra 

*Orl, r^de, push; #,*,*0} silent; ( u s; fh aa sb; «, cu, as k; £ aaj, g as in get: $uz:iasgz;B ^U> UeK*B*^Jakj tt» m In tiUzie., 



ham migrated. 
(Gen. xxiv. 10). 
Hare occurs (Lev 
the animals di 
tkought by the 



It is said to be in Mesopotamia 

xi. 6, and Deut. xiv. 7) amongst 
sallowed. It was erroneously 
Jews to have chewed the cud. 



They were misled by the habit these animals 

have of moving the jaw about. 
Harlot. That this class of persons existed is clear 

from Gen. xxxviii. 15. The "harlots" are 

classed with "publicans," as under the ban of 

society in the N. T. (Matt. xxi. 32). 
Ha'rod, The Well of, a spring by which Gideon and 

his great army encamped on the morning of the 

rout of the Midianites (Judg. vii. 1). 
Har'osheth "of the Gentiles," a city in the north 

of Canaan. It was the residence of Sisera (Judg. 


iv. 2), and the point to which Barak pursued the 
discomfited host (Judg. iv. 16). 

Harp, the national instrument of the Hebrews. 
Moses assigns its invention to the antediluvian 
period (Gen. iv. 21). 

Harrow. The word so rendered (2 Sam. xii. 31; 
1 Chr. xx. 3) is probably a threshing-machine. 

Hart. The hart is among the clean animals (Deut. 
xii. 15, xiv. 5) commonly killed for food. The 
Heb. masc. noun ayyal denotes either the fallow- 
deer Or the Barbary deer. 

Hav'ilah. 1. A son of Cush (Gen. x. 7); and, 2. 
A son of Joktan (x. 2U). It appears probable 
both stocks settled in the same country, and in- 

Hav'ilah (Gen. ii. 11). [Eden.] 

M4i < OoO Zdc 

Hawk (Lev. xi. 1G; Deut. xiv. 15; Job. xxxix. 26). 
The word is doubtless generic, and includes vari- 
ous species pf the Falconidae. 

M f 


Ha'voth-ja'ir, certain villages east ot Jordan taken 
by Jair the son of Manasseh, and called after his 
name (Num. xxxii. 41; Deut. iii. 14). 


I oh 7 

Hay, the rendering in Prov. xxvii. 25, and Is. xv. 

G, of a word which denotes "grass" of any kind. 

It is certain that the ancients did mow their grass 

and use the dry material. See Ps. xxxvii. 2. 
Haz'ael, a king of Damascus, who reigned from 

about b. c. 886 to b. c. 840. He appears in a 

high position at the court 

of Benhadad, and was 

sent to Elisha to inquire 

if his master would re- 
cover from his malady. 

Elisha's answer led to 

the murder of Benhadad 

by his servant, who 

mounted the throne (2 

K. viii. 7-15). Hazael 

appears to have died 

about the year b. c. 840, 

having reigned 46 years. 
Hazel (Gen. xxx. 37). 

Authorities are divided 

between the hazel and 

the almond tree. The 

latter is probably correct. 
Ha'zo, a son of Nahor, by Milcah his wife (Gen. 

X-^-22). ... 

Head-dress. The earliest notice is in Ex. xxviii. 


He'brew. This word first occurs a« given to 
Abram by the Canaanites (Gen. xiv. 13) because 
he had crossed the Euphrates. The name is also 
derived from 'eber, "beyond, on the other side." 

He'brews, Epistle to the. There is no reason to 
doubt that at first, everywhere, except in North 
Africa, St. Paul was regarded as the author. The 
Epistle was probably addressed to the Jews in 
Jerusalem and Palestine. It was evidently writ- 


ten before the destruction of Jerusalem in A. D. 
70. The date which best agrees with tradition is 
A. D. 63, about the end of St. Paul's imprison- 

ment at Rome. 
He'bron. A city of 

ity of Judah (Josh. xv. 54); situated 
among the mountains (Josh. xx. 7), 20 Roman 
miles south of Jerusalem. Hebron is one of the 
most ancient cities still existing ; and in this ia 
the rival of Damascus. It was a well-known 
town when Abraham entered Canaan 3780 years 
ago (Gen. xiii. 18). Its original name was Kir- 
jath-Arba (Judg. i. 10), so called from Arba the 
progenitor of the giant Anakim (Josh xxi. 14, 

40. We infer 
that it was not 
ordinarily worn 
in the Mosaic 
age. The As- 
sy r i a n head- 
dress is describ- 
ed in Ez. xxiii. 
15. The word 
rendered "hats" 
in Dan. iii. 21, 
properly applies 
to a cloak. 
Hearth. The 
cakes baked 
"on the hearth" 
(Gen. xviii. 6) 
were probably 
baked on hot 
stones covered 
4 with ashes. 
Heath (Jer. xvii. 
ancient Egyptian door. 6), some species 

of juniper, probably the savin. 
Heathen. [Gentiles.] 

Heaven. Four Hebrew words are thus rendered. 
St. Paul's expression "third heaven" (2 Cor. xii. 
2) has led to much conjecture. The Jews divided 
the heaven into three parts, viz., 1. the atmos- 
phere, where clouds gather; 2. the firmament, in 
which sun, moon, and stars are fixed ; 3. the up- 
per heaven, the abode of God and his angels 


xv. 13,14). Sarah died at Hebron, and Abra- 
ham then bought the field and cave of Machpelah 
(Gen. xxiii. 2-20). The cave is still there. He- 
bron now contains about 5000 inhabitants, of 
■whom some 50 families are Jews. 
Hedge. The Heb. thus rendered denotes that 
which surrounds or encloses, whether a stone 
wall (Prov. xxiv. 31; Ez. xlii. 10) or a fence of 
other materials. „ „ _ r» /"» n 


Heifer. The Hebrew is applied to cows that 
have calved (1 Sam. vi. 7-12 ; Job xxi. 10 ; 
Is. vii. 21). The heifer or young cow was 

a, e, i, o, fi, y, long; a, e, I, O, tt, y, suort; care, far, last, iflU, what; there, veil, term ; pique, ifrm; done, lftr. da, W9U, itfbd, *o~ot; 


nsed only for treading out the corn (Hos. 
x. 11). _ 

Heir. Under the Patriarchal system the property 
was divided among the sons of the legitimate 
wives (Gen. xxi. 10, xxiv. 36, xxv. 5), a larger 
portion being assigned to the eldest, on whom de- 
volved the maintaining the females of the family. 
The sons of concubines were portioned off with 
presents (Gen. xxv. 6). The Mosaic law regu- 


lated the succession (Deut. xxi. 17; Num. xxvii. 
8, xxxvi. 6, J£)w . ,-j 

He'li, the father of Joseph, the husband of the 
Virgin Mary (Luke iii. 23); maintained to have 
been the real brother of Jacob, the father of^the 
Virgin herself., _ 

Hel'kath Hez'zurim, a smooth ground close to the 
pool of Gibeon, where the combat took place 
mentioned in 2 Sam. ii. 16). 

Hell. The woVd generally used to render the He- 
brew Sheol. It would have been better to retain 
the Hebrew. The word mo?t frequently used in 
the N. T. for the place of future punishment is 
Gehenna or Gehenna of fire. 

Hellenist. In the first Christian Church at Jerusa- 
lem (Acts vi. 1), two distinct parties are recog- 
nized, "Hebrews" and "Hellenists" (Grecians). 
The Hellenists included not only proselytes of 
Greek parentage, but also Jews who had adopted 
Greek civilization and the Greek dialect. -. ,, 

Oo4 5r)<4 "4>b 

Hem of Garmeat. The importance the later Jews, 
especially the Pharisees (Matt, xxiii. 5), attached 
to the hem of their garments was founded upon 
Num. xv. 38^;^-^ 

He'man. Son- of Joel? the grandson of Samuel the 
prophet. He is called "the singer," rather the 


musician (1 Chr. vi. 33), to whom was committed 
the vocal and instrumental music of the temple- 
service in the reign of David (1 Chr. xv. 16-22). 
In 1 Chr. xxv. he is called (ver. 5) "the king's 
seer iri/Uie matters of God." 
Hem'lock. ' The Hebrew rosh is 
rendered "hemlock" (Hos. x. 
4); elsewhere "gall." 
Hen. The hen is nowhere noticed 
in the Bible except 
in Matt, xxiii. 37; 
Luke xiii. 34. 
He'pnef, a place in 
ancient Canaan 
(Josh. xii. 17), on 
the west of Jordan. 
Her'ald (Dam iii. 4). 
The term might be 
substituted for 
"preacher" in 1 Tim. 
ii. 7; 2 Tim. i. 11; 2 
Pet. ii. 5. 
Herd,Herds'man. The 
herd was greatly re- 
garded both in the 
patriarchal and Mo- 
saic period. The 
ox was the most 
precious stock next 
to horse and mule. 
Cattle formed thus one of the 
traditions of the Israelitish na- 
tion in its greatest period. The 
occupation of herdsman was hon- 
orable in early times (Gen. 
xlvii. 6; 1 Sam. xi. 5; 1 Chr. xxvii. 29, xxviii. 1). 
Saul himself resumed it in the interval of his 
cares as king. David's herd-masters were among 
his'ehief officers of state. 
Her'nias, the name of a Christian at Rome to 
whom St. Paul sends greeting (Romans xvi. 14). 
Irenaeus, Tertullian, and Origen agree in attrib- 
uting to him the work called the Shepherd ; while 
others affirm it to have been the work of a name- 
Her'mes (Rom. xvi. 14). According to tradition 
he was one of the Seventy disciples, and after- 
wards Bishop of Dalmatia. 
Hermog'enes, a person mentioned by St. Paul (2 
Tim. i. 15) when all in Asia had turned away from 
him, and among their number "Phygellus 
and Hermogenes." 
Her'mon, the most conspicuous and beautiful 
mountain in Palestine. When the country 
is parched with the sun, lines of snow 
streak the head of Hermon. This moun- 
tain was the great landmark of the Israel- 
ites. The height has never been measured. 
It may safely be reckoned at 10,000 feet. 
Her'ocf. This family, though 
of Idumaean origin, and 
aliens by race, were Jews in 
faith. I. Herod the Great 
was the second son of Anti- 
pater, appointed Procurator 
of Judaea by Julius Caesar, 
b. c. 47. At fifteen years 
old, he received the govern- 
ment of Galilee. At Rome 
he was appointed by the sen- 
ate king of Judaea. In a 
few years, by the help of the 
Romans, he took Jerusalem 
(b. c. 37), and completely 
established his authority. 
His domestic life was embit- 
tered by cruel acts of venge- 
ance. The greatest of his works was the 
rebuilding of the Temple. The restoration 
was begun b. c. 20. II. Herod Antipas, 
son of Herod the Great. His father ap- 
pointed him "tetrarch of Galilee and 
Peraea" (Matt. xiv. 1; Luke iii. 19; Acts 
xiii. 1). He first married a daughter of 
Aretas, but after made overtures of mar- 
riage to Herodias, the wife of his half-brother 
Herod Philip, which she received favorably. 
Pilate sent our Lord for examination (Luke xxiii. 
6, if.) to Herod Antipas. Herod finally died in 
exile. lit. Herod Agripfa I. was the son of 
Aristobulus and grandson of Herod the Great. 



He received (a. D. 41) the government of Judaea 
and Samaria. He put to death James the son of 
Zebedee, and further imprisoned Peter (Acts xii. 
1, ff.). j_ JLu.the fourth year of his reign over the 

@^- : life 



whole of Judaea (a. d. 44) Agrippa attended 
some games at Caesarea. When he appeared 
(Acts xii. 21) his flatterers saluted him as a god; 
and suddenly he was seized with terrible pains, 
and being carried to the palace died after five 
days' agony. IV. Herod Agrippa II. was the 
son of Herod Agrippa I. The relation in which 
he stood to his sister Berenice (Acts xxv. 13) was 
the cause of grave suspicion. In the last Roman 
war, after the fall of Jerusalem Agrippa retired 
with Berenice to Rome, where he died in the 
third year of Trajan (a. p. 100). 

HerS'dians. A party under the name of Herodians 
is represented as acting in concert with the Phar- 
isees (Matt. xxii. 16; Mark xii. 13; comp. also 
iii. 6, viii. 15). There were probably many who 
saw in the Herodian family the pledge of their 
national existence in the face of Roman am- 

■ bition. 

Herd'dias, daughter of Aristobulus, one of the 
sons of Mariamne and Herod the Great, and 
consequently sister of Agrippa I. She first mar- 
ried Herod Philip I. ; then she eloped from him 
to marry Herod Antipas. The head of John the 


Baptist was granted to the request of Herodias 
(Matt. xiv. 8-11; Mark vi. 24-28). According 
to Josephus the execution took place in a fortress 
called Machaerus. She accompanied Antipas 
into exile to Lugdunum. 

HerO'dion, a relative of St. Paul, to whom he sends 
his salutation (Rom. xvi. 11). 

Heron. The Hebrew appears as an unclean bird 
in Lev. vi. 19, Deut. xiv. 18. It was probably a 
generic name. The only point on which com- 
mentators agree is. that it is not the heron. 

Hesh'bon, the capital city of Sihon king of the 
Amorites (Num. xxi. 26). The ruins of 
Hesban, 20 miles east of the Jordan, mark the 

filrl, rrade, piisn; e, i, o, silent; f as s; fb as sb; «, cb, as k; g as j, g as in get; s as x; 5 as gz; Q as in linger, link; tb as in tbine. 




site. There are many cisterns among the ruins 
(comp. Cant. vii. 4). 
Heth, the forefather of the nation of the Hittites, 
a Hanute race, neither of the "country" nor 


"kindred" of Abraham (Gen. xxiv. 3, 4, xxviii. 
1, 2). 

Hezeki'ah. Twelfth king of Judah, son of the 
apostate Ahaz and Abi (or Abijah), as- 
cended the throne at the age of 25, B. 
c. 726. Hezekiahwas one of the three 
most perfect kings of Judah (2 K. xviii. 
6; Ecclus. xlix. 4). His first act was to 
purge, and repair, and reopen the Tem- 
ple, which had been despoiled during 
the idolatrous reign of his father. A 


and Laodicea. The ohree towns were all in the 
basin of the Maeander, within a few miles of oue 

Higgai'on occurs three times in the book of 
Psalms (ix. 17, xix. 15, xcii. 4). The word 
has two meanings, which cannot be deter- 
High-priest. 1. Legally. The first distinct 
separation of Aaron to the office of the priest- 
hood was that recorded Ex. xxviii. We find 
the following characteristic attributes: (1.) 
Aaron alone was anointed (Lev. viii. 12). The 
anointing of the sons of Aaron seems confined 
to sprinkling their garments with the anoint- 
ing oil (Ex. xxix. 21, xxviii. 41, &c). (2.) 
The high-priest had a peculiar dress, which 
passed to his successor at his death. Accord- 
ing to the LXX. and Josephus, it was the 
twelve stones of the breastplate which consti- 
tuted the Urira and Thummim. The history 
of the high priests embraces a period of about 
1370 years, and a succession of about 80 high- 
priests, beginning with Aaron and ending with 
Hilkl'ah, high-priest in the reign of Joshua (2 
K. xxii. 4, sqq.; 2 Chr. xxxiv. 9, sqq.). Ac- 
cording to Ezr. vii. 1, the ancestor of Ezra 
the scribe. His high-priesthood was illustrious 
by the discovery which he made of the book 
of the law of Moses in the Temple. 

Hin. [Measures.] 

Hind, the female of the common stag or cervus 



Hl'ram, or Hfl'ram, the king of Tyre who sent 
workmen and materials to Jerusalem (2 Sam. v. 
11; 1 Chr. xiv. 1) to build a palace for David (1 
K. v. 1), and again (1 K. v. 10, vii. 13, 2 Chr. 
14, 16) to build the Temple for Solomon (1 K. v. 

Hit'tites, The, the nation descended from Cheth 
(A. V. "Heth" J, the second son of Canaan. 


Btill more decisive act was the destruc- 
tion of a brazen serpent. Hezekiah's 
dangerous illness (2 K. xx.;Is. xxxviii.; 
2 Chr. xxxii. 24) nearly synchronized 
with Sargon's futile invasion, in the 
fourteenth year of Hezekiah's reign. 
His kingdom w;is in a dangerous crisis, 
and he "turned his face to the wall and wept 
sore" at the thieatened approach of dissolution. 
God heard his prayer. Isaiah was ordered to 
promise the king recovery, ratifying the promise 
by curing the boil by a plaster of figs. Sennach- 
erib's two invasions occupy the greater part of 
the records concerning Hezekiah. Hezekiah 

slept with his 
fathers after a 
reign of twenty- 
nine years, in the 
66th year of his 
age (b. c. 697). 
He'zion, a king of 
Aram (Syria). 
grandfather o f 
Benhadad I., 
probably identi- 
cal with Rezon 
(1 K. xi. 23). 
^Hid'dekel, one of 
jj the rivers of 
Eden (Gen. ii. 
14) identified 
with the Tigris. 
Hi'el, of Bethel, 
who rebuilt Jer- 
icho (1 K. xvi 


Abraham bought from the "Children of Heth" 
the field and the cave of Machpelah, belonging to 
Ephron the Hittite. 
Hi'vites, The. In the genealogical tables of Gen- 
esis, "the Hivite" is named as one of the de- 
scendants — the sixth in order — of Canaan, the 
son of Ham (Gen. x. 17; 1 Chr. i. 15). 

Ho'bab(Num. x. 29; Judg.iv. 11). It 
seems doubtful whether this name de- 
notes the father-in-law or brother-in-law 
of Moses. 
Ho'bah, the place to which Abraham 
pursued the kings (Gen. xiv. 15). It 
was "to the north of Damascus." 
Hol'ofer'nes, or, more correctly, Olo- 


elaphus. It is frequently noticed. 
Hinge. Ancient Egyptian doors were hung by 
means of pivots turning in sockets both on the 
upper and lower sides (1 K. vii. 50). 



Valley of, a deep and narrow ravine S. 
and W. of Jerusalem. The earliest mention is in 
Josh. xv. 8, xviii. 16. Ahaz and Manasseh made 
their children "pass through the fire" in this val- 
ley (2 K. xvi. 8, 2 Chr. xxviii. 8, xxxiii. 6, and 
the fiendish custom of infant sacrifice to the fire- 
gods seems to have been kept up in Tophet, at its 
S. E. extremity (Jer. vii. 81; 2 K. xxx. 10). To 
put an end to these abominations the place was 
polluted by Josiah. The later Jews applied the 
name of this valley; Ge Hinnom, Gehenna, to de- 
note the place of eternal torment 
Hip'popSt'amus. [Behemoth.] 


fernes, a general of Nebuchadnezzar 
(Jud. ii. 4), slain "by the Jewish heroine 
Homer. [Measures.] 
Honey. The Hebrew debash, in the first 
place, applies to the product of the bee. 
In the second place, the term debash ap- 
plies to a decoction of the juice of the 
grape, which is still called dibs. It was 
this, and not ordinary bee-honey, which Jacob 
sent to Joseph (Gen. xliii. 11). 
Hook, Hooks. Various kinds of hooks are noticed. 
1. Fishing-hooks (Job xli. 2; Is. xix. 8). 2. 
Properly a ring (A. V. "thorn"!. 3. Was led 
with rings (2 Chr. xxxii. 11; A. V. "in the 
thorns' ' ). An illustration of this : The hooks of 
the pillars of the Tabernacle. 4. A vine-dresser's 
pruning-hook (Is. ii. 4, xviii. 5). 6. A flesh- 
hook (Ex. xxvii. 3; 1 Sam. ii. 13, 14). 
Hoph'ni and Phin'eas, the two sons^ of Eli, who 
fulfilled their sacerdotal duties at Shiloh. Their 


84); and in whom was fulfilled the curse by 
Joshua (Josh. v. i. 26). 
Hierap'olis, mentioned (Col, iv. 13) with Cqlqssae 

~~ »V g, I 6 o c u« y , long? &» e, », O. tt, ?. short; caxe, far, list, iall, wbfcti there, vgil, Urm; pt^ae. ffrm; doue, «dr, dfl, wolf, ftfbd, toTatt 

brutal rapacity and lust (1 Sam. ii. 22, 12-17), 
filled the people with disgust. They were both 
cut off in one day. 


' ! ? — 

O i i\ I 

Hor, Mount. The mountain on which Aaron died 
(Num. xx. 25, 27). The word Hor is probably 
an archaic form of Har, the Hebrew for "moun- 


tain." It was "on the boundary line" (Num. 
xx. 23) of the land of Edom. It is surmounted 
by a circular doniej-pf-ithe tomb of Aaron. 

Ho'reb. [Si-xai.] 

Ho'rites and HO'rims, the aboriginal inhabitants of 
Mount Seir (Gen. xiv. 6). The name appears 
derived from their habits as "cave-dwellers." 
Their excavated dwellings are still found in hun- 
dreds. _ . _ 

Horn, often i®4 ti -Signify strength and honor. 
Horns of iron were worn defiantly and symboli- 
cally on the head^ 

Hornet, referred to as the means Jehovah em- 
ployed for the extirpation of the Canaauites (Ex. 


xxiii. 28; Deut. vii. 20; Josh. xxiv. 12; Wisd. 
xii. 8). 

Horse. The animated description of the horse in 
Job. xxxix. 19-25 applies solely to the war-horse. 
The Hebrews in the patriarchal age did not stand 
in need of the horse. David first established a 
force of cavalry and chariots after the defeat of 
Hadadezer (2 Sam. viii. 4). But the great sup- 
ply of horses was subsequently effected by Solo- 
mon (1 K. iv. 26). . 

Horse-leech. (Piov. xsi. 15) denotes some species 
of leech, or rather is the generic term for any 
bloodsucking annelid. 

Hosan'na (Save,, we 

pray"), the cry of the multi- 


tudes as they thronged in our Lord' s triumphal 
procession into Jerusalem (Matt. xxi. 9, 15; 
Mark xi. 9, 10; John xii. 13). 


Hos§'a, son of Beeri, and first of the Minor 
Prophets. It seems almost certain that very few 
of his prophecies were written until after the 
death of Jeroboam (783). The prophetic 
career of Hosea extended over a period of 
,fiftyrBtne years. 

Hoshe'a, the nineteenth, last, and best king 
of Israel. He succeeded Pekah, whom he 
slew in a successful conspiracy, thereby ful- 
filling a prophecy of Isaiah (Is. vii. 16). It 
• took place b. v. 737. 

Hoshe'a, the son of Nun, i. e. Joshua (Deut. 
xxxii. 44; and also in Num. xiii. 8, though 
there live A. V. has Orhea). 
Hospitality. Hospitality was regarded by 
most nations of the ancient world as one of 
the chief virtues. The laws respecting 
strangers (Lev. xix. 33, 34), and the poor 
Lev. xxv. 14, seqq.; Deut. xv. 7), and re- 
demption (Lev. xxv. 23, seqq.), &c, are in 
accordance with hospitality. 
Hour. The Greeks adopted the division of 
the day into twelve hours from the Baby- 
lonians. At what period the Jews became 
first acquainted with this way of reckoning 
time is unknown, but probably during the 
House. The houses of the rural poor in Egypt, as 
in Syria, Arabia, and Persia, are for the most 
part huts of mud, or sunburnt bricks. In some 
parts of Palestine and Arabia stone is used. In 
Oriental domestic habits the roof is important. 
Its flat surface is made useful for drying corn, 
banging up linen 
and preparing 
figs and raisins. 
The roofs are 
used as places of 
recreation in the 
evening, and of- 
ten as sleeping 
places at night 
(2 Sam. xi. 2, 
xvi. 22; Dan. iv. 
29; 1 Sam. ix. 
25, 26). They 
were also used 
as places for de- 
votion, and even 
idolatrous wor- 
ship (Jer. xxxii. 
29; 2 K. xxiii. 
12). Protection 
of the roof by 
parapets was en- 
joined by the law 
'(Deut. xxii. 8). 
Hul'dah, a proph- 
etess in the time of king Josiah (2 K. xxii. 14; 2 
Chr. xxxiv. 22). 
Hur, mentioned with Moses and Aaron on the 
occasion of the battle with Amalek at Rephidim 
(Ex. xvii. 10). He is mentioned again in xxiv. 
14, as being, with Aaron, in charge of the people. 
The Jewish tradition is that he was the husband 
of Miriam. 
Hu'shai, an Archite, i. e. possibly an inhabitant 
of a place called Erec (2 Sam. xv. 32, fF. ; xvi. 
16, ff. ). To him David confided the delicate 
and dangerous part of a pretended adherence 
to the cause of Absalom. 
Husks. The word rendered in the A. V. 
"husks" (Luke xv. 16) describes the fruit of a 
tree, viz.: the carob. This is commonly met. 
It produces pods, shaped like a horn, vary- 
ing in length from 6 to 10 inches, and 

fct'.a finger's breadth, or rather more. 
.uz, the eldest son of Nahor and Milcah 
(Gen. xxii. 21). 
Hyaena. Authorities are at variance as to 
whether the term tzabu'a in Jer. xii. 9 
means a "hyaena," a "speckled bird." 
The hyaena was common in ancient as in 
modern Egypt. 
Hyinenae'us, the name of a person occur- 
ring first with Alexander (1 Tim. i. 20), and 
•second with Philetus 2 Tim. ii. 17, 18). 
Hyssop, used to sprinkle the doorposts of the 
Israelites in Egypt with the blood of the pas- 
chal lamb (Ex. xii. 22) ; it was employed in 
the purification of lepers and leprous houses 



(Lev. xiv. 4, 51), and in the sacrifice of the 
red heifer (Num. xix. 6). It is described in 1 K. 
iv. 33 as growing on or near walls. 



2J 2 

Ib'haf, one of the sons of David (2 Sam. v. 15), 
^_ born in Jerusalem, 

Ib'zan, a native of Bethlehem, who judged Israel 
^seven/years after Jephthah (Judg. xii. 8, 10). 
Ich'abod, the son of Phinehas, and grandson of 

Eli (-I- Sam. iv. 21). 
Ioo'uium, the modern Konieh, was the capital of 


Lycaonia. It was between Ephesus and Tarsus, 
Antioch'and the Euphrates. 
Id'do. A seer whose "visions" against Jeroboam 
incidentally contained some of the acts of Solo- 
mon (2 Chr. ix. 29). He appears to have written 
a chronicle or story relating to Abijah (2 Chr. 
xiii. 22), and also a book "concerning genealo- 


gies" (xii. 15). These books are lost, but may 
have formed part of the foundation of the books 
of Chronicles. 
Idolatry, strictly speaking, denotes the worship of 
deity in a visible form, whether the images to 
which homage is paid are symbolical represent - 

fOrl, rede, pruifc; «, i, o, silent; f as s; en as 8b; «, «u, as k; g as J, g as in get; § as z; s as gz; n as In linger, link; tn as in tttfne. 



gate, accused him of being about to desert to the 
Chaldeans, ami led him to the princes (Jer. 
xxxvii. 13, 1-1 ). 

Iron is mentioned with brass as the earliest of 
known metals (Gen. iv. 22). The book of Job 
contains passages which indicate that iron was 
a metal well known. Sheet-iron was used for 

o4 61 £ 2N 



tions of the true God or of the false divinities 
which have been made the objects of worship in 
His stead. The first undoubted allusion to idol- 
atry is in Gen. xxxi. 19. 

!>OI oil" -4' 



Idume'a. [Edom.J 

Illyr'ioum, an extensive district along the eastern 
coast of the Adriatic, and contiguous to Moesia 
and Macedonia (Rom. xv. 19). 

Imman'uel (God with us), the symbolical name 
given by the prophet Isaiah to the child announced 
to Ahaz and Judah, as the sign God would give 
of their deliverance (Is. vii. 14). It is applied to 
the Messiah (Matt. i. 23). 

In'oense. The incense employed in the tabernacle 
was compounded of stacte, onycha, galbanum, 
and pure frankincense. All incense not made of 


born when Abraham was fourscore and six years 
old (Gen. xvi. 15, 16). Ishmael was the first-born 
of his father. On the institution of circumcision 
he was circumcised, being thirteen years old (xvii. 


these ingredients was forbidden to be offered (Ex. 
xxx. 9). 

India. The name does not occur in the Bible be- 
fore the book of Esther, where it is noticed as 
the limit of the territories of Ahasuerus in the 
east; as Ethiopia was in the west (i. 1; viii. 9). 

Ink, Inkhorn. [Writing.] 

Inn. The Hebrew literally signifies "a lodging- 
place for the night." Inns, in our sense of the 
term, were unknown in the East, where hospitali- 
ty is religiously practiced. The halting-place of 
a caravan was selected on account of its proxim- 

ooo hi 1 


ity to water or pasture. Such was undoubtedly 
the '•inn" at which occurred the incident narrated 
in Ex. iv. 24 (comp. Gen. xlii- 27). 
Irl'jah, son of Shelemiah who met Jeremiah in the 


cooking utensils (Ez. iv. 3; of. Lev. vii. 9). 
That it was plentiful in the time of David ap- 
pears from 1 Chr. xxii. 3. The market of 
Tyre was supplied with bright or polished iron 
by the merchants of Dan and Javan (Ez. xxvii. 
I'saac, the son whom Sarah bore to Abraham, in 
the hundredth year of his age, at Gerar. In his 
infancy he became the object of Ishmael' s jeal- 
ousy; and in his youth the victim, in intention, of 
Abraham's great sacrificial act of faith. When 
forty years old he married Rebekah his cousin, 
by whom, when sixty, he had two sons, Esau and 
Jacob. In his seventy-fifth year, he and his 
brother Ishmael buried their father. From the 
well Lahai-roi, in the South Country, Isaac was 
driven by a famine to Gerar. Here Jehovah re- 
newed to him the promises to Abraham. He 
died at Hebron (xxxv. 27) 
at the age of 180 years, and 
| was buried by his two sons 
I in the cave of Machpelah. 
J, Isa'iah, the prophet, son of 
Amoz. He prophesied 
concerning Judah and 
Jerusalem in the days of 
Uzziah, Jotham, Ahaz, and 
Hezekiah, kings of Judah 
(Is. i. 1). Isaiah must 
have been an old man at 
the close of Hezekiah' s 
reign. The ordinary chro- 
nology gives 698 A- D. for the date of Hezekiah' s 
death. This gives us a period of sixty years. 
The Book of. The great number and minute- 
ness of the predictions of Isaiah concerning the 
advent, character, preaching, labors, suffering, 
and death of our Lord, have secured to him the 
name of the evangelical prophet. The size, im- 
portance, and style of the book give it a leading 
position among the prophets. 
Is'cah, daughter of Haran the brother of Abrarn, 
and sister of Milcah and of Lot (Gen. xi. 29). 
In the Jewish traditions identified with Sarai. 
Isoar'iot. [Judas Iscariot.] 

Ish'bak, a son of Abraham and Keturah (Gen. 

xxv. 2; 1 Chr. i. 32), and progenitor of a tribe of 

northern Arabia. 

Ish'bi-be'nob, one of the race of Philistine 

giants, who was slain by Abishai (2 Sam. 

25). He does not again appear until the weaning 
of Isaac. He must have been between fifteen 
and sixteen years of age. "Sarah saw the son of 
Hagar mocking." The patriarch, comforted by 
God's promise, sent them both away. "His 
mother took him a wife out of the land of Egypt" 
(Gen. xxi. 9-21). Of the later life of Ishmael 
we know little. He was present at the burial of 
Abraham. He died at the age of 137 years (xxv. 
17, 18). The sons of Ishmael eventually formed 
•the chief element of the Arab nation. 
Is'rael. 1. The name given (Gen. xxxii. 28) to 
Jacob after his wrestling with the Angel (Hos. 


xii. 4) at Peniel. Gesenius interprets Israel 
"soldier of God." 2. It became the national 
mime of the twelve tribes collectively. 

Is'sachar, the ninth son of Jacob and the fifth of 
Leah; the first born to Leah. At the descent in- 
to Egypt four sons are ascribed to him. 

Ith'amar, the youngest son of Aaron (Ex- vi. 23). 
After the deaths of Nadab and Abihu (Lev. x. 1), 
Eleazar and Ithamar were appointed to succeed 
in the priestly office (Ex. xxviii. 1. 40, 43; Num. 
iii. 3, 4; 1 Chr. xxiv. 2V The high-priesthood 
passed into the family of Ithamar in the person 
of Eli. 

It'tai. "Ittai the Gittite," i. e. of Gath, a 

Ish-bo'sheth, the 
youngest of Saul's 

four sons, and his 
legitimate success- 
or. Ishbosheth was 
"40 years old when 
he began to reign 
over Israel, and 
reigned two years" 
(2 Sam. iii. 10). 5^ 
During these two ;^vH.~ 

negotiations with David were 


years he reigned at Mahanaim, only in name. 

The wars and 
carried on by Abner (2 Sam. ii. 12, iii. 6, 12). 
The death of Abner deprived the house of 
Saul of their last remaining support. _ He fell a 
victim, probably, to revenge for crime of his 
father (2 Sam. iv. 4). 
Ish'mael, son of Abraham by Hagar the Egyptian; 


Philistine in the Army of David. He appears 
during the revolution of Absalom. Last in pro- 
cession came 600 heroes who had formed David's 
band during his wanderings. Amongst these, ap- 

S, e, 1, 6, u, y, long; &, e, i, *, u, f, ebort; care, iar, list, lftll, wbfcti. U»6«>, veil, t«rmj pique, tfnnj ddue, idr, d», w 9 U, iood, tooU 



parently commanding, was Ittai (ver. 19). He 
caught the eye of the king, who besought him to 
return "with his brethren" (19, 20J. But Ittai is 
firm. When the army was numbered at Mahan- 
aim, Ittai again appears, now in command of a 
third part of the force (2 Sam. xviii. 2, 5, 12). 
'<SU til \3 v.M 


Iturae'a, a small province on the northwestern 
border of Palestine, along the base of Mount 
Hcrmon, only mentioned in Luke iii. 1. 

I'vah, or A'va (2K. xviii. 34, xix. 13; comp. Is. 
xxxvii. 13); probably identical with the modern 
Hit, on the Euphrates. 

Ivory. The Heb. signifies the "tooth' of any 
animal, and hence the substance of the projecting 
tusks of elephants. The skilled workmen of 
Hiram, king of Tyre, fashioned the great ivory 


throne of Solomon, and overlaid it with pure 
gold (1 K. x. 18; 2 Chr. ix. 17). The "ivory 
house" of Ahab (1 K. xxii. 39) was probably a 
palace, the walls panelled with ivory. 
Iz'har, son of Kbha'tlv; grandson of Levi, uncle of 
Aaron and Moses, and father of Korah (Ex. vi. 
18, 21; Num. iii. 19; xvi. 1; 1 Chr. vi. 2, 18). 

Jaa'siel, son of the great Abner (1 Chr. xxyii. 21). 
Ja'bal, son. of Lamech and Adah (Gen. iv. 20), 


described as father of such as dwell in tents and 
have cattle. 
Jab'bok, a stream which falls into the Jordan about 
midway between the sea of Galilee and the Dead 


Sea. On the south bank the interview took place 
between Jacob and Esau (Gen. xxxii. 22). 

Ja'bin. 1. King of Hazor, who organized a con- 
federacy against the Israelites (Josh. xi. 1-3). 
Joshua surprised the allied forces (ver. 7) and 
routed them. 2. A king of Hazor, whose 
general, Sisera, was defeated by Barak 
(Judg. iv. 3, 13). 

Ja'chin. One of the two pillars set up "in 
the porch" (1 K. vii. 21) or before the 
teinple-(2Chr. iii. 17) of Solomon. 

Jaointh, a precious stone, forming one of 
the foundations of the walls of the new 
Jerusalem (Rev. xxi. 20). 

Ja'cob, second son of Isaac and Rebekah. 
He was born with Esau, when Isaac was 69 
and Abraham 159 years old, probably at 
the well Lahai-roi. His history is related 
in the latter half of the book of Genesis. 
In sign of the grace won by a night of 
wrestling with God his name was changed 
at Jabbok into Israel. Joseph was sold 
into Egypt eleven years before the deaf h 
of Isaac ; and Jacob had probably exceed- 
ed his 130th year when he went thither. 
He was presented to Pharaoh, and dwelt 
seventeen years in Rameses and Goshen. 
He died in his 147th year. His body was em- 
balmed, carried with great pomp into Canaan, 
and deposited in the cave of Machpelah. 

Ja'el, wife of Heber the Kenite. In the headlong 
rout which followed the defeat of the Canaanites 



James. 1. Jambs the son of Zebedee, one of the 
Twelve. We first hear of him in A. D. 27, when 
Zebedee, a fisherman (Mark i. 20), was out on 
the Sea of Galilee with his two sons f James and 
John, and some boatmen. ThenamCof Boaner- 


by Barak, Sisera fled to the tent of the Kenite 
chieftainess. He accepted Jael's invitation to 
enter. At last the weary general resigned him- 
self to deep sleep. Then Jael took in her left 
hand one- of the great wooden pins which fastened 
down the cords of the tent, and in her right hand 
a mallet, and with one terrible blow dashed it 
through Sisera" s temples deep into the earth 
(Judg. v. 27). She then waited to meet the pur- 
suing Barak, and led him into her tent that she 
might claim the glory of the deed! 

Jah, the abbreviated form of "Jehovah," used 
only in poetry. 

Ja'ir. 1. A man descended from Judah and Ma- 
nasseh. During the conquest he took Argob 
(Deut. iii. 14), and villages in Gilead, which he 
called Havvoth-Jair (Num. xxxii. 41; 1 Chr. ii. 
23). 2. "Jair the Gileadite," who judged 
Israel for two-and-twenty years (Judg. x. 3-5). 
He had thirty sons who rode thirty asses, and 
possessed thirty cities in Gilead, also called Hav- 

Jai'ras, a ruler of a synagogue near the western 
shore of the Sea of Galilee (Matt. ix. 18; Mark 
v. 22 K Lukeviii. 41). 

Jam'bres. [Jannes and Jambres.] 

ges was given to the sons of Zebedee.— The "Sons 

of Thunder" had a burning and impetuous spirit 

(Luke ix. 54; Mark x. 37). Shortly before the 

Passover, in 44, he was put to death by Herod 

Agrippal. (Acts xii. 1, 2). 2. James the son 

op Ai.phaeus, one of the Twelve Apostles (Matt. 

x. 3; Mark iii. 18, Luke vi. 15; Acts i. 13). 3. 

James the brother of the Lord (Matt. xiii. 55; 

Markvi. 3; Gal. i. 19) ; 
James the Less, son of Aiph- 

aeus or Clopas, and brother 

of our Lord (see above) was> 

called to the Apostolate, with 1 

his brother Jude, in the springs 

of the year 28. He was event- 1 

ually appointed to preside' 

over the church at Jerusalem i 

in a position equivalent toj 

that of Bishop. According] 

to tradition, James was thrown! 

from the Temple by the] 

Scribes and Pharisees ; then'' 

stoned and his brains dashed, 

out by a fuller's club. 
James, The General Epistle of. 

The author of this Epistle was 

in all probability James the 

son of Alphaeus, and our before the king. 

Lord's brother. It was written from Jerusalem. 

Its main object is to improve morality. St. 

Jamesisthe moral teacher of the N. T. 
Jan'na, son of Joseph, and father of Melchi, in 

the genealogy of Christ (Luke iii. 24). 
Jan'nes and Jam'bres, the names of two Egyptian 

magicians who opposed Moses. St. Paul alone 

mentions them, and says they "withstood Moses," 


and that their folly became manifest (2 Tim. iii. 

Ja'pheth, one of the three sons of Noah. The 
descendants of Japheth occupied the "isles of tha 

ween tne sea ot liainee ana tne ueaa Jam'Dres. [_ .jannes and uambkks.j ucauenuaiaa m »a,pncm ^-i"^ -"~ 

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J f 

Gentiles'' (Gen. x. 5), i. e. the coast-lands of the 
Mediterranean Sea in Europe and Asia Minor. 
Ja'red, one of the antediluvian patriarchs, the 
fifth from Adam; father of Enoch -iQ en -> Jr »!»>» 
16, 18-20; Luke iii. 37;. 0^4 




Ja'sher, Book of, or, as the margin gives it, "the 
book of the upright," a record alluded to in 
Josh. x. 13, and 2 Sam. i. 18, and the subject of 
much dispute. 

Ja'son. 1. Jason the High-Priest, the second 
son of Simon II., and brother of Onias III 

Jason the Tiiessalonian, who entertained, Paul tin 

e'bus, one of the names of Jerusalem (Josh. xv. 
8; Judg. xix. 10, 11). 
JeVusites, The, were descended from the third son 
of Canaan (Gen. x. 1(1; 1 Chr. i. 11). First ap- 
pear in Num. xiii. 20). 

Jed'idfih, queen of Amon, and mother of 

the good king Josiah (2 K. xxii. 1). 
Jgdidi'ah, Jedid-Jah, "darling of Jeho- 
vah," the name bestowed, through Na- 
than the prophet, on David's son Solo- 
mon (2 Sam. xii. 25). 

Jed'uthiin, a Levite, probably the same as 
Ethan. His office was to preside over 
the music of the temple service. Jed- 
uthun's name stands at the head of the 
30th, 62d, and 77th Psalms. 
Je'gar-sahadu'tha ("heap of testi- 
mony"), the Aramaean name 
given by Laban to the heap of 
stones lie erected as a memorial 
of the compact between Jacob and 
himself, while Jacob commemo- 
rated the same by setting up a 
pillar (Gen. xxxi. 47)-. 
yt£ Jeho'ahaz, the son and successor of 
Jehu, reigned 17 years B- c. 856- 
840 over Israel in Samaria. His 
inglorious history is given in 2 K. 
xii'i. 1-0. 
Jehoi'achin, son ot Jehoiakim and 
Nehushta, and for three months 
and ten days king of Judah, B. C. 
507. Nebuchadnezzar carried him 
to Babylon (Jer. xxix. 2) 
Jehoi'ada, high-priest at the time 
of Athaliah's usurpation of the 
throne of Judah (b. c. 884-878.) 
He married Jehosheba, or Jehoshabeath, 
daughter of king Jeboram, and sister of 
king Ahaziah (2 Chr. xxii. 11); and when Atha- 
liali slew the seed royal he and his wife stole 
Joash from among the king's sons, and hid him 
in the Temple, and eventually placed him on the 
one. The destruction of Baal-worship and 


father on the throne of Judah, and reigned eight 
years, from B. c. 803-2 to 885-4. As soon as 
fixed on the throne, he put his six brothers to 
death, with many of the chief nobles. He then 
proceeded to establish the worship of Baal. He 
died of a terrible disease (2 Chr. xxi. 10, 20). 

Jehoshab'eath, the form in which Jehosheba is 
given in 2 Chr. xxii. 11. 

Jehosh'aphat, king of Judah, son of Asa, succeed- 
ed to the throne b. c. 014, when he was 35 years 
old, and reigned 25 years. His history is to be 
found in 1 K. xv. 24; 2 K. viii. 16, or in 2 Chr. 
xvii. 1-xxi. 3. He was contemporary with Ahab, 
Ab;eziah, and Jehoram. 

Jehosh'aphat, Valley of. That deep ravine which 
separates Jerusalem from the Mount of Olives, 




and Silas, and was in consequence attacked by 
the Jewish mob (Acts xvii. 5,6, 7, 0). Probably 
the same as the Jason in Rom. xvi. 21. 
Jasperp' a precious stone frequently noticed in 
Scripture. It was the last of the twelve in the 
high-priest's breastplate (Ex.. xxviii. 20, xxxix. 


eastplate (Ex. x 


Ji'van. There can be no doubt that Javan was 
regarded as the representative of the Greek race. 

the restoration of the Temple were effected 
by Jelioiada. He died b. c. 834. 

Jehoi'akim, called Eliakim, son of Josiah 
and Zebudah, and king of Judah. After 
deposing Jehoahaz, Pharaoh Necho set 
Eliakim, his elder brother, upon the throne, 
and changed his name to Jehoiakim, B. c. 
608-507. Jehoiakim came to a violentend 
in the 11th year of his reign. His body, 
after being exposed, was dragged away and 
buried "with the burial of an ass" (Jer. 
xxii. 18, 10, xxxvi. 30). All accounts as- 
cribe to him a vicious and irreligious char- 
acter; \ r* 

Jehon'adab and Jon'adab, the son of Rechab, 
founder of the Rechabites. It appears 
from 1 Chr. ii. 55, that his ancestor be- 
longed to a branch of the Kenites. He is 
expressly mentioned in 2 K. x. 

JehO'ram. 1. Son of Ahab king of Israel, 
who succeeded his brother Ahaziah, b. c. 
806, and died b. c. 884. He practiced 
idolatry during the greater part of his life. 
In 1st and 2d Kings are given many inci- 
dents of his reign in which the prophet 
Elisha figured. Jehoram fell pierced by an 
arrow from Jehu's bow on the very plot of 
ground Ahab had wrested from Naboth ; thus ful- 
filling the prophecy of Elijah (1 K. xxi. 21-20). 
2. Eldest sou of Jehoshaphat, succeeded his 


througn which at one time the Kedron forced its 

Jehosh'eba, daughter of Joram king of Israel, and 
wife of Jelioiada the high-priest (2 K. xi. 2). 

Jehosh'iia, that is, "help of Jehovah" or "Sa- 
viour." In this form is given the name of 
Joshua in Num. xiii. 16. 

JEHOVAH. The true pronunciation of this name, 
known to the Hebrews, has been lost, the Jews 
avoiding every mention of it. This custom was 
founded upon Lev. xxiv. 16. According to tra- 
dition, it was pronounced once a year by the high- 
priest when he entered the Holy of Holies ; but 
ofi this. there is some doubt. 

Jehovah-jireh, i. e. "Jehovah will see," or "pro- 
vide," the name given by Abraham to the place 
on which he had been commanded to offer Isaac 
(Gen. .xxii. M ). 

Jelad'vahnis'si, i. e. "Jehovah my banner," the 
name given by Moses to the altar built in com- 
memoration of the discomfiture of the Amalekites 
at Rephidim (Ex. xvii. 15). 

b28 olM 


Jehd'vah-sha'lom, i. e. "Jehovah (is) peace," or, 
"Jehovah, the God of peace," the altar erected by 
Gideon in Ophrah (Judg. vi. 24). 

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— J — ^_i_ 

Whn, the founder of the fifth dynasty of the king- 
dom of Israel, son of Jehoshaphat (2 K. ix. 2). 
His appointment to the kingly office; his appear- 
ance at Jezreel ; his destruction of the family 
and court of Ahab, and his slaughter of the idol- 
aters in the Temple, are recorded in the books of 
Kings. He reigned 27 years and was succeeded 
by his son Jehoahaz (2 
K. x. 35). 

JSph'thah, a jodge, about 
B. c. 1143-1137. His 
history is continued in 
Judg. xi. l-xii. 8. He 
was a Gileadite, the son 
of Gilead and a concu- 
bine. He judged Israel 
six years and died. That 
the daughter of Jephthah 
was really offered in 
sacrifice, is a conclusion 
it seems impossible to 

Jeremi'ah was "the Son 
of Hilkiah of the priests 
that were in Anathoth" 
(Jer. i. 1), and was a 
child in the reign of Jo- 
Biah, b. c. 638-608 (i. 6). WATER carrier op jericho. 
In his youth he was called to the prophetic office. 
In Egypt, in the city of Tahpanhes, we have the 
last clear glimpses of the Prophet's life. He 
does not shrink from speaking of the Chaldean 
king as "the servant of Jehovah" (xliii. 10). 
After this all is uncertain. The Book of, is 
made up principally of prophesies delivered at 
various times. The last chapter was probably by 

Jeremi'as, the Greek form of Jeremiah (Matt. xvi. 

14). z~ 

Jer'emy, the prophet Jeremiah (Matt. ii. 17. 
xxvii. 9). 

Jer'icho, a city of high antiquity, situated in a 
plain traversed by the Jordan, and exactly over 
against where that river was crossed by the Israel- 


ites under Joshua (Josh. iii. 10). It had a king. 
Its walls were considerable (ii. 15), and its 
were shut "when it was dark" (v. 5). 


The spoil found in it betokened its affluence. 
Jer'imoth. Son of king David, whose daughter 

Mahalath was one of the wives of Rehoboain, her 

cousin Abihail being the other (2 

Chr. xi.~18). 
Jerobo'am. 1. The first king of 

the divided kingdom of Israel (b. 

c. 975-954), the son of Nebatan 

Ephraimite. He was employed 

by Solomon (1 K. xi. 28). After 

Solomon's death, upon the revolt 

of the ten tribes, he was elevated 

to the throne of the northern 

kingdom. He wickedly resorted 

to idol worship. After a reign of 

22 years, he died (2 Chr. xiii. 20; 

1 K. xiv. 20). 2. Jeroboam II., 

son of Joash (b. c. 825-784). The 

most prosperous of the kings of 

Israel (2 K. xiv. 28, xiii. 5; 1 

, Chr. v. -"17-22). 

Jerubba'al, the surname of Gideon, 

acquired in destroying the altar of 

Baal (Judg. vi. 32). 
Jeru'salem. The earliest notice is 

in Josh. xv. 8 and xviii. 16, 28. 

Here it is styled Ha-Jebusi, after 

its occupiers. Next, we find tne 

form Jebus (Judg. - xix. 10,11); 

and lastly, Jerusalem (Josh. x. .1 

&c, xii. 10; Judg. i. 7, &c). It 

is 32 miles from the sea, 18 from 

the Jordan, 20 from Hebron, and 

36 from Samaria. Its elevation 

is remarkable. The various spots 

of special interest about the city 

are described under their own 

names, and to them the reader is 

referred. In the fifteen centuries 

between the first mention of the 

city in the Old Testament and the 

latest mention in the New, it was 

besieged no fewer than seventeen 

times ; twice it was razed to the 
ground; and on two other 
occasions its walls were lev- 
elled. It was taken bv the 
Crusaders in 1099. . In 1187 it was retaken 
by Saladin. In 1277 Jerusalem was nomi- 
nally annexed to Sicily. In 1517 it passed 
under the Ottoman Sultan Selim I. The 
Pasha of Egypt took possession of it in 
1832 ; and in 1840 it was again restored to 
the. Sultan. 
Jes'se, the father of David, was the son of 
Obed, the fruit of the union of Boaz and 
Ruth. His great grandmother was Rahab 
the Canaanite, of Jericho (Matt. i. 5). 
Jesse's genealogy is twice given in the O. 
T., viz. Ruth iv. 18-22, and 1 Chr. ii. 5-12. 
He is designated "Jesse the Bethlehemite" 
(1 Sam. xvi. 1, 18). Jesse's wealth con- 
sisted of sheep and goats, which were under 
the eare of David (xxvi. 11, xvii. 34, 35). 
JESUS, the Greek form of Joshua or Jeshua, 
a contraction of Jehoshua, that is, ''help of 
Jehovah" or "Saviour" (Num. xiii. 16). 
Jesus the Sou of Sirach is described in Eccle- 
siasticus (i. 27) as the author of that book, 
which generally is called the Wisdom of 
Jesus the Son of Sirach, or simply the V/isdom- 
of Sirach. 

Je'sus, called Justus, a Christian who was 
with St; Paul at Rome (Col. iv. 11). 
Je'sus Christ. The name Jesus signifies 
Saviour. The name of Christ signifies 
Anointed. In the N. T. the name Christ is 
used as equivalent to Messiah (John i. 41), 
the name given to the long-promised Prophet 
and King whom the Jews had been taught 
to expect (Acts xix. 4; Matt. xi. 3). The 
name of Jesus is the proper name of our 
Lord, and that of Christ is added to identify 
Him with the promised Messiah. Accord- 
ing to received chronology, the Birth of 
Christ occurred in the year of Rome 754 (a. 
d. 1). The life, embracing the childhood, 
youth, ministry, and crucifixion of our 

Saviour are given in the Gospels. 
Je'ther. Jethro, the father-in-law of Moses (Ex. 

iv. 18). 

JOAR 48 

Je'thro was priest or prince of Midian. Moses 
spent his exile from Egypt with him, and married 
his daughter Zipporah. 


Jew. This name was applied to a member of the 
kingdom of Judah after the separation of the ten 
tribes. The term first makes its appearance just 
before the captivity of the ten tribes (2K. xvi. 6). 

Jew'ry, elsewhere rendered Judah and Judaea. 
Jewry comes to us through the Norman-French, 
and isof frequent occurrence in Old English. 

Jez'ebel, wife of Ahab king of Israel, and mother 
of Athaliah, queen of Judah, and Ahaziah and 
Joram, kings of Israel. She was a Phoenician 
princess. In her hands her husband became a 
mere puppet (1 K. xxi. 25). She was a firm sup- 
porter of the idolatries of the Phoenicians, and 
brought upon herself and her husband the curse 
and it's fulfillment recorded in 1 K. xxi. 23. 

Jez're-el, a city in the plain, now called Esdraelon. 
Its historical importance dates from the reign of 


Ahab, who chose it for his chief residence. The 
situation of the modern village of Zerin still re- 
mains to show the fitness of his choice. 
Jd'ab, the most remarkable of the three nephew j 
of David, the children of Zeruiah, David's sister. 

furl, r^de, p^sh; e, i, o, silent; f us; (hu sh; c, cTi, as k; g es j, g as in get; s as i; j as p; n aa In linger, link; 4b aa in tiling 




Joab first appears after David's accession at Heb- 
ron. At the siege of Jebus he was appointed for 
his prowess commander-in-chief. In the wide 
range of wars which David undertook, Joab was 


the acting general. At the close of his long life, 
he turned after Adonijah (1 K. ii. 28). Joab fled 
to the altar at Gibeon, and was there slain by 
Joan'na. 1. (Luke iii. 27). One of the ancestors 
of Christ. 2. The (Luke viii. 3, xxiv. 
10) "wife of Chuza, steward of Herod," 
that is, Anti- 
Jo'ash, contr. 
from Jehoash. 
Son of Ahazi- 
ah, king of 
one who es- 
caped the mur- 
derous Athali- 
ah. After his 
father's sister, 
the wife of Je- 
hoiada the 
stolen him, he 
was hidden for 
six years in the 
Temple. I n 
the 7th year of 
his age and 
concealment, a 
successful rev- 
olution placed 
him on the throne. While Jehoiada 
lived, this reign was prosperous. But, 
after, Joash fell into the hands of bad 
advisers, and he revived the worship of Baal and 
Ashtaroth. Following this came calamity and 
violent death. 
Job, the patriarch, the name of one of the books 
ot the 0. T. His residence in the land of Uz — 
its name from a son of Aram (Gen. x. 23), or 
Nahor (Gen. xxii. 21) — marks him as of the 


written long before the exile. All critics have 
recognized its grand archaic character. In all 
the descriptions of manners and customs, domes- 
tic, social, and political, the genuine coloring of 
the age of Job is very faithfully observed. 
Jooh'ebed, wife and aunt of Amram, and 
mother of Moses and Aaron (Ex. 
ii. \ , \ i. 20; Num. xxvi. 59). 
Jo'el. 1. Eldest son of Samuel 
the prophet (1 Sam. viii. 2; 1 
Chr. vi. 33, xv. 17). 2. The sec- 
ond of the twelve minor prophets, 
probably prophesied in Judah in 
the reign of Uzziah. The Book 
op. This is a grand outline of 
the whole terrible scene, which 
was to be depicted more and 
more in detail by subsequent 
John, the same name as Johanan, 
a contraction of Jehohanan, "Je- 
hovah's gift. " The Hebrew name of the 
Evangelist Mark (Acts xii. 12, 25, xiii. 5, 13, xv. 
John the Apostle was the son of Zebedee, a fisher- 
man on the Lake of Galilee, and of Salome, and 
brother of James, also an apostle. Peter and 


after his testimony to the Messiah, John's public 
ministry was brought to a close. Herod Antipas 
had him. executed. 
John, Gospel of. Probably the date of this Gospel 
may lie about a. d. 78. The Gospel was ad- 
dressed primarily to Christians, not to heathens. 



John, The First, Second, and Third Epistles General 
of, probably written from Ephesus, and about the 
close of the first century delivered his doctrine 
(i. 3, ii. 7). In the introduction (i. 1-4) the 
Apostle states the purpose of the First Epistle. 
The Second was to warn the lady to whom he 
wrote against the teaching of Basilides 
and his followers. The Third was writ- 
ten for the purpose of commending to 
Caius some Christians. 
Jo'na, the father of Peter (John i. 42), 


Aramaean race, which settled in lower Mesopo- 
tamia- The date of the book is doubtful. It 
may be regarded as settled that the book was 

kins and prisoners (Egyptian drawing). 
James and John come within the innermost cir- 
cle of their Lord's friends. To John belongs the 
memorable distinction of being the disciple whom 
Jesus loved. Tradition relates that under Do- 
mitian he is taken to Rome and thrown into boil- 
ing oil, which has no power to hurt him. He is 

oriental baker at the oven. 

then sent to Patmos. The accession of Nerva 
frees him, and he returns to Ephesus. The dates 
assigned for his death range from a. d. 89 to A. d. 
John the Baptist was of the priestly race by both 
parents. His father Zacharias was of the course 
of Abia, or Abijah (1 Chr. xxiv. 10), and Eliza- 
beth was of the daughters of Aaron (Luke i. 5). 
His birth was foretold by an angel sent from God, 
and is related at length in the first chapter of the 
Gospel of St. Luke. The birth of John pre- 
ceded by six months that of our Lord. Shortly 


who is addressed as Simon Barjona (l. 0. 
son of Jona) in Matt. xvi. 17. 
Jon'adab, son of Shimeah and nephew of 
David, described as ''very subtil" (2 
Sam. xiii. 3). Hisagenaturallyruadehim 
the friend of his cousin Amnon. He gave 
him the fatal advice for insnaring Tamar (5, 6). 
Jo'nali, the fifth of the Minor Prophets, was the 
son of Amittai, and a native of Gathhepher (2 
K. xiv. 25). He lived after the reign of Jehu (2 
K. x. 32). Having prophesied to Israel, he was 
sent to Nineveh. The prophet attempted to es- 
cape to Tarshish. God, however, watched over 
him, first in storm, and then in his being swal- 
lowed by a large fish for three days and three 
nights. After his deliverance, Jonah executed 
his commission. 
Jo'nas. 1. The prophet Jonah (Matt. xii. 39, 40, 
41, xvi. 4). 2. Father of Peter (John xxi. 
Jon'athah, that is, "the gift of Jehovah," the eld- 
est son of king Saul. He was regarded in his 
father's lifetime as, heir to the throne. Like Saul, 


he was of great strength and activity (2 Sam. i. 
23). He was famous for archery and slinging (1 
Chr. xii. 2). His life may be divided into : 1. 
The war with the Philistines (1 Sam. xiii. 21); 

5, e, I, o, u, y, long; a, e, i, O, tt, y, sbort; care, tax, last, fall, what; there, veil, term; pique, fffrm; ddne, fdr, d<j, wylf, food, foot; 






2. His friendship with David. Their last meet- I 
ing was in the forest of Ziph (1 Sam. xxiii. 16- 
18). From this we hear no more till the battle of | 
Gilboa (1 Sam. xxxi. 2, P) " 


Joppa, or Japho,' now Jaffa, a town on the S. W. 
coast of Palestine (Josh. xix. 40). Having a 
harbor attached to it, it became the port of 
Jerusalem. Here Jonah took ship. 
Here St. Peter had his vision of toler- 
ance (Acts xi. 5). The existing town 
contains 4000 inhabitants. 

Jor'dan, the one fiver of Palestine, has a 
course of 200 miles, from the roots of 
Anti-Lebanon to the head of the Dead 
Sea. There were two customary places 
at which the Jordan was fordable; and 
at one of these baptism was administered 
by St. John and by the disciples. Our 
Lord was baptized probably at the upper 

Jo3'apaat=Jehoshaphat king of Judah 
(Matt. i. 8). 

Jd'seph. 1. The' elder of two sons of 
Jacob by Rachel. ' Jacob was at Hebron 
with the aged Isaac, while his sons kept 
his flocks. The dream of Joseph ; his 
purchase by the Midianites ; his promo- 
tion in Egypt, and his remarkable life, 
are all given at length in Genesis. He 
lived "a hundred and ten years." 2. 
One of the ancestors of Christ (Luke 
iii. 30), son of Jonan. 3. Another an- 
cestor of Christ, son of Judah (Luke iii. 
26). 4. Another, son of Mattathias (Luke iii. 
24). 5. Son of Heli, and reputed lather of Jesus 
Christ. He was a just man, and of the house 
and lineage of David. He lived at Nazareth in 
Galilee, and espoused Mary. That he died be- 
fore our Lord's crucifixion, is tolerably certain. 
6. Joseph of Arimathaea, a rich and pious Is- 
raelite (Mark xv. 43), a member of the Great 
Council, or Sanhedrim. Joseph and Nicodemus 
having enfolded the sacred body, consigned it to 
a tomb hewn in a rock. The tomb was in a gar- 

oo4 o4/<* o 

he shared in the Exodus. He is mentioned first 
in Ex. xvji. 9. Moses, shortly before his death, 
was directed (Num. xxvii. 18) to invest Joshua 
solemnly and publicly with authority, with Ele- 
azar the priest, over the people. Joshua 
assumed the command of the people at 
Shittim. He died at the age of 110 years, 
and was buried in his own city, Timnath- 
Josh'ua, Book of, regarded by many as a 
part of the Pentateuch. The book may 
be regarded as consisting of three parts : 
(I.) The conquest of Canaan ; (II.) The 
partition of Canaan; (III.) Joshua's 
farew 11. 
Josi'ah, the son of Amon and Judidah, 
succeeded his father b. c. 641, in the 
eighth year of his age, and reigned 31 
? years. His history is contained in 2 K. 
xxii.-xxiv. 30; 2 Chr. xxxiv., xxxv. 
Josi'as. Josiah, king of Judah (Matt. i. 

10, 11). 
Jo'tham. 1. The youngest son of Gideon 
Judg. ix. 5). 2. The son of king Uzziah 
or Azariah and Jerushah. He succeeded 
to the throne B. c. 758, and reigned 10 
years in Jerusalem. He was contempo- 
rary with the prophet Isaiah. His history 
is contained in 2 K. xv. and 2 Chr. xxvii. 
Ju'bal, a son of Lamech by Adah, and the inventor 
of the ''harp and organ" (Gen. iv. 21), probably 

commonly Iscariotes (Matt. x. 4 ; Mark iii. 19 ; 
Luke vi. 16, &c. ) He carried back the thirty 
pieces of silver he had received for the betrayal 
of Christ, and casting them upon the pavement 
of the Temple he went and hanged himself. 

Ju'das Maccabae'us. [Maccabees.] 

Jude, or Ju'das, Lebbeus, and Thadde'us (A. V. 
"Judas the brother of James"), one of the Twelve 
Apostles. The name of Jude occurs only once 

eastern ape. 

den belonging to Joseph. 7. Joseph, called 
Barsabas, surnamed Justus ; one of the two 
chosen (Acts i., 23 ) to fill the place of Judas. 

Jo'ses. 1. One of the Lord's brethren (Matt. xiii. 
55: Mark vi. 3). 2. Joses Barnabas (Acts iv. 
36). [Barnabas.] 

Josh'ua. His name appears in the various forms 
of Hoshea, Oshea, Jehoshua, Jeshua and 
Jesus. The son of Nun, of Ephraim (1 Chr. 
vii. 27), and was nearly forty years old when 

birds of Palestine. 
general terms for stringed and wind instruments. 

Jubilee, The Year of, The fiftieth year after the 
succession of seven Sabbatical years, in which all 
the land alienated returned to the families 
to whom allotted in the original distribution, 
and all bondmen of Hebrew blood were lib- 

Ju'da. 1. Son of Joseph in the genealogy of 
Christ (Luke iii. 30). 2. One of the Lord's 
brethren, enumerated in Mark vi. 3. 

Judae'a, or Jude'a. Judaea was, in strict lan- 
guage, the name of the third district, west 
of the Jordan, and south of Samaria. 

Ju'dah, fourth son of Jacob and Leah. His 
whole-brothers were Reuben, Simeon, and 
Levi, elder than himself — IssacharandZebu- 
lun, younger (see Gen. xxxv. 23). In the 
sale of Joseph, he and Reuben stand out in 
favorable contrast to the rest of the brothers. 
His sons were five. They are all insignifi- 
cant ; two died early. The numbers of the 
tribe at the census at Sinai were 74,600 
(Num. i. 26, 27). 

Ju'das, the Greek form of the Hebrew name 
Judah, occurring in the LXX. and N. T. 
1. The Patriarch Judah (Matt. i. 2, 3). 2. 
A man residing at Damascus (Acts ix. 11). 

Ju'das, surnamed Bar'sabas, a leading mem- 
ber of the Apostolic church at Jerusalem 
(Acts xv. 22), endued with prophecy (ver. 
32), chosen with Silas to accompany Paul and 
Barnabas to the church at Antioch (ver. 27). 

Ju'das Isoar'iot. He is sometimes called " the son 
of Simon" (John vi. 71, xiii. 2, 28), but more 


in the Gospel narrative (John xiv. 22}. 
Ju'das, the Lord's brother (Matt. xiii. 55; Mark vi. 

3). A "Judas" sometimes identified with the 

Apostle of the same name. 
Jude, Epistle of. Its author was probably Jude, 

one of the brethren of Jesus, the subject of the 

preceding article. The object of the Epistle is 

announced, ver. 3; the reason is given ver 4. 

Judges'. Their power only extended over 
portions of the country. Though their 
first work was that of deliverers and lead- 
ers in war, they then administered justice 
to the people, and their authority sup- 
plied the want of a regular government. 
Judges, Book of, of which the book of 
Ruth formed originally a part, contains 
the history from Joshua to Samson. As 
the history of the Judges occupies the 
greater part of the narrative, and is the 
history of the people, the title of the 
whole book is derived from that portion. 
The time commonly assigned to the peric d 
contained in this book is 299 years. 
Judgment-hall. The word Praetorium is 
so translated five times in the N. T., and 
denotes: 1. In John xviii. 28, 33, xxix. 
9, the residence Pilate occupied when he 
visited Jerusalem. Probably the tower 
of Antonia. 2. In Acts xxiii. 35, a part 
of a magnificent range of buildings erect- 
ed by king Herod. 
Ju'dith. The heroine of the apocryphal 
book which bears her name, who appears 
as an ideal type of piety (Jud. viii. 6), 

beauty (xi. 21), courage, and chastity (xvi. 

22, •£).- 
Ju'dith, The Book of, one of the books of the Apoc 


rypha. It belongs to the Maccabaean period, 
which it reflects not only in its general spirit, but 
even, in its smaller traits. 
Ju'lia, a Christian woman at Rome, probably 

iixrl, n»de, pi.ujb; «, i, o, silent; 9 as s; £h as sb; «, ch>, as b ; g as j, g as m get; g as z; 3 as gz; q as la ligger, link; Uk as in thine. 



the wife, or perhaps tlie sister, of Philologus 
(Rom. xvi. 15). 
Jfl'lifis, the centurion of "Augustus' band," to 
whose charge St. Paul was delivered (Acts xxvii. 


Tu'nia, a Christian at Rome, mentioned by St. 
Paul as one of his kinsfolk and fellow prisoners, 


Juniper (1 K. xix. 4, 5; 
Ps. cxx. 4 ; Job xxx. 4). 
The word rendered juni- 
per is beyond doubt a 
sort of broom. 
Ju'piter(the Greek Zeus), 
Antiochus Epiphanes 
dedicated the Temple at 
JerusaleintoZeus Olym- 
pius (2 Mace. vi. 2), 
and the rival temple on 
Gerizim was devoted to 
Zeus Xenius. Jupiter 
or Zeus is mentioned in 
one passage of the N- 
T., on the occasion of 
Paul 's visit to Lystra 
(Acta xiv. 12, 13). 
Justus. 1. A surname 
of Joseph (Acts i. 23). 
2. A Christian at Cor- 
inth (Acts xviii. 7). 3. 

A surname of Jesus, a friend of St. Paul (Col. 

iv. 11). 



lab'ze-el (Josh. xv. 21), the native place of the 
*reat hero Benaiah-ben-Jehoiada (2 Sam. xxiii. 

>3 .* 1 o4-..' ~)>&£ 



Ka'desh, Ka'desh-bar'nea (holy: the same word as 
the Arabic for Jerusalem, El-Khuds). This scene 
of Miriam's death was the farthest point the Is- 
raelites reached in their road to Canaan ; it was 
also that whence the spies were sent. 

Kad'monites, The (Gen. xv. 19). One of the na- 
tions who occupied the land promised to the de- 
scendants of Abram. 

Ke'dar, the second of the sons of Ishmael (Gen. 
xxv. 13; 1 Chr. i. 29), and name of a great tribe 
of Arabs, settled on the confines of Palestine. 
The "glory of Kedar" is recorded by the prophet 
Isaiah (xxi. 13-17. 


residence of Barak (Judg. iv. fi), and there he 

and Deborah assembled Zebulun and Naphtali 

before the conflict. 
Kem'uel, the son of Nahor by Milcah, and 

father, of Aram (Gen. xxii. 21). 
Ke'nite, The, and Ke'nites, The, a tribe or 

nation, mentioned (Gen. xv. 19). We in- 



one book in the Hebrew Canon, form in the LXX. 
nd the Vulgate the third and fourth Books of 

the first and 

Kings (the Books of Samuel being t 


fer that they were a branch of Midtax. 
Jethro is in Judges i. 16, iv. 11, said to 
have been a Kenite. The Kenites seem 
to have accompanied the Hebrews during 
their wanderings (Num. xxiv. 21, 22; Judg. i. 
16; comp. 2 Chr. xxviii. 15). 
Kettle, a vessel for culinary or sacrificial purposes 


(1 Sam. ii. 14); also rendered "basket" in Je 
xxiv. 2, "caldron" in 2 Chr. xxxv, 13, 
and lt pot" in Job. xli. 20. 

Ketu'rah, the wife whom Abraham "add- 
ed and took" (Gen. xxv. 1; 1 Chr. i. 32). 
Some think Abraham took Keturah after 
Sarah's death ; but it is more probable 
he took, her during Sarah's lifetime. 

Kid'ron (or Ked'ron), The Brook, a torrent 
or valley — not a "brook," as in the A. 
V. — close to Jerusalem. It lay between 
the city and the Mount of Olives, and 
was crossed by David in his flight (2 
Sam. xv. 23, comp. 30), and by our 
Lord on His way to Gethsemane (John xviii. 1; 
comp. Mark xiv. 26; Luke xxii. 39). The Kidron 


second). As regards the authorship, the Jewish 
tradition, which ascribes them to Jeremiah, is 
borne out by the strongest evidence. 

Kir'jath-ar'ba, early name of the city which after 
the conquest is known as Hebron (Josh. xiv. 15 ; 
Judg. i. 10). 

Kir'jath-je'arim, one of the four cities of the Gib- 
eonites (Josh. ix. 17). In this high place the ark 

" remained for twenty years (vii. 2). 

Kish, the father of Saul; a Benjamite. 

Ki'shon, The River. A torrent of central Pales- 
tine ; scene of the defeat of Sisera (Judg. iv. ), 
and the destruction of the prophets of Baal by 
Elijah (IK. xviii. 40). 

Kiss. Kissing the lips by way of affectionate salu- 


is the deep ravine on the east of Jerusalem 
known as the "Valley of Jehoshaphat." 
King. The name of the Supreme Ruler of 
the Hebrews during about 500 years pre- 
vious to the destruction of Jerusalem; B. c. 
586. Upon his head had been poured the 
holy anointing oil, hitherto reserved for the 


tation was customary (Gen. xxix. 11; Cant. viii. 

1). In the Christian Church the kiss of charity 

was practiced as an act symbolical of love and 

Christian brotherhood (Rom. xvi. 1C; 1 Cor. xvi. 

20; 2 Cor. xiii. 12; 1 Thess. v. 26; 1 Pet. v._14). 
Kite (Lev. xi. 14; Deut. xiv. 13; Job xxviii. 7). 

In the two former translated "kite ;" in the latter 

Knop. Some globular thing resembling a small 

gourd, or an egg, though as to the ornament we 

are in the dark. 
Kd'hath, second of the three sons of Levi, was 

father of Amram, and he of Moses and Aaron. 

He lived to the. age of 133 years (Ex. vi. 18). 

-j f. bakkr (from Egyptian marble). 

Ke'desh. Kedesh ; also Kedesh in Galilee ; and 
once, Judg. iv. 6, Kedesh- Naphtali (Josh. xix. 
87); appointed as a city of refuge. It was the 


priests of Jehovah. He became "the 
Lord's anointed." He had a court of Ori- 
ental magnificence. Those who approached 
him did him obeisance (1 Sam. xxiv. 8; 2 
Sam. xix. 24). His drinking vessels were 
of gold (IK. x. 21). He had a large harem, 
the source of enormous expense. 
Kings, First and Second Books of, originally only 



Ko'rah, son of Izhar, the son Kohath, the son of 
Levi. He was leader of the famous rebellion 
against his cousins Moses and A aron, for whicb 

a. e, I, o, u, y, long; a, e, i, 5, u, y, snort; care, iar, last, fall, wbati tUere, veil, t«rm; pique, Sfrm; doue, fdr, dg, woli, ftfod, footi 

" ■ ! ' .- ..- ■ - . - -.- - 

. L ii l . 

— =■—"■«--»- 



he paid the penalty of perishing with his follow- 
ers by an earthquake and flames of. fire (Num. 
xvi., xxvi. 9—11 J. 


La'adan, an Ephraimite, ances- 
tor of Joshua (1 Chr. vii. 20). 
La'ban, Son of Rethuel, brother 

of Rebekah, and father of Leah 

and Rachel (Gen. xxiv. 10, 

29-60, xxvii. 43, xxix. 4). _ 
La'chish, a city of the Amorites, 

the ting of which was routed 

by Joshua at Bethhoron, and 

fell a victim with the others 

(ver. 26). 

-aha'i-ro'i, The Well. In the 

A. V. of Gen. xxiv. 02, and 

xxv. 11, the name of the famous 

well ot Hagar's relief. 
La'ish, father of Phaltiel, to 

whom Saul had given Michal, 

David's wife (1 Sam. xxv. 44; 

2 Sam. iii. 15). 
La'mech. Properly Lerriech. 1. 

The fifth lineal descendant from 

Cain (Gen. iv. 18-24). His 

two wives, Adah and Zillah, 

and his daughter Naamah, are, 

with Eve, the only antediluvian 

women mentioned by Moses. 

His three sons, Jabal, Jubal, and Tubal-cain, 

r _ ^ , 


five chapters, each of which is a separate poem, 
complete in itself, and having a distinct subject, 
but brought under a plan which includes them all. 

Lamp. 1. That part of the golden candlestick 
which bore the light. 2. A torch or flambeau 
(Judg. vii. 10, 20; comp. xv. 4; Matt. xxv. 1). 

Lancet. ~ This word is found in 1 K. xviii. 28 
only. The Hebrew term elsewhere appears 
to mean a javelin, or light spear. 

Laodice'a, a town in the valley of the Maean- 
der, on a small river called the Lycus, with 
Colossae and Hierapolis a few miles dis- 
tant. From Col. iv. 16, St. Paul wrote a 

, ; letter to this place when he wrote to Colossae. 

Lap'idoth, the husband of Deborah the proph- 
etess (Judg. iv. 4). 

Lapwing, Commentators generally agree that 
the Hcopoe is the bird intended. 

Lase'a (Acts xxvii. 8), a city of Crete, discov- 
ered in 1856, a few miles to the eastward of 
Fair Havens. 

Latchet, the thong or fastening by which the 
sandal was attached to the foot. 

Lattice. The rendering of three Hebrew 
words. 1. Eshnab, translated "casement." 
2. Kharaeeim (Cant. ii. 9), synonymous with 
the preceding. 3. Sebaeah, is simply "a net- 
work" before a window or balcony. 

La'ver. 1. In the Tabernacle, avessel of brass 
containing water for the priests to wash their 



Zebulun, and Dinah, before Rachel had a child. 
She died in the south country, and was buried in 
Machpelah (ch. xlix. 31). 


are celebrated in Scripture. 2 The father of 
Noah (Gen. v. 29). 
L&m'enta'tions of Jeremiah. The book consists of 

jephthah's daughter. 
hands and feet before sacrifice. 2. In Solomon's 
Temple, besides the great molten sea, 
there were ten lavers of brass, used for 
washing the animals to be offered 
(2 Chr. iv. 6). 
Lawyer. Equivalent to the title 
"scribe," "learned in the law." 
Laz'ams, another form of the 
Hebrew Eleazar. 1. Lazarus of 
Bethany, the brother of Martha 
and Mary (John xi. 1). All we 
know of him is derived from the 
Gospel of St. John. 2. The 
name of a poor man in the well- 
known parable of Luke xvi. 
Lead. One of the most common 
of metals, early known to the 
ancients. The Hebrews were 
well acquainted with its uses. 
That it was common in Pales- 
tine is shown by the expression 
in Ecclus. xlvii. 18 (comp. 1 K* 
x. 27). 
Leah, the daughter of Laban (Gen. 
xxix. 16). The dullness or weak- 
ness of her eyes is mentioned as 
a contrast to the beautiful appearance 
of Rachel. Her father passed her off 
on unconscious Jacob. Jacob's preference of 
Rachel grew into hatred of Leah Leah bore to 
him Reuben, Simeon, T vi, Judah, Iss achar, 


Leasing, "falsehood" (Ps. iv. 2, v. 6). 

Leather. The word occurs but twice in the A- V., 
in reference to a girdle (2 K. i. 8 ; Matt. iii. 4). 

Leaven, The ordinary leaven consisted of a lump 
of old dough in a high state of 
fermentation. The use of leaven 
was strictly forbidden in all 
offerings made to the Lord by 
Leb'anon, a mountain range in 
the north of Palestine. The 
name signifies "white," and was 
applied either on account of the 
snow or the white color of its 
limestone cliffs and peaks. Leb- 
anon is represented as upon the 
northern border of the land of 
Israel (Deut. i. 7, xi. 24 ; Josh. 
I. 4>.; r. 

Eeb'bae'us. This name occurs in 
Matt. x. 3; Mark iii. 18; substi- 
tuted in a few MSS. for Thad- 
Leeks. In Num. xi. 5, the Heb. 
word occurs twenty times, which 
properly denotes grass, and 
may stand for any green food. 
Lees. The Hebrew was applied 
to "lees" from the custom of 
allowing the wine to stand on 
the lees, that its color and body 
might be better preserved. 
Hence, "wine on the lees" 
meant a generous, full-bodied liquor (Is. xxv. 6). 

Legion, the chief subdivision of the Roman army, 
about 6000 infantry, with cavalry. The term in 


the Bible appears adopted to express any large 


Le'hi, the scene of Samson's well-known exploit 
»>ftlOlf^jawbone (Judg. xv. 9, 14, 19). 
Lem'uel, name of an unknown, king f 

to whom his 

fOrl, rode, p^sfc; *, i, o, allent; f as a; (b u sh; «, ch, as fc; g as J, £ aa in get; s as z; s as gx; a as in linger, mjk; tfc as In tiiiue. 







mother addressed the maxims in Prov. xxxi. 1-9. 
The Kabbiriical commentators identified Solomon. 
J_ OJh^i^a king or chief of an Arab tribe. 

Lentils (Gen. xxv. 34; 2 Sam. xvii. 28, xxiii. 11, 


and Ez. iv. 9). There are three or four kinds, all 
still much esteemed in the South of Europe, Asia, 
and North Africa. Lentil bread is still eaten h) 
the poor of Egypt. 

Leopard. The hilly ranges of Lebanon were fre- 
quented by these animals. 

Leper, Leprosy. The predomi- 
nant form of leprosy in Scrip- 
ture is a white variety, which 
has obtained the name of lepra 
Mosaica. Such were the cases 
of Moses, Miriam, Naaman, 
and Gehazi (Ex. iv. 6 ; Num. 
xii. IOj 2,K. v. 1, 27 ; comp. 
Lev. xiii. 13). It is clear that 
the leprosy of Lev. xiii.. xiv. , 
means any severe disease 
spreading on the body, and so 
shocking or suspected of infec- 
tion that public feeling called 
for separation. 

Le'vi. 1. The third son of 
Jacob by Leah. Levi, with 
Simeon, avenged with a cruel 
slaughter the outrage of their 
sister Dinah. [Dinah.] When 
Jacob's death draws near, Levi 
and Simeon hear the old crime 
brought up to receive its sen- 
tence. 2. Son of Alphaeus 
(Mark ii. 14 : Luke v. 27, 29). 

Levi'athan. In Job the croco- 
dile is most clearly the animal 
denoted by the Hebrew word. Ps. Ixxiv. 14 also 
points to this same saurian. The context of Ps. 
civ. 26 seems to show some animal of the whale 
tribe; but it is uncertain what animal is denoted 
' fti| M £xvii. 1. 

Le'vites, the tribe that traced its descent from 
Levi. Most frequently the Levites are distin- 
guished, as such, from the priests (1 K. viii. 4; 
Ezr. ii. 70; John i. 19, &c), and this is the mean-' 
ing which has perpetuated itself. 

Lib'anus. [Lebanon.] 

Libertines This word, which occurs in the N. 
T. (Acts vi. 9), is the Latin Libertini, that is, 
"freedmen;" probably Jews who, having been 
ix'l need to slavery, had afterwards been emanci- 

Lib'ya (Acts ii. 10), "the parts of Libya about 
Cyrene," which obviously means the Cyrenaica. 
The name Libya is applied to the African conti- 
nent, generally excluding Egypt. 

Lice (Ex. viii. 16-18; Ps. cv. 31), the third plague. 
Some commentators suppose that gnats are in- 
tended. The Jewish Rabbis, Josephus, and oth- 
ers, are in favor of the translation of the A. Y. 

Ligure, a precious stone (Ex. xxviii. 19, xxxix. 
12), the first in the third row of ihe high-priest's 

Lily. There appears to be no species of lily 
which so answers all requirements as the Lilium 
Chaleedonicum, which grows in profusion in the 

Lime. This substance is noticed only three times 
in the Bible, viz. in Deut. xxvii. 2, 4 (A. V. 

?"plaister"), and in Is. xxxiii. 12. 
inem "Egypt was the great centre of the linen 
manufacture of antiquity. Joseph was arrayed 
"in vestures of fine Linen'" (shesh, marg. "silk," 
Gen. xli. 42), and among the offerings the Israel- 
ites brought out of Egypt were "blue, and pur- 
ple, and scarlet, and fine linen'" (Ex. xxv. 4, 
xxxv. 6). 


Log. [Weights and Measures.] 

Lo'is, grandmother of Timothy, and doubtless the 
mother of his mother Eunice (2 Tim. L 5). It 
seems almost certain that from her, as well as 

4 UN hb 



. -Oils. The Book, which is so called because 
it relates principally to the Levites and Priests. 
It was a prophecy of things to come; a shadow 
whereof the substance was Christ and His king- 


Lintel. The beam which forms the upper part of 

the framework of a door. 
Li'nus, a Christian at Rome (2 Tim. iv. 21), who 
"- |rae^&ret bishop of Rome after the apostles. 
Lion. At present lions do not exist in Palestine ; 
but they must in ancient times have been numer- 
ous. They had their lairs in the forest, in brush- 
wood and in caves. The lion of Palestine was in 
bability the Asiatic variety. 
(Lev. xi. 30). The lizard denoted by the 
Hebrew word is probably the Fan-Foot. 
It is reddish-brown, spotted with white. 
Loan. The Law forbade any interest to be 
> tWkCnffor a loan to any poor person. 
Locust. In the Bible there are frequent 
allusions to locusts. The most destruc 
tive are the Oedipoda migratoria and the 
Acridium peregrimnn, and both these occur 
in Syria and Arabia. Locusts occur in 
great numbers, and sometimes obscure 
the sun. Their voracity is alluded to in 
Ex. x. 12, 15; Joeli. 4, 7. They enter 
dwellings, and devour even the wood- 
work of houses (Ex. x. 6 ; Joel ii. 9, 10). 
Their dead bodies taint the air (Joel ii. 
20). Locusts were used as food (Lev. xi. 
21,22; Matt. iii. 4; Mark i. 6). Some- 
times they are ground and pounded, and 
then mixed with flour and water and made into 
cakes, or they are salted and then eaten ; some- 
times smoked, boiled, or roasted; stewed, or 
TDD a.] " 


""rom Eunice, Timothy obtained his knowledge of 
the Scriptures (2 Tim. iii. 15). 
Lord.. [Gon.] 

Lord's Day, The (Rev. i. 10), the weekly festival of 
our Lord's resurrection, and 
identified with "the first day of 
the week," or "Sunday," of 
every age of the Church. Scrip- 
ture says little concerning this 
day. But that little seems to 
indicate that the divinely in- 
spired apostles, by their prac 
tice and precepts, marked the 
first day of the week as a day 
for meeting together to break 
bread, for communicating and 
receiving instruction, for laying 
up offerings for charitable pur 
poses, for occupation in hoi; 
thought and prayer. 
Lord's Supper. The words which 
describe the great central act of 
the worship of the Christian 
Church occur in 1 Cor. xi. 20. 
It was instituted that night when 
Jesus and his disciples met to 
gether to eat the Passover (Matt, 
xxvi. 19 ; Mark xiv. 16 ; Luke 
xxii. 13). The disciples had 
looked on the bread and the 
wine as memorials of the deliv- 
erance from Egypt. They were now told to par- 
take of them "in remembrance" of their Master 
and Lord. No rule was given as to the time and 
frequency of the new feast, but the command, 
"Do this as oft as ye drink it" (1 Cor. xi. 25), 
suggested the more continual recurrence of that 


which was to be their memorial of one whom 

j£)eyS \f(>uld wish never to forget. 

Lot', the son of Haran, and nephew of Abraham 

6, », I, o, u, f, long; a, e, i, 0, tt, f, short; core, far, list, iftll, wbat; Uiixt, vjil. «nn; pique, firm} d6u«, fdr, dg, woLf, itfbd, io'oU 

Gen. xi. 27, 31). 
wife of Nahor, 
with Sarah. He 

Ilis sisters were Milcah, the 
and Iscaii, by some identified 
removed with the 



evangelist is spoken of. He was born at Antioch 
in Syria, and was taught medicine. He was not 
born a Jew (comp. Col. iv. 11 with ver. 14). The 




Paul traversed Lycaonia from west to east I ver. 

21 ; see 2 Tim. iii. 11). 

Lyc'ia is the name of that southwestern region of 
Asia Minor immediately opposite the isiand of 
Rhodes. It was combined with Pamphylia when 
St. Paul visited the Lycian towns of Pataba 
(Actsxxi. 1), and Myra (Acts xxvii. 5). 

Lyd'da. It is 9 miles from Joppa. The water- 
course outside the town is said still to bear the 
name of Abi-Butrus (Peter), in memory of the 

Lyd'ia, the first European convert of St. Paul, and 
his hostess during his first stay at Philippi (Acts 
xvi. 14, 15, also 40). She was a Jewish prose- 
lyte. Her native place was Thyatiua (ver. 14; 
Rev. ii. 18), famous for its dyeing- works ; and 
Lydia was connected with this trade. We infer 
she .Was a person of considerable wealth. 

Lysa'nias, mentioned by St. Luke (iii. 1) as 

"tetrarch of Abilene in the 13th year of Tiberius. 

Lys'ias, Clau'dins, tribune of the Roman cohort, 
who reseued St. Paul from the mob at Jerusalem, 
and sent him to Felix (Acts xxi. 31). 

Lyslm/achus, a brother of the high-priest Mene- 
laus, who was left as his deputy during his ab- 
sence at the court of Antiochus. He fell a vic- 
tim to the fury of the people (2 Mace. iv. 29 t2). 

Lystra. 1. The place where divine honors were 
offered to St. Paul, and where he was presently 
stoned (Acts xiv.). 2. The home of his chosen 
companion and fellow-missionary Timotheus 
(Acts xvi. 1). Lystra was in the eastern part of 
the great plain of Lycaonia. 


kindred lo Charran, and subsequently with Abra- 
ham and Sarai to Canaan (xii. 4, 5). At Bethel 
they separated, Lot advancing as far as Sodom 
Gen. xiii. 10-14). The next occurrence in the 
life of Lot is his capture and rescue (Gen. xiv.). 
The last scene is well known. He is still living 
in Sodom (Gen. xix.). His deliverance from the 
condemned city points the allusion of St. Peter 
(2 Pet. ii. 6-9). The end of Lot's wife is treated 
as one of the difficulties of the Bible. But it 
need not be so. From the incestuous intercourse 
between Lot and his two daughters sprang the 
nations of Moab and Ammon. 
tot. The custom of deciding doubtful questions 
by lot is of high antiquity. The religious esti- 
mate of them may be gathered from Prov. xvi. 

33. nxynn 

tots, Feast of. [Prmisr.J 

Love-feasts (Jude 12 + tirnl#Pet. ii. 13). 

Lu'cifer (Is. xiv. 12.) signifies a "bright star." In 
this passage it is a symbolical representation of 
the king of Babylon--. „ 

Lu'cius. 1. A kinsman or fellow- tribesman of 
St. Paul (Rom. xvi. 21), said to have been bishop 
of Cenchreae. 2. Lucius of Cyrene, is first 
mentioned in the N. T. with Barnabas, Simeon, 
called Niger, Manaen, and Saul, who are de- 
scribed as prophets and teachers of the church at 
Antioch (Acts xiii. 1). It is supposed thatLucius 
is the kinsman of St. Paul, mentioned in Rom. 
xvi. 21). 

tud, the fourth^nltfe Hst of the children of Shem 
(Gen. x. 22; comp. 1 Chr. i. 17), supposed to 
have been the ancesJpLof the Lydians. 

Luke, or Lu'cas, is ail abbreviated form of Lucan- 
us. It is not to be confounded with Lucius (Acts 
xiii. 1; Rom. xvi. 21). The name. Luke occurs 


three times in the N. T. (Col. iv.^ 14; 2 Tim. iv. 
11; Philein. 24), and probably in all three the 

date of his conversion is uncertain. He joined 
St. Paul at Troas. He remained at his side dur- 
ing his_ imprisonment. As to his age and death, 
there is the utmost uncertainty. He probably 
died a martyr between a. i>. 75 and a. r>. 100. 

Luke', Gospel of. From Acts i. 1, it is clear that 
the Gospel was written before the Acts. Per- 
haps it was written at Caesarea during St. Paul's 
there, A. D. 58- 
G0. The Evan 
gelist professes 
to write that 
"might know 
the certainty of 
those things 
wherein he had 
been instruct- 

*$■" (i.4). 

lunatics, used 

twice in the N. 

T. (Matt. iv. 24, 

xvii. 15). The 

word ' refers to 

some disease, 

affecting body 

and mind, 

which might or 

might not be a 

sign of posses- 
->sioiw a 

Luz. It seems 

impossible to 

discover wheth- 

er Luz and 

Bethel repre- 
sent the same 

town. The most 

probable con- 
clusion is, that 

the two places 

were distinct, 

Luz the city 

and Bethel the 

pillar and altar 

of Jaeob;. 
Lycao'nia, a district of Asia Minor. From Acts 

xiv. 11, it is evident that the inhabitants spoke 

something different from Ordinary Greek. St. 


Ma'acah. 1. 

Mother of Absalom, also called 

Sam. iii. 3). 2. Maacah, and (in 

A small kingdom close to Pal- 

Maachah ( 
Chr.) Maachah 
e stipe. 

Ma'aehah. 1. Daughter of Nahor (Gen. xxii. 
24J. 2. Father of Achish king of Gath (1 K. ii. 
39). 3. The daughter, or granddaughter, of Ab- 
salom, named after his mother; the third and 
favorite wife of Rehoboam, and mother ot Abijab 
(1 K. xv. 2; 2 Chr. xi. 20-22). 


I Maach'athi, and Maach'athites, The. The inhaW 

tants of the small kingdom of Maachah (Dent 

[ iii. 14; Josh. xii. 5, xiii. 11, 13). 

ffirl, r^de, piisbj *, *, o, silent; $ aa s; ch. as sb; c, «h, as k; £ as J, g u in get; § aa z; a as gz; q as In Uncer, If j|fc ; tfr aa In tiiine. 


r-iu 1 ; 1 ; 



Mam're, an ancient Amorite, who, with his broth- 
ers, was in alliance with Abram (Gen. xiv. 13, 
24, xiii. 18, xviii. 1). In the subsequent chap- 
ters Mamre is a mere local appellation (xxiii. 17, 
19, xxv. 9, xlix. 
SO, 1. 13). 

Man'aen (Acts 
xiii. 1), one of 
the teachers and 
prophets in the 
church at Anti- 
och at the ap 
pointment o f 
Saul and Barna- 
bas as mission- 
aries. He is 
said to have musical instruments. 

been brought up with Herod Antipas. 

Manas'seh [forgetting), eldest son of Joseph, by 
his wife Asenath (Gen. xli. 51, xlvi. 20). Both " 
he and Ephraim were born before the famine. In 
the division of the Promised Land half of the 
tribe of Manasseh settled east of the Jordan. The 
other half tribe settled to the west of the Jordan, 
north of Ephraim (Josh. xvii.). For further 
particulars see Ephraim. 

Manas'seh, the thirteenth king of Judah, son of 
Hezekiahand Hephzibah (2 K. xxi. 1), ascended 
the throne at the age of 12. Idolatry was again 


Maccabees, The. This title, the surname of Judas, 
of Mattathias, was afterwards extended to his 
heroic family. Maceabi was probably from Mak- 
kabah, "a hammer." Although the name Maccct- 


bees has gained the widest currency, that of As- 
monaeans, or Hasmonaeans, is the proper name of 
the family. 

Maccabees, Books of. Four books of "Maccabees" 
are in some MSS. of the LXX. Two were in the 
early Latin versions, and thence passed into the 
Vulgate. They were received by the council of 
Trent, and retained among the 
apocrypha by the reformed churches. 
The two other books have only a 
secondary connection with the 
Maccatfaean history. 
Macedonia, the hist part of Europe 
which received the Gospel directly 
from St. Paul, and an important 
scene of his labors and those of his 
companions. It was bounded by 
the Haemus, the Pindus, the Cam- 
bunian hills, and Thrace. The 
Macedonian Christians are set be- 
fore us in a very favorable light. 
The candor of the Bereans is com- 
mended (Acts xvii. 11); theThessa- 
lonians were objects of affection (1 
Thess. ii. 8, 17-20, iii. 10); and the 
Philippians are noted for liberality 
— and self-denial (Phil. iv. 10, 14-19; 
-MaoafsetTs Idol. see 2 Cor. ix. 2, xi. 9). 
Mad'al (Gen. x. 2), the progenitor of the Medes. 
Ma'diaJi (Acts vii. 29). [Midian]. 
Madness. In Scripture "madness" is recognized 
as a derangement, either from weakness or un- 
governable violence of passion. 
Mag'dala (Matt. xv. 39 only). The Magdala, 
which conferred her name on "Mary the Magdal- 
ene," was probably the place of that name men- 
tioned in the Jerusalem Talinud as near Tiberias. 
Magi (A. V. "wise men"). The Magi are con- 
spicuous as a Persian religious caste. They ap- 

_ ^ ^ 


22 L3 

Magic, Magi'cians. The magical arts spoken of 
in the Bible are those practiced by the Egyptians, 
the Canaanites, and their neighbors, the Heb- 
rews, the Chaldaeans, and probably the Greeks. 

The Hebrews had 
no magic of their 
own. It was 
strictly forbidden 
by the Law, and 
could have no ex- 
istence save in 
times of heresy 
or apostasy. 
"Ma'lfog^ In Gen. 
x. 2 Magog ap- 
pears as the sec- 
ond son of Japh- 
eth. It also ap- 
pears as a country 
or people of which 
Gog was the 
prince. The no- 
tices of Magog 
would lead us to 
fix a northern lo- 
cality ; it is stated 
by Ezekiel that he 
was to come up 
from " the sides of 
the north' ' (xxxix. 
2). From the 
data we conclude 
that Magog repre- 
sents the impor- 
tant race of the Scythians. 
MaTialath, one of the wives of Rehoboam, appar- 
ently his first (2 Chr. xi. 18 only). She was the 
! jJa|ig]jtgJr of king David's son Jerimoth. 
Ma'halath, the title of" Ps. liii., and Ma'halath- 
lean'nothi the title of Ps. lxxxviii. The conjec- 

1 34 


pear as interpreters of dreams. In St. Matthew 
(ii. 1-12) the Magi appear as "wise men" — 
properly Magians — who were guided by a star 
from "the East" to Jerusalem, where they sud- 
denly appeared, inquiring for the new-born king 
of the Jews, whom they had come to worship. 
They evidently came from the banks of the Tigris 
and Euphrates, where astronomy was early culti- 
vated by the Chaldaeans. 


ture is, that Mahalath is a guitar, and that Lean 
110th has reference to the character of the Psalm 
Mahana'im, a town on the east of the Jor- 
dan, signifying two hosts or two camps, a 
name given to it by Jacob, because he 
there met "the angels of God" (Gen. 
xxxii. 1,2). It was on the south side of 
the torrent Jabbok. 
Karachi (that is, the angel or messenger of 
Jehovah), the last, and "the seal" of the 
prophets. His prophecies constitute the 
closing book of the canon. Of his per- 
sonal history nothing is known. He prob- 
ably delivered his prophecies after the 
second return of Nehemiah from Persia 
(Neh. xiii. 6), and subsequently to the 
32d year of Artaxerxes 
Longimanus (b. c. 420). 
The whole prophecy di- 
vides itself into three 
sections : in the first Je- 
hovah is represented as 
the loving father (i. 2 — ii. 
9); in the second, as the 
supreme God (ii. 10-16); 
and in the third, as final Judge (ii. 17- 

Mal'chus, the servant of the high-priest 
whose right ear Peter cut off (Matt. xxvi. 
51; Mark xiv. 47; Luke xxii. 49-51; John 
xviii. 10). Luke only mentions the act of 

Mam'mon (Matt. vi. 21; Luke xvi. 9), a word which 
signifies "riches." 


established, and he consecrated idolatrous altars 
in the Sanctuary itself (2 Chr. xxxiii. 4). Every 
faith was tolerated but the old faith of Israel. 
The aged Isaiah, according to Jewish tradition, 
was put to death. Retribution came soon. Judaer 
was again overrun by the Assyrian armies. The 
king was made prisoner and carried off to Baby- 
lon in the 22d year of his reign. There his eyes 
were opened, and he repented, and the Lord de- 
«ye)<*T}h}m (2 Chr, xxiii. 12, 13). 

Manasses, Tha Prayer of. "The Prayer of Manas- 
seh," found in some MSS. of the LXX., is the 
work of one who has endeavored to express, not 
without true feeling, the thoughts of the repent- 
ant king. 

Mandrakes (Gen. xxx. 14, 15, 16; Cant vii. 13), 
found in the fields of Mesopotamia, where the 
fruit was gathered "in the days of wheat-har- 
vest," i. e. in May. The plant was strong-scent- 
1 1 


ed, and grew m Palestine, 
the A. V. is probably correct. 

The translation in 

a, e, i, o, u, f, long; a, i , I, 6, u, f, abort.; care, far, list, fall, wbati tfceie, veil, ttrxa; pique, t£rm; done, fdr, do, w?U, food, loot; 



Manger (LuT&Im ST,_12, 16). The Greek undoubt- 
edly means a, manger, crib, or feeding trough. 

Manna. The manna came every morning except 
the Sabbath, in the form of a small round seed 


resembling the hoar Irost ; it had to be gathered 

early ; it had to be gathered every day except the 

Sabbath ; it was prepared for 

food by grinding and baking ; 

its taste was likefreshoil, and 

like wafers made with honey, 

equally agreeable to all pal- 
ates ; the whole nation sub- 
sisted upon it for forty years, 

and it suddenly ceased when 

they first got the new corn of 

Canaan. It was always re- 
garded as a miraculous gift 

directly from God, and not as 

a product of nature. 
Mano'ah, the father.of Samson ; 

a Danite, native of the town 

of Zorah (Judg. xiii. 2). 
Ma'rah, bitterness, a place three 

days distant (Ex. xv. 23, 24 ; 

Num. xxxiii. 8) from where 

the Israelites crossed the Red 

Sea, and where was a spring 

of bitter water, sweetened 

subsequently by the casting in 

of a tree which "the Lord 

showed" to Moses* ,. 
Maranath'a, used by St, Paul 

at the conclusion of his First 

Epistle to the Corinthians 

(xvi. 22). It is a Grecised 

form of the Aramaic maran 



" John whose surname was Mark " (Acts xii. 12, 
25). John Mark was the son of a certain Mary, 
who dwelt at Jerusalem (Acts xii. 12). He was 
the cousin of Barnabas (Col. iv. 10). The theory 
that he was one of the seventy is without war- 
rant. Ancient writers with one consent make 
the Evangelist the In terpreter p? 
of the Apostle Peter. 

Mark, Gospel of. There are 
peculiarities in the Gospel 
best explained by the suppo- 
sition that Peter in some way 
superintended its compo- 
sition. There is little doubt 
but that it was meant for use 
in the first instance amongst 
Gentiles. Probably it was 
written between a. d. 63 
and 70. 

Marriage. The institution of 
marriage dates from man's 
original creation. From the 
words in Ch. ii. 24, coupled 
with the circumstances attendant on the formation 
of the first woman, we deduce the following: (1) 
The unity of man and wife as "one flesh"; (2) 
the indissolubleness of the marriage bond, except 
on the strongest grounds (comp. Matt. xix. 9); (3) 
monogamy, as the original law ; (4) the social 



.ary, J M8ther of Mark, among the earliest disci- 
ples. We learn from Col. iv. 10 that she waa 
sister to Barnabas. 
Mary, Sister of Lazarus. She am 1 Lor sister 
Martha appear in Luke x. 40. Mary sat listening 
eagerly for every woi d that fell from the Divine 



Mar'CTM, the Evangelist Mark (Col. iv. 10; Philem. 
24 ; 1 Pet. v. 13). = 
Mark. The Evangelist is" probably the same as 


equality of man and wife ; (5) the subordination 
of the wife to the husband (1 Cor. xi. 8, 9; 1 Tim. 
ii. 13); and (6) the respective duties of man and 


Mars' Hill, known by the name of Areopagus. 
The Areopagus was a rocky height in Athens, op- 
posite the western end of the Acropolis. The 
spot existed as a criminal tribunal before the 
time of Solon. The Areopagus possesses pe- 
culiar interest to the Christian, as the spot 
from which St. Paul delivered bis memorable 
address to the men of Athens (Acts xvii. 22- 

Mar'tha, the sister of Lazarus and Mary. The 
facts recorded in Luke x. and John xi. indi- 
cate a devout character. She, too, no less 
than Lazarus and Mary, has the distinction of 
being one whom Jesus loved (John xi. 3). 
Her position is that of elder sister, the head 
and manager of the household. 

Mary of Cleophas, accurately "of Clopas." 
Probably the elder sister of the Lord's mother. 
She had married Clopas or Alphaeus. The 
names of her sons are James, Joses, Jude, 
Simon, two of whom became enrolled among 
the Twelve Apostles. Mary is brought before 
us at the Crucifixion and in Matt, xxvii. 61; 
Mark xv. 47; Matt, xxviii. 1; Mark xvi. 1; 
Luke Xxiii. 56). 

Mary Magdale'ne, of the town of Magdala. She 
appears for the first time in Luke viii. 2. There 
is not the slightest trace of the life of Mary hav- 
ing been one of flagrant impurity. 

Mary the Virgin, the mother of our Lord. She 
was like Joseph, of the tribe of Judah, and of 
the lineage of David (Ps. cxxxii. 11 ; Luke i. 
32; Eom. i. 3). She had a sister Mary (John 
xix. 25), and was connected by marriage ( Luke 
i. 30) with Elizabeth, of the 
tribe of Levi and of the line- 
age of Aaron. This is aL 
that we know of her anteced 
Mary, a Roman Christian who 
is greeted by St. Paul in 
Rom. xvi. 6 as having toiled 
haid-for him. 
Mat'tan, the priest of Baal 
slain before his alfars (2 K. 
xi. 18; 2 Chr. xxiii. 17!. 
Mattani'ah, the original name 
of Zedekiah king of Judah, 
changed when Nebuchadnez- 
zar placed him on the throne 
(2 K. xxiv. 17). 
MattathTas. 1. The father of 
the Maccabees. 2. The son 
of Simon Maccabaeus, treach 
erously murdered in the fort 
ress of Docus (1 Mace. xvi. 

Mat'thew. Matthew the Apos 
tie and Evangelist is the same 
as 'Levi (Luke v. 27-29) the 
son of a certain Alphaeus 
(Mark ii. 14). His call is re- 
lated by all three Evangel- 
ists. The publicans were persons who farmed 
the Roman taxes. They employed inferior offi- 
cers, natives of the province, called portitores, to 
which class Matthew no doubt belonged. Of the 
later life of St. Matthew nothing is really known 
Matthew; Gospel of. The most probable suppo- 
sition is that it was written between 50 and 60, 
and in Palestine- The Gospel itself tells us by 


plain internal evidence that it was written few 

Jewish converts. 

Matthl'as, the Apostle elected to fill the place of the 
traitor Judas (Acts i. 26). It is saidhep reached 
the Gospel and suffered martyrdom in Ethiopia 

«Orl, rgde, p^sh; «e<«O f alkDt^ 9 ee *>.; «-U aa sJi; « s «b, s-s It; £ wJ. S as in get; SMriPwewli' Us&SClUiUsi «k us in tttae. 


; — 


fine flour, seasoned with sait, and mixed with oil 

and frankincense, but without leaven. 
Medes, Me'dia. Media lay northwest of Persia 

proper. The customs of the Medes nearly re- 
sembled those of the 
Armenians and the Per- 
sians. They were brave 
and warlike. We first 
hear of certain "cities of 
the Medes," in 2 K. 
xvii. 6, xviii. 11). Isaiah 
prophesies in regard to 
them in Is. xiii. 17, xxi. 
2). Daniel gives an ac- 
count of the reign of 
Darius the Mede. In 
Ezra we have a mention 
of Achmetha (Ecba- 
tana), where the decree 
of Cyrus was found (vi. 

2 ~ 5) - r • , 

Me'dian. Darius, son of 

Ahasuerus (Dan ix. 1), 
or "the Mede" (xi. 1), 
is thus described in Dan. 
v. 31. 
Medicine. The Egyptians 
claimed the invention of 
the healing art (xxvi. 
1). Their "many med- 
icines" are mentioned 
(Jer. xlvi. 11). Among 
the Jews there was no 
Scriptural bar to the 
practice of medicine by 
resident aliens. We read 
of "physicians," "heal- 
ing," etc., in Ex. xxi. 
19; 2 K. viii. 29; 2 Chr. 
xvi. 12; Jerem. viii. 22. 
Megid'do, on the south- 
ern rim of the plain of 
Esdraelon. In Josh. xii. 
21, Megiddo appears as 
the city of one of the 
kings whom Joshua de- 
feated. It was also the 
scene of the great con- 
flict between Sisera and 
Barak (Judg. iy. 13). 

The chief historical interest of Megidd_o_ is con- 
centrated in Josiah's death (2 K. xxiii. 29 ; 2 

Chr. xxxv. 22-24). 
Mehu'nims, The, a people against whom_ king 

Uzziah waged a successful war (2 Chr. xxvi. 7). 
Melehiz'edek, king of Salem and priest of the 

Most High God, who metAbram 

in the valley of Shaveh, brought 

out bread and wine, blessed 

Abram, and received tithes (Gen. 

xiv. 18-20). Melchizedek is 

mentioned in Ps. ex. 4, and Heb. 

Mel'ita, the modern Malta. The 

scene of that shipwreck of St. 

Paul which is described in such 

minute detail in the Acts of the 

Apostles (Acts xxvii.). The 

wreck probably happened at St. 

Paul's Bay. 
Melons, mentioned only in Num. 

xi. 5. By the Hebrew word we 

are probably to understand both 

the Melon (Cueumis melo) and the 

water Melon (Cucurbita citrullus). 
Me'm'phis, a city of ancient Egypt, 

on the western bank of the Nile, 

mentioned under the name of 

Noph, and Moph. Herodotus 

dates its foundation from Menes, 

the first king of Egypt. Recent 

explorations have brought to 

"ight'toany of its antiquities. 

ien'aiiein, sun of Gadi, who slew 

Shallum, and seized the throne 

of Israel, b. c. 772. His reign 

lasted ten years (2K. xv. 14-22). 
Me'ne {lit. "numbered"). The 

first word of the mysterious in- 
scription written upon the wall of Belshazzar's 

palace (Dan. v. 25, 26). 


Mattook (Is. vii. 25). The tool used in Arabia for 
loosening the ground answers our mattock or 

Meals. The terms rendered "dine" and "dinner" 


in Gen. xliii. 16, and Prov. xv. 17), might more 
correctly be rendered "eat" and "portion of 
food." In the N. T. we have "dinner" and 
"supper (Luke xiv. 12 ; John xxi. 12), but which 
are more properly "breakfast" and "dinner." 
The Egyptians took their principal meal at noon 
(Gen. xliii. 16); the Jews made their principal 
meal after sunset, and a lighter meal at about 9 
or 10 A. M. The posture at meals varied : the old 
Hebrews were in the habit of sitting (Gen. xxvii. 
19 ; Judg. xix. 6 ; 1 Sam. xx. 5, 24 ; 1 K. xiii. 
20); in the time of our Saviour, reclining was the 
universal custom. 
Measures. [Weights and Measures.] 
Meat. It does not appear that the word "meat" 
is used in the sense of animal food. The latter 
is denoted uniformly by "flesh." 

42 / bor 


Heat-offering. The law or ceremonial described 
in Lev, ii. and vi. 14-23. It was composed of 

— ^— — — — — — — — ^___ 


Menela'us, a usurping high-priest who obtained the 
office from Antiochus Epiphanes, about b. c. 172 
(2 Mace. iy. 23-25), and drove out Jason. He 
met with a violent death. 

Mephib'osheth. 1. Saul's son by Rizpak his con- 
cubine (2 Sam. 
xxi. 8). He and 
his brother Ar- 
moni were sur- 
rendered by 
David to the 
Gibeonites. 2. 
The son of Jon- 
athan, grandson 
o f Saul, and 
nephew of the 

Me'rab, the eldest 
daughter of king 
Saul (1 Sam. 
xiv. 49). Saul 
betrothed Merab 
to David (xviii. 
17). Before the 
marriage Me- 
rab ' s younger 
sister M i c h a 1 
had displayed 
her attachment for David, and Merab was then 
married to Adriel, to whom she bore five sons (2 
Sam. xxi. 8). 

Mer'arl, "third son of Levi. He was born before 
the descent of Jacob into Egypt (Gen. xlvi. 8, 

Mercu r rius, properly Hermes, the Greek deity the 
Romans identified with their Mercury. 

Meroy-seat (Ex. xxv. 17, xxxvii. 6; Heb. ix. 5), 
the lid of the Ark of the Covenant. It was that 
wkereon the blood of the yearly atonement was 

Mer'ibah I Ex. xvii. 7), the place where the people 
murmured, and the rock was smitten. [Reph- 

MerS'dach. (Jer- i. 2), identical with the famous 
Babylonian Bel or Belus. 

Merd'dach-bal'adan, king of Babylon in the days of 
Hezekiah (2 Kings xx. 12; Isaiah xxxix. 1). 

Me'rom, The Waters of. Here a confederacy of the 
northern chiefs assembled under Jabin, king of 
Hazor (Josh. xi. 5), and were encountered by 

'Joshua and routed (ver. 7). 

Me'foz (Judg. v. 23), denounced because its inhab- 
itants refused to take part in the struggle with 

Me'sha, king of Moab in the reigns of Ahab and 
his sons Ahaziah and JeLoram, kings of Israel (2 



K. iii. 4). 

The name given to Mishael, one of the 

5, 6,1, o, u, y, long; a, e, I, o, u, $, wliort; care, far, last, fall, what; tliirt, v&U, t6rm; pique, firm; done, fdr, do. wplf, food, foot; 


companions of Daniel. His miraculous preserva- 
tion from the fiery furnace is in the 3d chapter of 
Daniel. « 4 -. _ 

Mes'opota'mia, IWeihiikry between the great bend 
of the Euphrates and the upper Tigris. Here 
lived Bethuel and Laban, and hither Abraham 

sent to fetch Isaac 
a wife. Hither came 
Jacob on the same 
errand. The con- 
quests of Cyrus 
brought it under 
the Persian yoke ; 
and thus it con- 
tinued to the time 
of Alexander. 
Messi'ah. This word, 
which answers to 
Christ in the N. 
T., means anointed. 


became his wife. Shortly afterwards she saved 
David (1 Sam. xix. 11-17). When the rupture 
between Saul and David had become incurable, 
she was married to Phalti or Phaltiel (1 Sam. 
xxv. 44). After the death of her father, David 
compelled her new husband to surrender Michal 
to him (2 Sam. iii. 13-16). 

Mich'mash, a town known by its connection with 
the Philistine war of Saul and Jonathan" (1 Sam. 
xiii., xiv. ), about 7 miles north of Jerusalem. 

Mid'ian, a son of Abraham and Keturah (Gen. 
xxv. 2; 1 Chr. i. 32); progenitor of the Midian- 
ites, or Arabians dwelling principally in the desert 
north of the peninsula of Arabia. 

Mig'dol, the name of one or two places on the 
eastern frontier of Egypt, cognate to Migdal, 
which appears to signify a military watch-tower, 
or a shepherd's lookout. 

Mil'cah, "Daughter of Haran and wife of Nahor, 
Abraham's brother, to whom she bore eight 

Millet (Ez 




The kings of Israel were called 
anointed, from their consecra- 
tion (1 Sam. ii. 10, 35, xii. 3, jj 
5, &c). It is twice used inij£ 
the N. T. of Jesus (John i. g 
41, iv. 26, A. V. "Messias'");g|| 
but the Greek equivalent, the^j^ 
Christ, is constantly applied, Hgj 
at first with the article them 
Anointed One, but later without 
the article Jesus Christ. 

Metals. The first artist in met- 
als was Tubal Cain, son of 
Lamech, the forger or sharpener of every instru- 
ment of copper (A. V. "brass") and iron (Gen. 
iv. 22). "Abram was very rich in cattle, in sil- 
ver, and in gold " (Gen. xiii. 2). Tin is first men- 
tioned in Num. xxxi. 22, and lead is referred to 
in Ex. xv. 10. Iron, like copper, was found in 
the hills of Palestine. 

Methu'selah, the sen; of Enoch, sixth in descent 
from Seth, and father of Lamech (Gen. v. 25- 

27 )- 
Mi'cah, the sixtSij) Srafcr of the minor prophets. 

Micah exercised the' prophetical office during the 

reigns of Jotham, Ahaz, and Hezekiah, kings of 

Judah, 59 years (b. c. 756-697). The style of 

the Book of Micah has been compared with that 

of Hosea and Isaiah. His diction is vigorous and 

forcible, varied and rich in figures. 


children (Gen. xi. 29, xxii. 20, 23, xxiv. 15, 24, 

Mile, a Roman measure of length, equal to 1618 
English yards. It is only once noticed in the 
Bible (Matt, v. 41), the usual method of reckon- 
ing in the N. T. being by the stadium. 
Mxle'tus (Acts xx. 15, 17, less correctly Miletum 
in 2 Tim. iv. 20). It was far more famous five 
hundred years before St. Paul' s day than after- 
wards. In early times it was the most flourishing 
city of the Ionian Greeks. 
Milk. As an article of diet, milk holds a 
more important position in Eastern coun- 
tries than with us. Not only the milk of 
cows, but of sheep (Deut. xxxii. 14), of 
camels (Gen. xxxii. 15), and of goats 
(Prov. xxvii. 27) was used ; the latter ap- 

z. iv. 91. Dr. Royle maintains that the 
true plant is the Panicum miliaceum, which is uni- 
versally cultivated in the East. 
Mil'lo, The House of. 1. A family or clan. 2 
The spot at which king 
Joash was murdered (2 

Mines, Mining. Ancient 

furnaces are still to be 

seen. The gold-mines 

of Egypt in the Bisha- 

ree desert have been 

discovered within the 

last few years. The 

mines were worked by 

gangs of convicts and 

captives in fetters. The 

harder rock was split 

by the application of 

fire, but the softer was priest's laver. 
broken up with picks and chis- 
els. The hills of Palestine are 
rich in iron, and the mines are 
still worked there, though in a 
very simple, rude manner. 
Minstrel; in 2 K. iii. 15, properly 
signifies a player upon a stringed 
instrument like the harp or 
kinnor. The "minstrels" in 
Matt. ix. 23, were flute-players 
employed as professional mourn- 

Mint (Malt, xxiii. 23 : Luke xi. 
42), one of those herbs, the 
tithe of which the Jews were 
most exact in paying. 
Miracles. A miracle is a plain 
and manifest exercise by a man, 
or by God at the call of a man, 
of those powers which belong 
only to the Creator and Lord of 
Mir'iam, sister of Moses ; the eldest of that sacred 
family. She first appears in Ex. ii. 4-7. In Mic. 
vi. 4, she is amongst the Three Deliverers. 
"Miriam the prophetess" is her title (Ex. xv. 2< ) 
She took the lead, with Aaron, in the complaint 
against Moses (Num. xii. 1,2). A stern rebuke 
was administered. The hateful Egyptian leprosy 
broke out over the whole person of the proud 
prophetess. This stroke, and its removal, form 





Mlca'iah, the safei^iijimi as Micah, both meaning 
the same thing:-* „ 

Mi'chael, one of the archangels (Dan. x. 13; comp. 
Jude 9). In the N. xV (see Rev. xii. 7) he tights 
in heaven against the dragon. 

Mi'chal, the younger of Saul's two daughters (1 
Sam. xiv. 49). The king proposed to bestow on 
David his eldest, but before the marriage Michal 
fell violently in love with the young hero. Saul 
eagerly caught at the opportunity of exposing his 
rival to death. The price fixed on Michal' s hand 
was the slaughter of a hundred Philistines. 
David doubled the tale of victims, and Michal 

pears to have been most highly prized. 
Milk was used sometimes in a sour, coag- 
ulated state, called chema, and later leben. 
The refreshing draught Jael offered to 
Sisera (Judg. v. 2-5) was leben. 
Mill. The mills of the ancient Hebrews 
consisted of two circular stones, about 18 
inches or two feet in diameter, the lower of which 
is fixed ; the upper has a hole in it, through 
which the grain passes. It is worked by women 
(Is. xlvii. 1, 2), who have hold of the handle by 
which the upper is turned round on the "nether" 


the last public eyent of Miriam's life. She died 
at Kadesh, and was buried there (Num. xx. ] ). 
According to Josephus, she was married to the 
famous Hur, and was grandmother of the archi- 
tect Bezat.eei,. 
Mirror. The Hebrew women coming out of Egypt 

£Gil, rnde, prish; e, i, o, aUent; <•»•«•«•»» aa sh ; c, ch, as Is; £ as J, g aa In get; s asi; j as gi; n asln linger. link; th as In tbine. 




probably brought with them mirrors like those of 
the Egyptians, made of a mixed metal, chiefly 
copper, susceptible of a bright lustre. 
Mish'ael, one of the sons of Uzziel, uncle of 
Aaron and Moses (Ex. vi. 22). When Nadab 

43h 694 5 




Found near the ' 

and Abihu were struck dead, Mishael and his 
brother removed their bodies and buried them 
(Lev. x. 4, 5). 

Mite, a coin current in Palestine in the time of our 
Lord (Mark xii. 41-44 ; Luke 
xxi. 1-4). It seems in Palestine 
to have been the smallest piece 
of money, being the half of the 
Mit'yle'ne, chief town of Lesbos, 

Temple" olTexhK where St. Paul stopped for the 

bition at the Phila- night between Assos and Chios 

deli.hiaMint. (Acts XX. 14, 15). 

Miz'pah, and Miz'peh, "a watch-tower." From 

"•Mizpah the City or the Temple was visible. 

Miz'raim, the usual name of Egypt in the 0. T. 

Mna'son is honorably mentioned as one of thehosts 
of the Apostle Paul (Acts xxi. 16). He was a 
Cypriaii by birth. 

Mo'ab, Mo'abites. Moab was the son of Lot's eld- 
est daughter, the progenitor of the Moabites. The 
Moabites first inhabited the rich highlands on the 
eastern side of the chasm of the Dead Sea, as far 
north as Gilead, from which they expelled the 
Emims (Deut. ii. 11). After the conquest of 
Canaan the relations of Moab with Israel were of 
a mixed character. Isaiah (xv. , xvi., xxv. 10- 
12) predicts the utter annihilation of Moab. 

Mo'din the native city of the Maccabaean family 
(1 Mace. xiii. 25), and contained their ancestral 
sepulchre (ii. 70, ix. 19, xiii. 2.5-30). 

Mole (Lev. xi. 30). It is probable that the animals 
denote different kinds of lizards ; perhaps the 

Ma'lech. The fire-god Molech was the tutelary 
deity of the children of Ammon, and essentially 
identical with the Moabitish Chemosh. Fire-gods 
were common to all the Canaanite, Syrian, and 
Arab tribes, who worshipped the destructive ele- 
ment under an outward symbol, with the most in- 
human rites. 

Mo'loch, the same as Molech. 

Money. We have no evidence of the use of coined 


money before the return from the Babylonian cap- 
tivity ; but silver was used for money, in quanti- 
ties determined by weight, at least as early as the 
time of Abraham (Gen. xvii. 13). The 1000 


pieees of silver paid by Abimelech to Abraham 
(Gen. xx. 16), and the 20 pieces of silver for 
which Joseph was sold to the Ishmaelites (Gen. 
xxxvii. 28) were probably rings. The shekel 
weight of silver was the unit of value down to the 
Babylonian captivity. After the Captivity we 
have the earliest mention of coined money, in allu- 
sion to the Persian coinage, the gold Doric (A. V. 
dram: Ezra ii. 69, viii. 27; Neh. vii. 70). In the 
money of the New Testament we see the native 
copper coinage side by side with the Graeco- 
Roman copper, silver, and gold. The silver 
coins mentioned by the Evangelists are: The 
stater, which was a tetradrachm ; the didraehm, 
the equivalent of the Hebrew shekel ; the denarius, 
or Roman penny, as well as the Greek drachm, 
then of about the same weight. Of copper coins 
the farthing and its half, the mite, are spoken of. 
Money-changers (Matt. xii. 12; Markxi. 15; John 
ii. 15). The money-changers Christ expelled 
were dealers in half-shekels, at such premium as 

they might be able to exact from Jews, who as- 
sembled at Jerusalem during the great festivals, 
and were required to pay tribute in the Hebrew 

loritfu "^The terms for "month" and "moon 
have the same close connection in the Hebrew 
language as our own. The identification of the 
Jewish months with our own cannot be effected 
with precision on account of the variations that 
must inevitably exist between the lunar and the 
solar month. Nisan, or Abib, answers to April ; 
Zif or Iyar to May; Sivan to June; Tammuz to 
July; Ab to August ; Elul to September; Ethanim 
or Tisri to October ; Bui or Marcheshvan to No- 
vember: Chisleu to December ; Tebeth to Janu- 
ary; Sebat to February; and Adar to March. 
Mor'decai, the deliverer, under Divine Providence, 
of the Jews from the destruction plotted against 
them by Haman the chief minister of Xerxes. 
Mordeeai lived in Shushan. He was the son of 
Jair, son of Shimei, son of Kish the Benjamite 


who was taken captive with Jehoiachin, and he 
brought up Esther. He occupied a seat in the 
king's gate. 


Md'reh. The Oak of Moreh was the first halting- 
place of Abram after his entrance into Canaan 
(Gen. xii. 6). It was at the "place of Shechem" 
(xii. 6), close to the mountains Ebal and Gerizim 
(Deut. xi. 30). 

Mori'ah. 1. The Land or Moriah. On "one of 
the mountains" in this district took place the sac- 
rifice of Isaac (Gen. xxii. 2). 2. Mount Moriah. 
The name ascribed in 2 Chr. iii. 1 to the emi- 
nence cm which Solomon built the Temple. 

Mortar. The simplest method of preparing corn 
for food was by pounding it between two stones. 
When the manna fell the Israelites gathered it, 
and either ground it in the mill or pounded it in 
the moJtar (Num. xi. 8). 

Mo'ses (drawn), the legislator of the Jewish peo- 
ple. _ The story of his birth is thoroughly Egyp- 
tian in its scene. His concealment, his discovery 
by the banks of one of the canals of the Nile by 
the Egyptian princess, his adoption and educa- 
tion, his killing of the Egyptian, his flight into 
Midian, his marriage, and his subsequent won- 
derful career, are all lengthily given in the Penta- 
teuch, and to it we are compelled to refer the 

Moth. By the Hebrew we are to understand some 
species of clothes-moth (Job iv. 19, xiii. 28 ; 
Ps. xxxix. 1 1, &c. ). 

Mourning. The Jewish customs consisted chiefly 
in (1) beating the breast, (2) weeping and scream- 
ing, (3) wearing sad-colored garments, (4) songs 
of lamentation, (5) funeral feasts, (G) employ- 
ment of persons, especially women, to lament. 

Mouse. The original word may comprehend any 

destructive rodent. It is probable that 1 Sam. vi. 
5 may refer to the short-tailed field mice, which 
cause great destruction to the corn-lands of Syria. 

a, e, i, o, u, y, long; a, e, i, 6, u, f, Bbort; care, iar, last, iftll, 'what; there, veil, tSrna; pique, tlrm; done, for, dn, vrtplt, food, ftfot; 

1 '■ 

Mulberry-trees (Heb. becalm), 2 Sam. v. 23, 24, 
and 1 Chr. xiv. 14. As to the claim of the mul- 
berry tree to represent the becalm of Scripture, it 
is difficult to see any foundation for such interpre- 
tation. t~</»0/ 

Mule. We do not read of mules till the time of 
David, just when the Israelites were becoming 
acquainted with horses. After this horses and 
mules are often, mentioned together. 

Murder. The Law of Moses, while it protected 
the accidental homicide, defined with strictness 
the crime of murder. It prohibited compensa- 
tion or reprieve, or protection in the refuge city, 
or even at the altar (Ex. xxi. 12, 14 ; Lev. xxiv. 
17, 21; 1 K. ii. 5, 6, 31). It was lawful to kill a 
burglar taken at night in the act, but unlawful to 
do so after sunrise (Ex. xxii. 
2, 3). 

Music. We legato, fipp Gen. 
iv. that Jubal the son of 
Lamech was "the father of 
all such as handle the harp 
and organ. ' ' The first men- 
tion of music after the Del- 
uge is in Gen. xxxi. 27. 
Two instruments employed 
to accompany song are al- 
luded _,to in Job. xxi. 12. 
On the banks of the Red 
Sea Moses and Israel sang 
their song of deliverance. 
The silver trumpets were to 
direct the movements of the 
camp (Num. x. 1-10.). 
David gathered round him 
"singing men and singing 
women" (2 Sam. xix. 35). 
Solomon did the same (Eccl. 
ii. 8), and the Temple was a 
great school of music. The 
land of the Hebrews during 
their national prosperity was 
a land of music and melody. 
The instruments of music 
represented in our version 
are treated under their re- 
spective titles.^, ,, _ _ 

Mustard (Matt/^fe-Piptvii. 
20; Mark iv. 31 ; Luke xiii. 
19, xvii. 6). The mustard- 
tree of Scripture is main- 
tained to be the Salvadora 
perslca. The Lord in his 
popular teaching adhered to 
the popular language ; and 
the mustard-seed was used 
proverbially to denote any- 
thing very minute^ 

My'ra, an important town in 
Lycia, the place where St. 
Paul, on his voyage to Rome 
(Acts xxvii. 5) entered the 
Alexandrian ship in which 
he was wrecked^ --, r . n 

Myrrh (Ex. xxx. 28), one of 
the ingredients of the "oil 
of holy ointment" (Esth. ii. 
12); one of the substances 
used in the purification of 
women (Ps. xlv. 8 ; Prov. 
vii. 17); and (in Cantiles) a 
perfume. The myrrh of 
commerce has a wood and 
bark which emit a strong 
odor ; the gum is at first 
oily, but becomes hard by 
exposure. It belongs to the 
natural order Tereblnthaceae. 

15; Is. xli. 19, Iv. 13; Zech. i. 
}dern Jews still adorn with 
myrtle the booths and sheds at the Feast of Tab- 
ernacles. Formerly, myrtles grew about Jerusa- 
lem. The Myrtus communis is the kind denoted 
by the Hebrew. 

My'sia (Acts xvk %, #) .was the region about the 
frontier of the provinces of Asia and Bithynia. 
The term is evidently used in au ethnological sense. 


N&'amab. (loveliness). 1. One of the four women 


in the records of the world before the Flood. She 
was daughter of Lamech by his wife Zillah, and 
sister of Tubal-cain (Gen. iv. 22 only). 2. 
Mother of king Rehoboam (1 K. xiv. 21, 31; 2 
Chr. xii. 13). One of the foreign women Solo- 
mon took into his establishment (1 K. xi. Ii. 

Na'aman (pleasantness). "Naaman the Syrian" 
(Luke iv. 27). A Jewish tradition identifies him 
with the archer whose arrow struck Ahab with 
his mortal wound, and thus "gave deliverance to 
Syria." He was commander-in-chief of the 
army, and was nearest the king. He was afflicted 
with a leprosy (ver. 27), which had hitherto de- 
fied cure. The circumstances of his visit to 
Elisha are related in 2 Kings. 

Naas'son. The Greek form of the name Nahshon 


29ft 7. 

Ka'both, victim of Ahab and Jezebel, the owner of 
a small vineyard at Jezreel, close to the palace of 
Ahab (1 K. xxi. 1, 2). It thus became an object 
of desire to the king, who offered an equivalent 
for it. Naboth refused. The proud spirit of 
Jezebel was roused. A solemn fast was pro- 
claimed. Naboth was "set on high:'' two men 
of worthless character accused him of having 
"cursed God and the king." He and his chil- 
dren (2 K. ix. 26) were dragged out and des- 
patched. The place of execuiion was by the 
large tank which still remains on the slope of the 

lull ;f 'Samaria 
Na en on s 

Myrtle (Neh. viii, 
8, 10, 11). The 


(Matt; L 4 ; Luke iii. 32). 

Na'bal ('fool), a sheepmaster on the confines of 
Judaea and the desert His residence was on the 
southern Carmel, in the pasture lands of Maon. 
His wealth consisted chiefly of sheep and goats. 
Once a year there was a grand banquet, on Car- 
mel (1 Sam. xxv. 2, 4, 36). It was on one of 
these occasions that Nabal broke out into fury 
against David's messengers. David made the 
fatal vow of extermination (xxv. 22). At this 
moment Abigail appeared. She returns with the 
ne,ws of David's recantation. Nabal' s heart died 
within him. Ten days he lingered, "and the 
Lord smote Nabal, and he died" (xxv. 37, 38). 

s Threshing- floor, the place at which the 
ark arrived in its progress to Jerusalem, when 
Uzzah lost his life in his zeal for its safety (2 
'>3a*.'>i. 6). 

~Sl[&\> J (ltberal). Eldest son 
of Aaron and Elisheba I Ex. 
vi. 23 ; Num. iii. 2). He, 
his father and brother, and 
seventy old men of Israel 
were led out (Ex. xxiv. 1), 
and commanded to stay and 
worship God "afar off,'' be- 
low the summit of Sinai. 
Subsequently (Lev. x. 1) 
Nadab and his brother were 
struck dead by fire from the 
Lord. Their offence was, 
kindling the incense in their 
censers with "strange" fire. 
2. King Jeroboam's son, who 
succeeded to the throne of 
Israel b. c. 954, and reigned 
two year (1 K. xv. 25-3] . 
Nag'ge, one of the ancestors 
of Christ (Luke iii. 25). It 
represents the Heb. Nogoh 
(1 Chr. iii. 7). 
Na hash (serpent). 1. King 
of the Ammonites, who dic- 
tated to the inhabitants of 
Jebesh-Gilead the alternative 
of the loss of their right eyes 
or slavery, which roused the 
swift wrath of Saul (1 Sam. 
xi. 1, 2-11). 2. A person 
mentioned (2 Sam. xvii. 25) 
in the parentage of Amasa, 
commander-in-chief of Ab- 
salom's army. 
Na'hor, the name of two per- 
sons in the family of Abra- 
ham. 1. His grandfather, 
and father of Terah (Gen. 
xi. 22-25). 2. Grandson of 
the preceding, son of Terah 
and brother of Abraham and 
Haran (Gen. xi. 26, 27). 
Nahor was the father of 
twelve sons (Gen. xxii. 21- 
Nah'sion, or Naash'on, prince 
of the children of Judah (1 
Chr. ii. 10). His sister, 
Elisheba, was wife to Aaron, 
and his son, Salmon, hus- 
band to Rahab after the 
taking of Jericho. He died 
in the wilderness, according 
to Num. xxvi. i'4, i)5. 
Na'hum (consolation). Nahum 
the seventh in order of the 
minor prophets. His per- 
sonal history is quite un- 
known. It is probable that 
in the latter half of the reign 
wrote either in Jerusalem or 
neighborhood. As a poet, Nahum occupies a 
high place in the first rank of Hebrew literature. 
His style is clear and uninvolved, thougb pregnant 
ami forcible; his diction sonorous and rnythmical. 
Tfaxl. 'a nail (Is. xli. 7), a stake (Is. xxxiii. 20), 
also a tent-peg. Tent-pegs are usually of wood 
and large size, but sometimes of metal (Ex, 
xxvii. 19, xxxviii. 20). David prepared iron for 
tin? nails to be used in the Temple. 
Na'in, a village of Galilee, the gate of which is 
made illustrious by the raising of the widow's son 
(Luke vii. 12). 

Nahum flourished 
of Hezekiah, and 

Clirl, r^tfe, pnsh; e,i,o, silent; (B9B;(bw eb; «,cb, a^k; £ as J, § aa in get; s as z; x as gz; n as In linger, link; Hx as In thine. 

11) 9 


whom we learn little more than his birthplace, 

Cana of Galilee (John xxi. 2), and his simple 

truthful character (John i. 47). It is believed 

that Nathanael and Bartholomew are the 


tta'ioth, c 


.' or "Naioth in Ramah, 1 ' a place in which 
Samuel and David took refuge together (1 Sam. 
xix. 18, 19, 22, 23 t sx. 1). Probably the huts or 

44-" 70 1 o»74 


dwellings of a school or college of prophets over 
which Samuel presided. 

Na'dmi, the wife of Elimelech, and mother-in-law 
of Ruth (Ruth i. 2, &c, ii. 1, &c, iii. 1, iv. 3, 
&c.). The name is derived from a root signifying 
sweetness or pleasantness. 

Kapb/taii {wrestling). Fifth son of Jacob; second 
born to him by Bilhah," Rachel's slave. His birth 
and the bestowal of his name are recorded in Gen. 
xxx. 8. At the migration to Egypt four sons are 
attributed to Naphtali (Gen. xlvi. 24 ; Ex. i. 4 ; 1 
Chr. vii. 13). When the census was taken at 
Mount Sinai the tribe 
numbered 53,400 fight- 
ing men (Num. i. 43, 
ii. 30). 
Narcis'sus, a dweller at 
Rome (Rom. xvi. 11), 
members of whose 
household were known 
as Christians to St. 
'Ka'than (a giver). 1. 
An eminent Hebrew 
prophet in the reigns 
of David and Solomon. 
He first appears in 2 
Sam. vii. 2, 3, 17. He next reproves David for 
the sin with Bathsheba. In the last years of 
David, Nathan, by taking the side of Solomon, 
turned the scale in his favor. He assisted in the 
inauguration of Solomon (1 K. i. 8, 10, 11, 22, 
23, 24, 32, 34, 38, 45). He left two works— a 
Life of David (1 Chr. xxix. 29), and a Life of 
Solomon (2 Chr. ix. 29). The last may have 
been incomplete. But the biography of David 
by Nathan is, of all losses, the most deplorable. 
His grave is shown at Halhul, near Hebron. 2. 
A son of David; one of the four born by Bath- 
sheba (1 Chr. iii. 5; comp. xiv. 4, and 2 Sam. v. 
14). He is interesting to us as one of the fore- 


Nave. The Il'eb. conveys the notion of con- 
vexity. It is rendered boss of a shield, 
Job xv. 26 ; the eyebrow, Lev. xiv. 9 ; an 
eminent place, Ez. xvi. 31. 
Naz'arene. This appellative is applied to 
\ Jesus in many passages in the N. T. Once 
I (Acts xxiv. 5) the term Nazarenes is applied 
' to followers of Jesus by way of contempt. 
Naz'areth, the ordinary residence of our 
Saviour, occurs first in Matt. ii. 23." The 
name of the present village is en-Nazirah, 
the same as of old. It is within the limits 
of the province of Galilee (Marki. 9), near 
Cana. A precipice exists in the neighbor- 
hood (Luke iv. 29). The modern Naza- 
reth has a population of 3000 or 4000. p.79 
Haz'arite, more properly Naz'irite (one sep- 
arated), one of either sex bound by a vow 
of a peculiar kind to be set apart from 
others for the service of God, either for 
life or for a defined time. 
Neap'olis is the place in northern Greece 
where Paul and his associates first landed 
in Europe (Acts xvi. 11). 


fathers of Joseph in the genealogy of St. Luke 
iii. 31). 
Kathan'ael, a disciple of Jesus Christ, concerning 


Neba'ioth, Neba'joth, the "first-born of Ishmael" 
(Gen. xxv. 13; 1 Chr. i. 29), and father of a pas- 
toral tribe named after him (xl. 7). 
Ne'bo, Mount. 1. The mountain from which 
Moses took his first and last view of the Prom- 
ised Land (Deut. xxxii. 49, xxxiv. 1). It is 
described as facing Jericho ; the head or sum- 
mit of a mountain called the Pisgah. 2. The 
name of a Chaldaean god, a well-known deity 
of the Babylonians and Assyrians. He pre- 
sided over learning and letters. 
Neb'uchadnez'zar, or Nebuchadrez'zar, the most 
powerful of the Babylonian kings. He was 
the son of Nabopolassar, the founder of the 
Babylonian Empire. In the lifetime of his 
father, Nebuchadnezzar, led an army against 
Pharaoh-Necho, king of Egypt, defeated him 
at Carchemish (b. c. 605) in a great battle 
(Jer. xlvi. 2-12). recovered Coele-syria, Phoe- 
nicia, and Palestine, and took Jerusalem (Dan. 
i. 1, 2). Nebuchadnezzar commenced the 
final siege of Jerusalem in the ninth year of Zed- 
ekiah, — his own seventeenth year (b. c. 588) — 
and took it two years later (b. c. 586). Zedekiah 

^ < ' 


escaped the city, but was captured near JericHO 
(ib. xxxix. 6), and brought to Nebuchadnezzar at 
Riblah, where his eyes were put out by the king's 
order, while his sons and chief nobles were slain. 
1*1 abuchadnezzar then returned to Babylon with 

44V 705 > 



Zedekiah. The wealth, greatness, and general 
prosperity of Nebuchadnezzar are strikingly 
placed before us in the book of Daniel. Towards 
the close of his reign, as a punishment for his 
pride, madness was sent upon him which the 
Greeks called Lycanthropy (Dan. iv. 33). After 
an interval of four or seven years (Dan. iv. 16), 
Nebuchadnezzar's malady left him. He died in 
the year b. c. 561, at an advanced age (eighty- 
three or eighty-four), having reigned forty-three 
years. A son, Eyil-Mjlrodach, succeeded him. 

Nebushas'ban, one 
of the officers of 
He was Rab- 
saris, i. e. chief 
of the eunuchs 
(Jer. xxxix. 13). 
Neg'inath, proper- 
ly Neginath, occurs in the title of Ps. lxi. The 
chief musician on Neginoth was the conductor of 
the Temple-choir who played upon the stringed 
Neliemi'ah. Son of Hachaliah, and apparently of 
the tribe of Judah. All that we know of him is 
contained in the book which bears his name. We 
first find him at Shushan, the winter residence of 
the kings of Persia, as cupbearer of king Artax- 
erxes Longimanus. Having received appoint- 
ment as governor of Judaea, he started upon hi3 
journey to Jerusalem. During his government 
Nehemiah rescued the poor Jews from spoliation 
and slavery. Beyond the 32d year of Artaxerxes, 
to which Nehemi- 
ah' s own narrative 
leads us, we have 
no account of him 
Ifebeml'ah, Book of, 
is clearly and cer- 
tainly not all by the 
same hand. The 
principal portion is 
the work of Nehe- 
miah; but other por- 
tions are either ex- 
tracts or supple-' 
mentary narratives. 
Ne'tiloth, the title of 
Ps. v. Most likely 
Nehiloth is the gen- 
eral term for per- 
forated wind-instru- 
Nehush'ta, daughter 
of Elnathan of Jer- 
usalem, wife of Je- 
hoiakim, and mother 
of Jehoiachin, kings 
of Judah (2K. xxiv. 

Nehfish'tan, the name 
by which the brazen 
serpent, made by 
Moses in the wilder- 
ness (Num. xxi. 9), was worshipped in the time 
of Hezekiah (2 K. xviii. 4). 


5, e, I, 5, fi, y, long ; a, e, I, &, tt, ?, short; care, far, last, iffU, what ; there, veil, tCxm J pique, 

ot Hezekiah (A iv. xvm. 4). 
firm; done, fdr, d©, wo.ll, food, looti 

1 10 


— — — — — 

Her, according <t» 4i"I!hr. viii. 33, father of Kish 
and Abner, and grandfather of king Saul. Abner 
was uncle to Saul (1 J3am. xiv. 50). 

Ne'reus, a Christian at Rome, saluted by St. Paul 

New Year. 


a'* [Tru 

rumpets, Feast of.] 
Nib'Mz, a deity of lln; Avites, introduced «uhj 

Samaria (2 K. xvii. 31. 
Nica/nor, one of the first seven deacons (Acts 
vL 5). 
Nicode'nius, a Pharisee, a ruler of the Jews, and 
teacher of Israel (John iii. 1, 10), whose secret 
visit to our Lord was the occasion of the dis- 
course recorded by St. John. After the resur- 
rection he became a professed disciple of Christ, 
and received ba.ptism at the hands of Peter and 


(Rom. xvi. 15). Tradition says he was behead- 
ed. »~fitt- 
Ner'gal, one ofcjheS tiles' Assyrian and Babylonian 
deities, seemsto have corresponded closely to the 
classical Mars' (2 K. xvii. 30). 
Ner'gal-share'ze| jf^ef.^xxix. 3 and 13). Two of 
the name among trie" "princes of the king of 
Babylon" accompanied Nebuchadnezzar on his 
last expedition against 
Jerusalem. He was a 
personage of great im- 
portance, who not long 
afterwards mounted the 
Babylonian throne. His 
reign lasted from B. c. 
559 to b. c. 550. 
Neth'inim. A distinct 
body of men connected 
with the services of the 
'Nettle. The Hebrew 
translated nettle in Is. 
xxxiv. 13 ; Hos. ix. 6 ; 
iCProv. xxiv. 31, may be 
- ■understood to denote 
■ some species of nettle 
New STooii. The first day 
oriental messenger. f the lunar month was 
observed as a holy day. As on the Sabbath, trade 
and handicraft work were stopped (Am. viii. 5), 
and the Temple was opened for public worship 
(Ez. xlvi. 3; Is. lxvi. 23). The trumpets were 
blown at the special sacrifices. The seventh new 
moon of the religious year, being that of Tisri, 
commenced the civil year, and was a day of holy 

black mustard. 
New Testament. The origin, history, and charac- 
teristics of the books of the N. T. are discussed 
in other articles. 


Nioola'itans. Mingling themselves in the orgies 
of idolatrous feasts, they brought the impurities 
of thbse feasts into the meetings of the Christian 

Nic'oiaslActs vi. 5), a native of Antioch, and a 
proselyte to the Jewish faith. 

Nlcop'blis (Tit. iii. 12). We little doubt that the 
Pauline Nicopolis was the celebrated city of 
Epirus, on a peninsula to the west of the bay of 

Ni'gef, the name given to the Simeon who was 
one of the teachers and prophets in the Church 

at' Antioch (Acts xiii. 1). 
Night. /[Day.] 
Night-hawk. The Hebrew word so translated 

(Lev. xi. 16 ; Deut. xiv. 15) probably denotes 

some kind of owl. 



Nls'rSch, an idol of Nineveh, in whose templn Sen- 
nacherib was worshipping when assassinated by 

his sons, Adrammelech and Sharezer (2 K. xix. 


Nile, line great river of Egypt. It has been traced 
for about 2700 miles, and its extent is probably 
upwards of 1000 miles more, making it the longest 
of rivers. Into it the male children were cast ; 
in it, or some canal, was the ark of Moses put. 
When the plagues were sent, its waters were 
turned into blood. 

Nim'rim, The Waters of, a stream or brook within 
the country of Moab (Is. xv. 6; Jer. xlviii. 34). 

Nim'rod, a son of Cash and grandson of Ham. 
The events of his life are recorded in Gen. 
x. 8, ff. He was a Cushite, established an 
empire in Shinar, and extended his empire 
northwards along the Tigris over Assyria, 
where he founded Nineveh, Rehoboth, Calah, 
and Resen. 

Nin'eveh, the capital of the ancient kingdom 
and empire of Assyria. It is first mentioned 
in the O. T. in connection with the primitive 
dispersement and migrations of the human 
race. The kingdom of Assyria is referred to 
as connected with the Jews in Num. xxiv. 
22, 24, and Ps. lxxxiii. 8. The destruction 
of Nineveh occurred b. c. 606. It never 
rose again. This total disappearance of 
Nineveh is fully confirmed by the records of 
profane history. The political history of Nineveh 
is that of Assyria. 

Ni'san. [Months.] 


37; Is. xxxvii. 38). The word signifies "the great 

Nitre (Prov. xxv. 20; Jer. ii. 22). The substance 
denoted is the nitrum of the Latins, and the 
natron or native carbonate of soda of modern 

No'ahj the tenth in descent from Adam, in flic line 
of Seth, was the son of Lamech, and grandson of 
Methuselah. Of Noah himself we hear nothing 
till he is 500 years old, 
when it is said he begat 
three sons, Shem, Ham, 
and Japhet. In conse- 
quence of the hopeless 
wickedness of the world, 
God resolved to destroy 
it. Of Noah's life we 
are told but little. It is 
said he was a righteous 
man, and like Enoch 
walked with God. He 
built the Ark in accord- 
ance with Divine direc- 
tion. He was 600 years 
old when the flood came 
(Gen. vi., vii.). Noah's 
first act after he left the moles. ^ 

Ark was to offer sacrifices. It is particularly 
noticed that he planted a vineyard. He drank of 
the juice of the grape till he became intoxicated 
and shamefully exposed himself in his own tent. 
One of his sons, Ham, mocked openly. The 
others, with reverence, endeavored to hide the 
disgrace. When he recovered, with the curse on 
his youngest son was joined a blessing on the 
other two. 

No-a'mon (Nah. iii. 8), No (Jer. xlvi. 25; Ez. xxx, 
14, 15, 16), a city of Egypt, better known under 
the name of Thebes. No is a Shemitic name, 
and Amon is added in Nahum (I. e.) to distin- 


guish Thews from some other No, or on account 
of the connection of Amen with that city. 
Nob (1" Sam. xxiii. 11; Neh. xi. 32), a sacerdotal 

fiOrl, rtjde, pnsk; e, 1, o, silent ; { as g; (b u sh; « # «h, a? k ; £ as j, g aa in get; ; aa i; j as gz; n as In linger, link; tk as in tklne. 



city on some eminence near Jerusalem. It was 
one of the places where the ark of Jehovah was 
kept (2 Sam. vi. 1, &c.). Nob was most noted 


for a frightful massacre there in the reign of Saul 
(1 Sam. xxii. 17-19). 
No'e, the patriarch Noah (Tob. iv. 12; Matt. xxiv. 

37, 88 ; Luke iii. 36, xvii. 26, 27). 
Noph. ^ Mem prjs . ] 

Nose-jewel ( Gen. xxiv. 22 ; Ex. xxxv. 22, ' 'ear- 
ring;" Is. iii. 21; Ez. xvi. 12, "jewel on the fore- 
head"), a ring, sometimes of gold or silver, 

passed through 
the nostril, and 
worn as an orna- 
Number. It is 
probable the 
Hebrews in 
their written 
made use of the 
letters of the 
alphabet. That 
they did so in 
p ost- Babyloni- 
an times we 
have conclusive 
Numbers. The 
Fourth Book of 
the Law or Pen- 
tateuch. It 
takes its name 
in the LXX. 
and Vulg. from 
the double num- 
bering or census 
of the people. 
The Book may 
be said to con- 
tain the history 
of the Israelites 
from the time of leaving Sinai till their arrival at 
the Promised Land in the fortieth year of their 

Nun, the father of Joshua (Ex. xxxiii. 11, &c). 
His descent from Ephraim is recorded is 1 Chr. 

Nurse. The position of the nurse was one of 
much honor and importance. (Gen. xxiv. 69, 






! ; 2 Sam. iv. 4 ; 2 K. xi. 2 ; 3 Mace. i. 


Nuts (Gen. xliii. 11). The Hebrew denotes the 
fruit of the Pistachio tree. Cant. vi. 11, in all 
probability, refers to the Walnut-tree. According 
to Josephus, the walnut-tree grew luxuriantly 
around Gennesareth. 

Nym'ph'as, a wealthy and zealous Christian in Lao- 
dicia (Col. iv. 15). 


Oak. Even the terebinth, in point of size, cannot 
compete with some of the oaks of Palestine. 


Oath. The principle on which an oath is held to 
be binding is incidentally laid down in Heb. vi. 
16. The forms of abjuration mentioned are : 1. 
lifting up the hand. Witnesses laid their hands 
on the head of the accused (Gen. xiv. 22; Lev. 
xxiv. 14; Deut. xxxiii. 40; Is. iii. 7). 2. Put- 
ting the hand under the thigh of the person to 
whom the promise was made (Gen. xxiv. 2, xlvii. 
29). 3. Oaths were sometimes taken before the 

altar, or looking towards the Temple (1 K. viii. 
31; 2 Chr. vi. 22). -I. Dividing a victim and 
_passing between (Gen. xv. 10, 17; Jer. xxxiv. 18). 
Obadi'ah (Servant of the Lord), the fourth of the 
twelve minor prophets. We know nothing of 
him except from the book which bears his name. 
He must have prophesied subsequently to the 
year b. c. 588. The Book of Obadiah is a sus- 
tained denunciation of the Edomites, melting into 
._a vision of the future glories of Zion. 
O'bed. Son of Boaz and Ruth the Moabitess 



Officer, ^The Hebrew rendered "officer," are either 
indefinite or synonymous terms for functionaries 
known as "scribe," "eunuch," &c 

2 395 

master and servant. MACHOi^usedinancientdances,. 

5g, an AahOinfisn king of Bashan (Josh. xiii. 12). 
He was one of the last of the giant race of 
Rephaim, and was, with his people, exterminated 
by the Israelites. The belief in Og's enormous 
stature is corroborated by an appeal to his iron 
bedstead (Deut. iii. 11). 

Oil. Of the substances known to the ancients as 
yielding oil, the olive-berry is the most frequently 
mentioned. Oil was used by the Jews for an- 
ointing the body. The bodies of the dead were 
anointed with oil by Greeks and Romans. The 
oil for "the light" was expressly ordered to be 
olive-oil, beaten. Oil was mixed with the flour 
or meal used in offerings. Oil is indicative of 
gladness; its absence 
denoted sorrow (Is. 
lxi. 3; Joel ii. 19 ; 
Rev. vi. 6). Kings, 
priests, and prophets 
were anointed with 

Oil-tree (Neh. viii. . 
15; Is. xli. 19). It m 
may perhaps be 
identified with the 
zaekum-tne, a well- 
known and abun- 
dant shrub in the 
plain of Jordan. 
The zackum-oil is 
held in high repute 
by the 'Arabs. 

Ointment. The prac- 
tice of anointing the 
head and clothes on Inscription on Ancient Monument, 
festive occasions had place among the Jews (Ruth 
iii. 3 ; Eccl. vii. 1; ix. 8 ; Prov. xxvii. 9, 16, &c). 
Ointments as well as oil were used to anoint dead 
bodies (Matt. xxvi. 12; Mark xiv. 3, 8; Luke 
xxiii. 56; John xii. 3, 7, xix. 40). Ointment 
formed an important feature in ancient medical 
treatment (Is. i. 6). In the Christian Church the 
ancient usage of anointing the bodies of the dead 
was long retained. 

Old Testament. There can be little doubt that the 
text was ordinarily written on skins, rolled up 
into volumes. The original character is that still 
preserved to us, with the exception of four let- 
ters, on the Maccabaean coins. Of any logical 
division of the prose of the O. T. intoPesukim,or 
verses, we find no mention. In the poetical books, 

of his 3 
He is 


(Ruth iv. 17). The circumstances 
birth are given in the book of Ruth. 

_said to .be the father of Jesse. 

0'bed-e'dom. After the death of TJzzah, the 
ark was carried aside into the house of Obed- 
edom, where it continued three months. It 
was brought thence by David (1 Chr. xv. 25 ; 

_2 Sam. vi. 12). 

0'ded. 1. The father of Azariah the prophet 
in the reign of Asa (2 Chr. xv. 1). 2. A 
prophet of Jehovah in Samaria, at the time of 
Pekah' 8 invasion of Judah (2 Chr. xxviii. 9). 

Offerings. [Sacrifice.] 


the Pesukim mentioned in the Talmud correspond 
to the poetical lines, not to our modern verses. 
Of the documents which directly bear upon the 

a, e, I, o, a, f, long; a, e, I, 6, ft, f, short; (M«, far, l&at, i&ll, wfcfct; tbere, T£|l, ttrm; pique, firm; ddue, fdr, da, wylf, Mod, loot; 




history of the Hebrew text, the two earliest arc 
the Samaritan copy of the Pentateuch, and the 
Olive. No tree is more closely associated with 

■» / f \&ti '5 «* * 




history and civilization. Its foliage is mentioned 
when the flood began to retire (Gen. viii. 11). 
The olive-tree was abundant in Palestine (see 
Deut. vi. 11, viii. 8, xxviii. 40). Almost every 
village has its olive-grove. The berries which 
produce the oil were gathered by shaking the 
tree or beating it. Then followed the treading of 
the fruit (Deut. x-xxiii. 24 ; Mic. vi. 15). 
Olives, Mount o£, : is oil the east of Jerusalem. It 
is a ridge of more than a mile in length, running 

king. The city was taken, and Zimri perished 
after a reign of seven days. The probable date 
of Omri's accession was B. c. 935 ; of Tibni's 
defeat and the beginning of Omri's sole 
reign b. c. 931, and of his death B. c. 
919. i>y 

5n, a tower of Lower Egypt, better known 
as Heliopolis. It was about twenty miles 
northeast of Memphis. The chief object 
of worship at Heliopolis was the sun. The 
first mention of this place is in the hislory 
of Joseph, to whom we read Pharaoh 
gave "to wife Asenath the daughter cf 
Potipherah, priest of On" (Gen. xli. 45, 

^Comp..ver. 50, and xlvi. 20). 

O'nam. 1. One of the sons of Shobal the 
son of Seir (Gen. xxxvi. 21 ; 1 Chr. i. 
40). 2. The son of Jerahmeel by his wife 

_Atarah(l Chr. ii. 26, 28). 

O'nan, the second son of Judah. "What 
he did was evil in the eyes of Jehovah, 
and He slew him also," as He had slain 
his elder brother (Gen. xxxviii. 9). 

OneVimiis, the slave in whose behalf Paul 
wrote the Epistle to Philemon. He was 
of Colossae, since Paul in writing to the 
Church there speaks of him (Col. iv. 9) 
as "one of you." 

Onesiph'orfis (2 Tim. i. 16-18, iv. 19). In 
the former Paul mentions him in terms of 
grateful love, and in the latter he singles 
out "the household of Onesiphorus" as 
Worthy of a special greeting. 

Onl'as, the name of five high-priests in the 

, O'reh, one of the 
which invaded 


chieftains of the Midianite host 
Israel, and was defeated by 



north and south, covering the easterr 
side of the city. On the east the 
mount is close to the walls, parted onlj 
by the ravine of the Kidron. This 
portion is the real Mount of Olives 
history. In general height it is r 
very much above the city. Of sacr 
spots three remain : 1. Gethsemane, 
at the foot of the mount. 2. The spot 
from which our Saviour ascended on 
the summit. 3. The place of the 
Lamentation of Christ over Jerusalem, 
half way up. 

Olym'pas, a Christian at Rome (Rom. 
xvi. 15). 

Ome'ga, the last letter in the Greek al- 
phabet, as Alpha is the first. 

O'mer. [Weights- and Measures.] 

Om'ri, originally "captain of the host" to 
was afterwards himself king of Israel. 






Elah was murdered by Zimri at Tirzah, the army 
proclaimed Omri king. Thereupon he attacked. 
Tirzah, where Zimri was holding his court as 


I periodbetween the Old and New Testaments. 

Elah, Onions (Num. xi. 5). Onions have been from 

When | time immemorial a favorite article of food amongst 

the Egyptians. The onions of Egypt are 

milder and less pungent than those of this 


Onyoha (Ex. xxx. 34), one of the ingredi- 
ents of "the sacred perfume. 

Onyx, the translation of the Heb. sheham 
(Gen. ii. 12; Ex. xxviii. 9,20; 1 Chr. 
xxix. 2; Ez. xxviii. 13). Some believe 
the "beryl" is intended; but authority is 
hi -favor ."of the onyx. 

O'phir. 1. The eleventh of the sons of 
Joktan. 2. A seaport or region from 
which the Hebrews in the time of Solo- 
mon obtained gold. In addition to gold, 
the vessels brought almug-wood and 
precious stones. The geographical situa- 
tion of Ophir has long been a subject of 

Oph'rah. The native place of Gideon 
(Judg. vi. 11); the scene of his exploits 
against Baal (ver. 24); his residence after 
his accession to power (ix. 5), and the 
place of his burial in the family sepulchre 
(viii. 32). It was probably not far distant 
from Shechem. 

The title applied to Tertullus, who ap- 
peared as the advocate or patronus of the Jewish 
accusers of St. Paul before Felix (Acts xxiv. 1). 



_^ Organ (Gen. iv. 21; Job xxi. 12, xxx. 

31; Ps. cl. 4). The Hebrew thus ren- 
dered probably denotes a pipe or perfo- 
rated wind-instrument. 
Orison. The constellation knowr to the 
Hebrews by the name cesil is the same 
as that the Greeks called Orion, and the 
Arabs "the giant" Job ix. 9, xxxviii. 
Zl' t Am. v. 8). 

Irnaments, Personal. The monuments 
of Egypt exhibit the hands of ladies 
loaded with rings, earrings, anklets, 
armlets, bracelets, richly ornamented 
necklaces, and chains. There is suf- 
ficient evidence in the Bible that the in- 
habitants of Palestine were equally de- 
Otepi to finery. 

'pah, a Moabite woman, wife of Chil- 
qn,_ son of Naomi, and thereby sister- 
n-law to Ruth (Ruth i. 4, 14). 
Oshea. [Joshua.] 

Ospray (Lev. xi. 13 ; Deut. xiv. 12), some 
unclean bird. Probably either the ospray 
or the white-tailed eagle, 
•ssifrage, an unclean bird, in Lev. xi. 
13, and Deut. xiv. 12. _ The Lammer- 
geyer, or bearded vulture, as it is sometimes 
called* is one of the largest of the birds of prey. 
Ostrich. No doubt the Hebrew denotes this bird 
of the desert. 

Oth'niel, son of Kenaz, and younger brother of 
Caleb (Josh. xv. 17; Judg. i. 13, iii. 9; 1 Chr. iv. 


13). The first mention of Othniel is on the 
taking of Debir. To stimulate valor, Caleb 
promised his daughter Achsah to whosoever 

&*h .rede, j?v»l»; *. *, o, silent; $ as s; $fc w ah; «, «h, as fc ; g as Jj J; aa in get ; § aa rju gz; nu ta H®S??o **&>* {_*■ •» te-*toft» 




should take the city. Othniel won the prize. 
The next mention of him is in Judg. iii. 9, where 


i "V f\ i"*-* £> 

Patfan-Zram. "The table-land of Aram." More 
especially applied to that portion which bordered 
on the Euphrates, to distinguish it from the moun- 
tainous districts in the N. and N. E, of Meso- 

■ potamia. 

Paint (as a cosmetic). The use of cosmetic dyes 
has prevailed in all ages in 
Eastern countries. We 
have abundant evidence of 
the practice of painting the 
eyes in Egypt and in As- 
syria. The notices of it 
among the Hebrews are few; 
and it seems to have been 
used as a meretricious art, 
unworthy of a woman of 
high character. 

Palesti'ha a n d PaTestlne. 
These two forms occur in 
the A. V.; the first in Ex. 
xv. 14, and Is xiv. 29, 31; the second, Joel iii. 
4. Palestine in the A. V. really means nothing 
but Philistia. The name most frequently used 
throughout the middle ages, and down to our own 
time, is the Holy Land. It is but a strip of 

Nose-jewel of Arabian 


an'nag, an article of commerce exported from 
Palestine to Tyre (Ez. xxvii. 17). It perhaps 


he appears as the first judge of Israel after the 
death of Joshua. 

Oven. The Eastern oven is of two kinds — fixed 
and portable. The former in towns, where 
regular bakers are employed (IIos. vii. 4); the 
latter in the nomad state- It consists of a 
large jar made of clay, with a hole for the 
ashes. It was heated with dry twigs and grass 
(Matt. vi. 30), and the loaves placed inside and 

Owl, tlic representative in the A. A. offour 
Hebrew words. The A. V. translated "owl," 
or "great owl;" the LXX. and Vulg. read 
ibis, i. e. tl\e Ibis rgHgwsa, the sacred bird of 


represents some of the spices grown in Palestine. 
Paper. [Whiting.] 

Pa'phos, a town at the west end of Cyprus. 
Paul and Barnabas traveled "through the isle" 
(Acts xiii. 6). The characteristic of Paphos 
was theworship of Venus. 

Parable.' By the Jewish Rabbis the parable was 
made the instrument for teaching the young 
disciple to discern the treasures of wisdom. 
The worth of parables, as instruments of teach- 
ing, lies in their being at once a test of char- 
acter)^ *y 

Par'adlse is a word of Persian origin, and is 
used in the Septuagint as the translation of 
Eden. [Eden.] 

Pa'ran, El-pa'ran. 1. The position between 
Midian and Egypt. 2. "Mount" Paran (Deut. 
xxxiii. 2; Hab. iii. 3). Probably the north- 
western member of the Sinaitic mountain- 

Parchment. ["Writing.] 

Par'menas, one of the seven deacons (Acts vi. 
5). There is a tradition that he suffered mar- 
tyrdom at Philippi. 

Par'thlans occurs only in Acts ii. 9, where it 
designates Jews settled in Parthia. Parthia 
Proper lay south of Hyrcania, east of Media, 
and north of Sagartia. Parthia was a power 
almost rivalling Rome. The Parthian domin- 

,,ioW lasted for nearly five centuries. 

Partridge (1 Sam. xxvi. 20; Jer. xvii. 11). 


Ox. Oxen were used for ploughing (Deut. xxii. 
10; 1 Sam. xiv. 14, &c. ); for treading out corn 
(Deut. xxv. 4; Hos. x. 11, &c. ); for draught pur- 
poses (Num. vii. 3; 1 Sam. vi. 7, &c ); as beasts 
of burden (1 Chr. xii. 40); their flesh was eaten 
(Deut. xiv. 4; 1 K. i. 9, &c. ); they were used in 
the sacrifices. The ox that threshed the corn 
was by no means to be muzzled ; he was to enjoy 
Vtjn the Sabbath (Ex. xxiii. 12; Deut. v. 14). 
'zem, tin' sixth son of .Jesse, the next eldest 
abwe David (1 Chr. ii. 15). 

Ozi'a's. 1. Uzzi, one of the ancestors of Ezra (2 


Esd. ii. 2). 2. Uzziah, king of Judah (Matt. i. 


Padan-Aram (Gen. xlviii. 7). 


country about the size of Wales, less than 140 
miles in length, and barely -lit in average breadth. 

Palmer-worm (Heb. gazam), Joel i. 4, ii. 25. Itis 
maintained that gazam denotes some species of 
locust, but it, is mure probably a caterpillar. 

Palm-tree (Heb. tamar). Under this generic term 
many species are included ; but we have here only 
to do with the Date-palm. This tree was pecu- 
liarly characteristic of Palestine and the neigh- 
boring regions. Perhaps no point is more worthy 
of mention than the elasticity of the fibre of the 
palm, and its determined growth upwards, even 
when loaded with weights. But palm-branche i 
were used by Jews in token of victory and peace 
(1 Mace. xiii. 51; 2 Mace. x. 7, xiv. 4). The an- 
cient Orientals made use of wine and honey ob- 
tained from the palm tree. This tree, once so 
abundant in Judaea, is now comparatively rare. 

Palsy. The palsy meets us in the N. T. only. The 
words "grievously tormented" (Matt. viii. 6) may 
refer to paralysis agitans. The woman who was 
"bowed together" may have been a paralytic 
(Luke xiii. 11 ). 

Pamphyi'ia, one of the coast regions in the south 
of Asia Minor. In Pamphylia St. Paul first en- 
tered Asia Minor. He and Barnabas finally left 
Pamphylia by its chief seaport, Attalia. 

Pan. Of six words so rendered, two imply a shal- 
low pan or plate for cakes of meal; the others a 
deeper vessel or caldron for boiling meat. 

The references agree with the habits of two species 
of partridge, viz. Caeeabis saxatilis (the Greek 

5, e, i, 5, a, f, long; &, e, i, S, ft, f, abort; e&rc, far, list, lgll, wbfrti tbere, ve|I, Una; pique, *Srm; dAne, *Ar, dQ, woli, ftfbd, ftfbi; 





partridge) and Ammoperdix Heyii. The expres- ] 
s.on in Ecclus. xi. 30 clearly refers to "a decoy 
partridge. ' ' 


Parva'im, an unknown place or country whence 
gold was procured for Solomon's Temple (2 Chr. 
iii. G). Perhaps a general term for the East. 

Pas-dam'mim. . [Ephes'-dammim.] 

Pash'ur. 1. Oneof; the families of priests. 2. 
{jer. xx. 1.) In the reign of Jehoiakim Pashur 
showed himself as hostile to Jeremiah, and put 
him in the stocks by the gate of Benjamin. For 
this indignity he was told by Jeremiah that he 
and all his house should be carried captives to 
Babylon and there die (Jer. xx. 1-6). 

Passover, the first of three great annual Festivals 
of the Israelites, celebrated in the month Nisan, 


from the 14th to the 21st. The following pas- 
sages relate to the Passover: Ex. xii. 1-51, xiii. 
3-10, xxiii. 14-19, xxxiv. 18-20 ; Lev. xxiii. 4- 
14 ; Num. ix. 1-14. xxyjii. 16-25 ; Deut. xvi. 1-6. 

Pat'ara, a Lycian city on the south-western shore 
of Lycia. Pataria was practically the seaport of 
the city of Zanthus, ten miles distant, mentioned 
in Acts xxi. 1, 2_ „ -. . 

Pat'mos (Rev. i. 9), a rugged and bare island, in 
that part of the Aegean called the Icariau Sea. 
ilrs^ if A- JL I 4 


the ascent is the cave or grotto where tradition j 
says that 8t. John received the Revelation. 
Pa'triarchs. The name Patriarch is applied in the 
N. T. to Abraham 
(Heb. vii. 4), to the 
sons of Jacob (Acts 
vii. 8, 9), and to 
David (Acts ii. 29); 
and is apparently in- 
tended to be equiva- 
lent to the phrase, the 
"head" or "prince of 
a tribe, so often found 
iutheO. T. 
Pat'robas, a Christian 
at Rome to whom St. 
Paul sends his saluta- 
tion (Rom. xvi. 14 ). 
Paul. His father was 
of the tribe of Benja- 
min (Phil. iii. 5j, and 
a Pharisee (Acts 
xxiii. 6), and had acquired the Roman franchise 
(Acts xxii. 28), and was settled in Tarsus. His 
original name was Saul. He was sent to Jerusa- 
lem early for his education, and became promi- 



Patmos is divided into two nearly equal parts, a 
northern and a southern. On the hill to the 
sotth is the celebrated monastery, which bears 
the name of "John the Divine." Half way up 


nent as a Pharisee. His conversion (A.ctsix.) 
occurred after the crucifixion. 
His remarkable life is given in 

the Acts. He wa3 ^s^-^EtSs 
finally beheaded by .Jr^ ~-~- _ -T™£° 
Nero, at Rome, a. d. H= 
66. He was thorough- 
ly learned in the Heb. 
law, and in the Greek 
and Hebrew lan- 
Pavillion. An enclosed 

place (Ps. xxvii. 5). 
Peacocks (1 K. x. 22; 
2 Chr. ix. 21). The 
Hebrew word may be 
traced to the Tamul 
or Malabaric togei, 
Pearl. Job xxviii. 18 
probably means "crys- 
tals." Pearls, how- 
ever, are frequently 
mentioned in the N. T. (Matt, 
xiii. 45$ ,1 Tim. ii. 9; Rev. xvii 
Pe'kah, a captain of Pekahiah king of Israel, mur- 
dered his master, seized the throne, and became 

the 18th sovereign of the northern kingdom (a, 
c. 757—740). Hoshea, the sou of Elah conspired 
against him. and put him to death. 
48 O 74. > 4 » 


Pek'ahi'ah, son of Menaliem, was the 17th king of 
the separate kingdom of Israel (b. c. 759-757). 

- Pekah "murdered him and seized the throne. 

Pe'leg, son of Eber and brother of Joktan (Gen. 
x. 25, xi. 10). 

Pg'JetMtes. [Cherethites.] 

Pelican (Heb. kaath I. Amongst the unclean birds 
(Lev. xi. 18; Deut. xiv. 17). The best authori- 
ties are in favor of the pelican being the bird de- 
noted by kaath. 

Pen. [Writing.] 

Peni'el, the name Jacob gave to the place in whic 
he had wrestled with God. It lay somewhere be- 
tween the torrent Jabbok and Succoth. 

Penny, Pennyworth. In the A. V. of the N. T. 
"penny" occurs as the rendering of the Roman 
denarius (Matt. xx. 2, xxii. 19; Mark vi. 37, xii. 
15 ; Luke xx. 24; John vi. 7; Rev. vi. 6). The 
denarius was the chief Roman silver coin, and 
was "worth about 9d. 

Pen'tateueh, The, is the Greek name given to the 
"Five Books of Moses." The division of the 
whole work into five parts was probably made by 
the Greek translators ; for the titles of the sev- 
eral books are of Greek origin. The work, be- 
ginning with the record of creation, and the his- 
tory of the primitive world, passes on to deal 
more especially "with the early history of the Jew- 
ash family. 

Pen'tecost, that is, the fiftieth day, or Harvest 



Feast, or Feast of Weeks. It lasted only for 
one day. The people, having at the Passover 
presented before God the first sheaf of the 

tSirl, rude, p^ush; e, i, o, silent; f us;(bu sa; «, cb, as k; & as J, g aa in get; % m s; z «• S»» a as In linger, link; tn as in thine. 





:'S DAT 


harvest, departed to their homes to gather it in, 
and then returned to keep the harvest-feast before 


Jehovah. The pentecost was the J ewish harvest- 

Pe'or, "a mountain in Moab, from whence the 
prophet Balaam was conducted by Balak (Num. 
xxiii. 28 only). 

Pe'rez-iiz'zah (2 Sam. vi. 8). The title David con- 
ferred on the threshing-floor of Nachon, in coni- 
metaojration of the sudden death of Uzzah. 

Perfumes. The free use of perfumes was peculiar- 
ly grateful to the Orientals (Prov. xxvii. 9). Per- 
fumes entered la/gely into the Temple service, in 

Persep'olis (2 Mace. ix. 2), the capital of Persia 
Proper, and the occasional residence of the Per- 
sian Court, 

Per'sia, Persians. Persia Proper was a 
tract of no very large dimensions on the 
Persian Gulf. This tract was bounded on 
the west by Susiana or Elam, on the north 
by Media, on the south by the_ Persian 
Gulf, and on the east by Carmania. The 
history of Persia begins with their revolt 
from the Medes and accession of Cyrus 
the Great, b. c. 558. 

Pe'ter. jlis original name was Simon, i. e. 
"hearer." He was the son of Jonas 
(Matt. xvi. 17; John i, 43, xxi. 16), and 
was brought up a fisherman. He and his 
brother Andrew were partners of John 
and James, the sons of Zebedee. The 
Apostle did not live in a hut by the sea- 
side, but first at Bethsaida, and afterwards 
in a house at Capernaum, belonging to 
himself or his mother-in-law. He was probably I 

_ — 


a'rez (Perez, 1 Chr. xxvii. 3 ; Phares, Matt. i. 
3 ; Luke iii. 33 ; 1 Esd. v. 5), twin son, with 
Zarah or Zerah , of Judah and Tamar his daughter- 





the two forms of incense and ointment (Ex. xxx. 

■: 22-38). 

Per'ga, a city of Pamphylia 

(Acts xiii. 13), on the river 

Cestius, GO stadia from its 

mouth, and celebrated for 

the worship of Artemis 

Per'gamos, a city of Mysia, 

about five miles to the N. of 

the river Caicus. The sump- 

tuousness of the Attalic 

princes raised Pergamos to be first city in Asia 

as regards splendor. It became a city of temples, 

devoted to a sensuouSjWorship. 


Pgr'izzlia, The, and Per'izzites, one of the nations 
inhabiting the Land of Promise before and at the 
time of its conquest by Israel. 

in-law. The circumstances of his 
between thirty and forty years of age at the date | tailed Tit Gen. xxxviii. 

Pharisees, a religious party amongst the Jews at 
the time of Christ, so called from Perishing 
"separated." A cursory perusal of the Gospels 
is sufficient to show that Christ's teaching was 
in some respects thoroughly antagonistic to 
theirs. He denounced them in the bitterest 
language. (See Matt. xv. 7, 8, xxiii. 5, 13, 14, 
15, 23 ; Mark vii. 6 ; Luke xi. 42-44, and com- 
pare Matt. vii. 1-5. xi. 29, xii. 19, 20; Luke 
.vi. 28, 37-42.) 

Phar'par (2 K. v. 12). The two principal streams 
in the district of Damascus are the Barada and 
the Awaj; the former the Abana, and the latter 
> .the Pharpar. 
Pheni'oe (Acts xxvii 
12), more properly 
Phoenix, the name 
of a haven in Crete 
on, the south coast. 
Philadelphia, a town 
on the confines of 
Lydia, built by Atta- 
lus II., king of Per 
gamus. There was, 
as appears from Rev. 
iii. 9, a synagogue of 
Hellenizing Jews 
there, as well as a 
Christian Church. 
Phile'moh, the name of 
the Christian to whom 
Paul addressed his 
Epistle in behalf of 
Onesimus. He was a 
native, probably, of 
Colossae. It is re- 
lated that Philemon 
became bishop of Col- 
ossae, and died as a 
martyr under Nero. 
Philemon, The Epistle 
of Paul to, is one of 
the letters the Apostle 
wrote during his first 
captivity at Rome 
Nothing is wanted to 
confirm the genuine' 
'nesfof the epistle. 
modern conveyance in Persia. Phile'tus, possibly A disciple of Hymenaeus, with 

., v /. i, , ,„ •• \ o wu whom he is associated in I Iim. n. 17. 

away the wife of Abraham (Gen. xn.); 2. Who Ph n ip the Apostle was f Bethsaida, the city of 
elevated Joseph (Gen xh. 39); 3 Who oppressed A ^ ^ Peter (John j_ u) and J nt] 

i^ s ( wi, U ); \ . Who ./, elea . s t d ^tU?*; J; among the Galilaean peasants who flocked to hear 
14); 5. Who gave his wife s sister to Hadad (1 

K. ix. ); 6. Serechus, cotemporary with 
Ahaz (2 K. xvii. 4); 7. Tirhakah, in days 
of Hezekiah (2 K. xix, 9); 8. Necho, in 
the 14th year of whose reign David inter- 
preted the dream of the king of Babylon; 
9. Hophru, called Apries, who made a 
league with Hezekiah (Jer. xliii. 8-12; 
xliv. 1). This king died 570 b. c. He 
destroyed Jerusalem, and erected the gold- 
en iniage on the plain of Dura. 
Pharaoh^s Daughter. Three are mentioned. 
1. The preserver of Moses (Ex. ii. 5-10). 2. 
Bithiah, wife of Mered (1 Chr. iv. 18). 3. A 
wife of Solomon, probably daughter of a king 
of the xxist dynasty (1 K. iii. 1, vii. 8, ix. 24). 


of his call. According to the early writers, he 
suffered at or about the same time with Paul, 
and in the Neronian persecution. All agree 
that he was crucified. — The Apostle is said to 
have employed interpreters. 

Peter, First Epistle of. The external evidence 
of authenticity is of the strongest kind ; and 
the internal is equally strong. It was addressed 
to the Churches of Asia Minor, for the most 
part founded by Paul and his companions. 

Peter, Second Epistle of. The doubts as to the 
genuineness of this Epistle appear to have 
originated with the critics of Alexandria, where, 
however, the Epistle itself was formally recog- 

- meed at a very early period. 

Pe'thor, a town of Mesopotamia, where Balaam 
resided (Num. xxii. 5 ; Deut. xxiii. 4). Its 
position is unknown. 

Phal'ti, son of Laish of Gallim, to whom Saul 
gave Michal after he had driven David forth (1 
Sa.m. 'xxv. 44). 

PhanU'el. The father of Anna, the prophetess 
of the tribe of Aser (Luke ii. 36). 

Pha'raoh, the common title of the native kings 

of Egypt. We find mentioned 

: 1. He who tooli 



the Baptist. When the Twelve were specially set 
apart fortheir office, he was numbered amongthem. 
He is at Jerusalem afterthe Ascension fActsi. 13), 
and on day of Pentecost. After this all is uncertain-. 

5, e, i, 5, a, y, long; & e e, i, S, ft, f, abort; ofire, Jar, l&st, *»11, -vrk^t* tUtrt, veil, MSnm; pXqae, ffirm; d6ue. idr, dft, wpli, SOod, t<X*U 





'Philip the EvanfcilQ(t:$Acts vi.). One of the Seven 
appointed to superintend the daily distribution of 
food and alma. It is noticeable that the city of 


Samaria is the first scene of his activity (Acts 

Phillp'pi, a city of Macedonia, about nine miles 
from the sea, to the N. W. of the island of 
Thasos. In Acts xvi. 11, 12, the Philippi which 
St. Paul visited was a Bornan city. 
PhHip'pians, Epistle tp the, was written by St. 
Paul from 
Rome in A. 
n. 62 or 63. 
St. Paul's 
conne cti o n 
with Philippi 
l£was of a pe- 
culiar char- 
-acter. St. 
,;Paul entered 
-its walls, a. 
D. 52 (Acts 
xvi. 12. There 
i he founded 
^ a Christian 
- "Church. Phil 
ippi was en- 
deared to St. 
modern Persian bride. Paul by the 
hospitality of Lydia, the deep sympathy 
of the converts, and the remarkable 
miracle which set a seal on his preach- 
ing- | q o tr 
Philis'tia. The wojd thus translated is identical 

with that elsewhere rendered Palestine. 
Philis'tlnes. The origin of the Philistines is no- 
where expressly stated ; but as the prophets de- 
scribe them as "the Philistines from Caphtor," it 
is prima facie probable that they were the "Caph- 
torims which came out of Caphtor" who expelled 
the Avim from their territory and occupied it 

Phln'ehas. 1. Son of Eleazar and grandson of 
Aaron (Ex. vi. 25). He is memorable for having 
while a youth, by his zeal and energy, appeased 
the divine wrath (Num. 
~-~^_^_ xxv. 7). For this he 

7 -_-._ was rewarded by Jeho- 

~~S&- vah (10-13). After 

jg--- Eleazar' s death he be- 

igj,^ came high-priest — the - '"^ 
l^fi jjlBja third of the series. The slH 
tomb of Phinehas is "--== 
"-:"j=fS- shown at Awertah, four gSH 
miles S. E. of Nablus. 
2. Second son of Eli 
(1 Sam. i. 3, ii. 34, iv. 
4, 11 17, 19, xiv. 3). 
Phinehas was killed 
with his brother by the 
Philistines when the ark 
was captured. [Eli.] 
Phle'gon. A Christian 
at Rome whom St. 
Paul salutes (Rom. xvi. 

Phoe'be. What is said of her 
(Rom. xvi. 1, 2) bears on the 
question of the deaconesses of 
the Apostolic Church. 
Phoeni'ce, Phoenio'ia, a tract of country, of which 
Tyre and Sidon were the principal cities, to the 
north of Palestine, along the coast of the Medi- 
terranean Sea. The length of coast to which the 
name of Phoenicia was applied varied at different 
Phryg'ia. By Phrygia we must understand an ex- 

tion says he was finally banished to Gaul and 
commuted suicide. 
Pillar/ ' Perhaps the earliest application of the 


(Deut. ii. 23) ; and the descendants of Mizraim 
(Gen. x. 14). 
PhjQol'ogus, a Christian at Rome to whom St. Paul 
sends his salutation (Rom. xvi. 15). 


tensive district in Asia Minor, which contributed 
portions to several Roman provinces, and varying 
portionsTat different times. 
Phu'rah. Gideon's servant (1 Sam. xiv. 1) who 
accompanied him in his midnight visit to the 
camp of the Midianites (Judg. vii. 10, 11). 
Phut, Put, the third name in the list of the sons of 
Ham (Gen. x. 6 ; 1 Chr. i. 8), elsewhere applied 
to an African country or people. 
Phygel'lus. [Hermogenes.] 
Phylactery. Armlets worn on the left arm 
and forehead. [Frontlets. ] 
Picture. In two of the three passages in which 
"picture" is used in the A. V. it denotes 
idolatrous representations. 
Piece of Gold (2 K. v. 5). The rendering 
"piece of gold" is doubtful; and "shekels 
x>f gold" is preferable. 

Pieee of Silver. In the N. T. two words are 
thus rendered. 1. Drachma (Luke xv. 8, 9), 
a Greek silver coin, equivalent, at the time of 
St. Luke, to the Roman denarius. 2. Silver 
only occurs in the account of the betrayal of 
our Lord (Matt. xxvi. 15, xxvii. 3, 5, 6, 9). 
=> It is more probable that the thirty pieces of 
^silver' Were tetradrachms than denarii. 
Pigeon. [Turtle-Dove.] 
Pilate, Pon'tius. The sixth Roman procu- 
rator of Judaea, and under him our Lord 
worked, suffered, and died. He was ap- 
pointed a. d. 25-6, in the 12th year of Tiberius. 
His arbitrary administration nearly drove the Jews 
to insurrection on two or three occasions. Tradi- 


pillar was the votive or monumental. This con- 
sisted ofnothingbutasingle stone, or pile of stones. 
Pillar, Plain of the, or rather "oak of the pillar." 
A tree near Shechem, at which the men of' Shec- 
hem and the house of Millo assembled to crown 
Abimelech son of Gideon (Judg. ix. 6). 
Pilled (Gen. xxx. 37, 38). Peeled (Is. xviii. 2 ; 
Ez. xxix. 18). The verb "to pill" appears in 
old Erig. as identical in meaning with "to peel." 
Pine-tree. 1. Heb. Tidhar (Is. xli. 19, lx. 13). 
The rendering "pine" seems least probable. 2. 
SJwmen (Neh. 
viii. 15) is 
probacy the 
wild olive. 
Pinnacle of the 
Temple (Matt. 
iv. 5; Luke iv. 
9). Perhaps 
the word 
means the bat- 
tlement order- 
ed by law to 
be added to 
every roof. 
Pipe" (Heb. elia- 
HI). The He- 
brew is de- 

root signifying "to bore, perforate," and 
is represented by the English "pipe" 
or "flute." It is one of the simplest 
and oldest of musical instruments. It 
is associated with the tabret. 
(Num. xxi. 20, xxiii. 14; Deut. iii. 27, 
1), a mountain range, or district, called 


also Abarim. It lay on the east of Jordan, and 

opposite Jericho. Its highest point was Mount 
Pisid'ia, a district in Asia Minor, partly included 



in Phrygia. St. Paul passed through Pisidia 
twice, with Barnabas, in going from Perga to 

Cfirl, rpde, p^sh; e. i, o. silent; (uijtbMlbjt, «h, as k; & as j, g &a m get; s as s; j as gx; u as In lieger, UqK; tt» as in thine. 

- - 




well understood by those who have been in Egypt. 

9. The Plague of Darkness, illustrated by the 
Samoom and the hot wind of the Khamaseen. 

10. The Death of the Firstborn. The severity, its 

falling upon man and beast, puts this 

plague wholly beyond comparison with 

"* 'fvjirest. 
evades (Job ix. 9, xxxviii. 31, and Am. 
v. 8). In the last passage our A. V. has 
"'the seven stars ;" the Geneva version 
has "Pleiades." 
Plough. [Agriculture.] 
Poetry, Hebrew. The literature of the 
Hebrews abounds with illustrations of 
all forms of lyrical poetry. One char- 
acteristic of Hebrew poetry is its intense- 
ly national and local coloring. 
Pol'lux. [Castor axd Pollux.] 
Polygamy. [Marriage.] 
Pomegran'ate. The pomegranate was 
early cultivated iu Egypt (Num. xx. 5). 
The pomegranate-tree derives its name 
from the Latin pomum granatum, 
"grained apple." 
Pommels, only in 2 Chr. iv. 12, 13. In 1 K. vii. 
41, "bowels." The word signifies convex projec- 
tions belonging to the capitals of pillars. 
Pond. The ponds of Egypt (Ex. vii. 19, viii. 5) 
were doubtless water left by the inundation of the 
POntus, a large district in the north of Asia Minor. 


Iconium (Acts xiii. 13, 14, 51), and in returning 

Cxi*:. 2\; 2 Tim. iii. 11). 
Pi'soii. [Edew] 
^tca. The Hebrew represents mineral pitch or 

I' wife by Pharaoh (Gen. xli. 45, 50, xlvi. 20). 

Potsherd, also in A. V. "sherd," a broken piece 

'of earthenware (Prov. xxvi. 23). 
I Potter's Field, The- A piece of ground (St 

P 1 


asphalt, in its different aspects. Asphalt is an 
opaque, inflammable substance, which bubbles 
up from subterranean fountains in a liquid state, 
and hardens by exposure, but readily melts under 
heat. In the latter state it is very tenacious, and 
was used in lieu of mortar in Babylonia (Gen. 
xi. 3). 

Pitcher, to denote the water-jars or pitchers with 
one or two handles, used chiefly by women 
for carrying water (Gen. xxiv. 15-20; but 
see Mark xiv. 13 ; Luke xxii. 10). The Be- 
douin women commonly use skin bottles. 
r) (. J 4 ft 


Such was the "bottle" carried by Hagar 
(Gen. xxi. 14). 

Pi'thom, one of the store -cities built by the 
Israelites for Pharaoh "which knew not 
Joseph" (Ex. i. 11). 

Plagues, The Ten. The occasion on which the 
plagues were sent is described in Ex. iii.-xii. 1. 
The Plague of Blood. This plague was humili- 
ating, as the Nile was held sacred. 2. The Plague 
of Frogs. Frogs were included among the sacred 
animals. 3. The Plague of Lice. The Egyptians 
by this incurred religious defilement. 4. The 
Plague of Flies. These were an object of wor- 
ship. 5. The Plague of the Murrain of Beasts. 

505 7bS 


Matthew xxvii. 7) purchased by the priests with 
the thirty pieces of silver rejected by Judas, and 
converted into a burial-place for Jews not belong- 
ing to the city. 
Pottery. It is evident that the Hebrews used 
earthenware vessels in the wilderness, and that 
the potter's trade was afterwards carried on in 
Palestine. The clay was trodden by men's 
feet to a paste (Is. xli. 25 ; Wisd. xv. 7); then 
placed on the wheel and shaped by hands. 
The vessel was then coated with a glaze, and 


It is three times mentioned in the N. T. (Acts ii. 
9, 10, xviii. 2; 1 Pet, i. 1). 
Pool. Pools are in parts of Palestine and Syria 
the only resource for water during the dry season 
(Is. xlii. 15). The most celebrated are the pools 
of Solomon near Bethlehem. (Eccl. ii. 6 ; 
Ecclus. xxiv. 30, 31). 

Poor. The general kindly spirit of the law to- 
wards the poor is sufficiently shown by such pas- 
sages as Deut. xv. 7. Principles similar are 
inculcated in the New Testament, as Luke iii. 
11, xiv. 13; Acts vi. 1; Gal. ii. 10; James 


burnt, fil 1 a furnace. 
Pounor vi. A weight. 2. A money mentioned 
in Luke xix. 12-27. The reference appears 
to be to a Greek pound, of which sixty went 
to the. talent. 
Praeto'Hum. The headquarters of the Roman 
*ftii|itii|y ^governor, wherever he happened to be. 
Prayer. It was the custom at Jerusalem to, go to 
the Temple at regular hours for private prayer 
(see Luke xviii. 10; Acts iii. 1). The hours of 
prayer were "the evening," the "morning," and 
"noonday." Grace before meat seems a com- 


The cattle were their deities. 6. The Plague of 
Boils. The black leprosy, a kind of elephaniasis. 

7. The Plague of Hail The ruin caused by the 
hail was greater than that of the earlier plagues. 

8. The Plague of Locusts. The severity of this is 

oplarlGen. xxx. 37; Hos. iv. 13). Several 
authorities are in favor of the "white poplar ;" 
WJ3tttr4 understand the "storax tree." 

Por'cu pL Chr. xxviii. 11 ; Judg. iii. 23), strictly 
a vestibule ; was probably a sort of veranda 
chamber in the works of Solomon. The porch 
(Matt. xxvi. 71) may have been the passage 
front tha street into the first court of the house. 

Porter. This word denotes in every ease agate- 
"keeper, 'from the Latin portarius. 

.Possession. [Demoniacs.] 

Post. Probably the door-case of a door, in- 

.IlljfUlui'si the lintel and side-posts. 

Potr The term "pot" is applicable to many 
sorts of vessels. 1. (2 K. iv. 2). An earthen 
jar, deep and narrow, without handles. 2. An 
earthen vessel for stewing or seething (Ez. iv. 
9; Lev. vi. 28). 3. A vessel for culinary pur- 

?^o|ee(l Sam. ii. 14). 
oripriar. Potiphar is described as "an officer 
of Pharaoh, chief of the executioners, an Egyp- 
tian"' (Gen. xxxix. 1; coinp. xxxvii. 36). 
Potiph'erah. Priest or prince of On, whose 
daughter Asenath was given Jose ph to 


mon practice (see Matt. xv. 36 ; Acts xxvii. 35). 
The posture seems most often standing, unless the 
prayer were offered with special solemnity and hu. 
miliation, which was by kneeling or prostration. 

5, 6, I, S, fi, y, long; &, e, I, 6, tt, f, short; cire, far, last, 1*11, what; tbere, veil, ttrm; pique, rfrm; 46u«, *6r, d<j, w»U, Mbd, itibtt 



ifreseiits. lOwsr!.] 

Priest. TL^ "Ejighsfc word is derived 
Greek JVesftyfer, signifying an "elder." 

from the 
No trace 

roVet 3 ' 

— — 






of an hereditary of caste-priesthood meets us in 
the patriarchal age. The Priesthood was first 
established in the family of Aaron, and all the 
sons of Aaron were priests. The cere- 
mony of consecration is described in Ex. 
xxix., Lev. viii. The N. T. writers re- 
cognize in Christ the representative of the 
true primeval priesthood after the order 
of Melchizedek (Heb. vii., viii.). Th 
old classification of the high-priest, 
priests, and Levites, was reproduced in 
the bishops, priests and deacons of the 
Christian Church. 
Pris'oa (2 Tim. iv. 19) or Priscil'la. 

[Aquila] u « q/ v 
Prison. We read/on two occasions of con- 
finement "in ward" (Lev. xxiv. 12; Num. 
XV. 34). In the time of the kings, the 
prison appears as an appendage to the 
palace (1 K. xxii. 271. 
Proph'orus, one (j|J jn|^%Wen deacons, 
third on the list, and named next after 
Stephen and Philip (Acts vu 5). 

Procon'sul. The 
Greek for this 
is rendered 
"deputy" in 
Acts xiii. 7, 8, 
12, xix. 38 ; an 
officer who ex- 
ercised purely 
civil functions. 
Procur a'tor , 
applied in the 
N. T. to the 
officer who pre 
sided over the 
PAUI - imperial prov- 

ince of Judaea. It is used of Pontius Pilate 
Matt, xxvii.), of Felix (Acts xxiii., xxiv.), and 
of Festus (Actsxxvi. 30). The headquarters of 
the procurator were at.Caesarea ,.(Acts xxiii. 23 

Prophet. The word means one who announces or 
pours forth the declarations of God. Of the six- 
teen Prophets, four are the Great Prophets, namely, 
Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, and Daniel ; 
and twelve the Minor Prophets, namely, 
Hosea, Joel, Amos, Obadiuh, Jonah, 
Micah, Nahum, Habakkuk, Zephaniah, 
Haggai, Zechariah, Malachi. The proph- 
ets of the N. T. were supernaturally- 
illuminated expounders and preachers. 
Pros'elytes The Hebrew word thus trans- 
lated is in the A. V. commonly rendered 
"stranger" (Gen. xv. 13; Ex. ii. 22; Is. 
v. 17, &c). In the N. T. the A. V. has 
taken the word in a more restricted mean- 
ing, and translated it accordingly (Matt. 
xxiii. J^gv Acts ii. 10, vi. 5). 
Proverbs, Book of. The superscriptions 
affixed to portions of the Book, in i. 1, x. 
1, xxv. 1, attribute the authorship of those 
ortions to Solomon. With the exception 
of the last two chapters, it is probable the 
statement is in the main correct. The 
Proverbs are frequently quoted or alluded 
to in the New Testament, and the canon- 
icity of the hook thereby confirmed. 
Psalms; Book of. The present Hebrew 
name is Tehillim, "Praises." But in the 
actual superscriptions of the psalms the 
word Tehilldh is applied only to one, Ps. 
cxlv., which is indeed emphatically a 
praise-hymn. TheLXX. entitled them "Psalms." 
The Christian Church obviously received the 
Psalter from the Jews, as the liturgical hymn-book 

portitores were encouraged in the most vexatious 

Wrf^flidblent exactions. 

Pub'Kus, the chief man— probably the governor - 

r» i 4 77^ 445 


of Melita, who received and lodged St. Paul and 

his companions (Acts xxviii. 7). 
Pu'dens, a Christian friend of Timothy at Rome 

(2 Tim. iv. 21). According to legend he was the 

host of St. Peter and friend of St. Paul, and was 
: martyred under Nero. 
Fur,_a country or nation mentioned in Is. lxvi. 19. 

It is supposed by 

some to represent 

the island Philae 
>i» Egypt. 
Pul, an Assyrian 

king, and the first 

of those monarchs 

m entioned in 

TPufse fDati. i. 12, 
16). Literally 
"seeds" of any 
kind. Probably 
the term denotes 
uncooked grain of 
any kind, whether 
barley, wheat, 
millet, vetches, 

f$\ 49 

Punishments. The 
earliest theory 
of punishment is 
doubtless the one 
.of simple retalia- 
tion, "blood for blood." The Jews punished by 
retaliation, fines, scourging, imprisonment, and 
death. The most cruel punishments were at 
times resorted to by tyrants. 
Purification. The essence of purification consisted 
in the use of water, whether by ablution or asper- 
sion ; but in the majora delicta of legal nnclean- 
ness, sacrifices of various kinds were added. 



■where he had a judgment-seat (Acts xxv. 6) in 
the audience chamber (Acts xx". 23), and was 
assisted by a council (Acts xxv. 12). 


which the Jewish Church had used in the Tem- 
Hjfe book contains 150 Psalms. 
;ery;"a stringed instrument to accompany the 

voice. The psaltery or sautry, the viol, and the 

lute, are frequently associated in the old English 

poets, and were clearly instruments resembling 

each other, though still different. The Greek 

Psalterium denotes an instrument played with the 

Ptolemae'us. A race of Egyptian kings beginning 

with Ptolemaeus I., Soter, B. 

C. 323, and ending, as far as 

information goes, with Ptole- 
maeus VI., Philometer, B. C. 

P'totema'iE. [Accho.] 
Pa'ah. I- Judge of Israel 

after Abimelech (Judg. x. 1). 

2. One of two midwives to 

whom Pharaoh gave instruc- 
tions to kill the Hebrew 
male children (Ex. i. 15). 
Publican. The class desig- 
nated by this word in the 
N. T. were employed as 
collectors of the Roman 
revenue. The Roman 
senate farmed the vecti- 
galia (direct taxes) and 
the portoria (customs) to 
capitalists ( publieani ). 
They appointed man- 
agers, under whom were 

the portitores, the actual custom-house officers. fpurim (Lots), the annual festival to commemorate 

The name publieani was used popularly, and in the preservation of the Jews in Persia from the 

the N. T. exclusively, of the portitores. The I massacre threatened through Haman (Esth. ix.). 


ffcrl, rgde, p^sh; e, i, o, silent; jase; fhsisn;*, cb, as k ; g as }, g oa la get; §ass; j ssgz; Qaain ^USSEl 1 *?^ > *** M ^ * hine i 




The festival lasted two days, and was regularly i 
observed on the 14th and 15th of Adar. 
Parse. The Hebrews on a journey had a bag for 
their money ( Gen. xlii. 35 ; Prov. i. 14 ; vii. 20 ; { 


Is. xlvi. 6), and, if merchants, also weights (Deut. 

xxv. 13; Mic. vi. 11). The girdle also served 

as a purse (Matt. x. 9; Mark vi. 8). Ladies 

wore -ornamental purses (Is. iii. 23). 
*ttt'(l Chr. i. 8; Nah. iii. 9). [Phut.] 
Pute'oli, the great landing-place of travelers to 

Italy from the Lavant, and the harbor to which 

the Alexandrian corn-ships brought their cargoes 

Acts xxvii. 13). 
Pu'tiel. One of the daughters of Putiel was wife 

of Eleazar the son of Aaron, and mother of 

Phinehas (Ex. vi. 25). 


Fygarg (Deut. xiv. 5), the name, apparently, of 
some species of antelope. 


Quails. There can be no doubt that the Hebrew 
(Ex. xvi. 13; Num. xi. 31, 32; 105th Ps.) de- 
notes the common quail. These birds are known 
to arrive at places sometimes so completely ex- 
hausted by their flight as to be readily taken by 
the hand. They "spread the quails round about 
the camp" for the purpose of drying them. The 
Egyptians similarly prepared these birds. The 
expression "quails from the sea" (Num. xi. 31) 


to arrive. Many observers have recorded that 

the quail migrates by night. 
Quar'tus, a Christian of Corinth (Rom. xvi. 23), 

said to have been one of the Seventy disciples, 
and afterwards bishop of Berytus. 
Quaternion, a military term, signifying a guard 
of four soldiers, two of whom were at- 
tached to the person of a prisoner, 
while the other two kept watch outside 
the door of his cell (Acts xii. 4). 
Queen. This title is properly applied 
to the queen-mother, since in an Ori- 
ental household, it is not the wife but 
the mother of the master who exer- 
cises the highest authority. Such ar- 
rangement is one of the inevitable re- 
sults of polygamy. The extent of the 
influence of the queen- mother is well 
illustrated by the narrative of the in 
terview of Solomon and Bathsheba. 
Queen of Heaven (Jer. vii. 18, xliv. 17, 
18, 19, 25) is the moon, worshipped as Ashta- 
roth or Astarte, to whom the Hebrew women 

offered cakes in the streets of Jerusalem. 
Quicksands, The, more properly the Syrtis (Acts 

xxvii. 17), the broad and deep bight on the North 

African coast between Carthage and Oyrene. 

This region was an object of peculiar dread to 

the ancient navigators of the Mediterranean. 
Quiver. Two Hebrew terms, (1) Theli (Gen. xxvii. 

3). It may signify a quiver or a suspended 

' r O 7 

Nerigwssafc The signification is somewhat 

Kab'saiis. 1. An officer of the king of Assyria 
(2 K. xviii. 17). 2. One of the princes of Nebu- 
chadnezzar (Jer. xxxix. 3, 13). Rabsaris is 
probably the name of an office, the word signify- 



weapon. (2) Ashpah. It is connected with ar- 
rows only in Lam. iii. 13. Its other occurrences 
are Job. xxxix. 23, Is. xxii. 6, and Jer. v. 16. 

the LXX. 


In each 

and Ps. 

of these 
with two 
cxxvii. 5. 

translate it 
Job xxxix. 





must be taken to show the direction from which 
they were coming. The quails were, at the time 
of the event narrated, on their spring journey 
northwards. "It was at even" that they began 

r> 7 

El/amah, son of Cush, and father of 
Sheba and Dedan (Gen. x. 7). The 
tribe of Raamah became renowned as 
traders (Ez. xxvii. 22). 
They settled on the Per- 
sian Gulf. 
Eab'bath of the Children of 
Amnion, and K. of the 
Ammonites. This is the 
full appellation of the 
place commonly given as 
Kabbah. It occurs only 
in Deut. iii. 11, and Ez. 
xxi. 20. 
Eab'bi, a title of respect, 
signifying Master, Teach- 
er, given by the Jews to 
their doctors and teach- 
ers, and often addressed 
to our Lord. Another 
form of the title was 
Rabboni (Mark x. 51 ; 

. 16). 

John -ex. 16. TRabbi.1 
{jer. xxxix. a, ioj, a tiifl borne 
Nergal sharezer, probably identical with 


ing chief eunuch. 

Eab'shakeh (2 K. xviii., xix.; Is. xxxvi., xxxvii.), 
one of the officers of the king of Assyria sent 
against Jerusalem in the reign of Hezekiah. 
Itaca, a term of re- 
proach used by the 
Jews of our Saviour's 
age (Matt. v. 22), de- 
rived from the Chal- 
dee reka, "worthless." 

Ea'ohab. Rahab the 
harlot (Matt, i. 6). 

Ea'chel, the younger of 
the daughters of La- 
ban, the wife of Jacob, 
and mother of Joseph 
and Benjamin. The 
incidents of her life 
may be found in Gen. 
xxix.-xxxiii., xxxv. 
"Rachel died and was buried in the way to Beth- 
lehem." The site of Rachel's tomb has never 
been questioned. It is about two miles S. of 
Jerusalem, and one mile N. of Bethlehem. 

Eaguel, or Eeu'el. 1. Probably the same a 
Jethro. 2. A pious Jew of "Ecbatane, a city o 
Media," father of Sara, the wife of Tobias (Tob. 
iii. 7, 17, &c). 

Ealiab, or Ea'chab, a celebrated woman of Jeri- 
cho, who received the spies sent by Joshua, hid 
them in her house, was 
saved with all her fam- 
ily, and became the 
wife of Salmon and 
the ancestress of the, 
Messiah (Josh. ii. 1-f 
Matt. i. 5). She was 
a "harlot," and prob- 
ably combined the 
trade of lodging-keep • 
er for wayfaring men. 

Ea'haD, a poetical name 
of Egypt (Ps. lxxxix. 
10; Is. Ii. 9), signifying "fierceness, insolence, 

Ea'hel, the more accurate form of Rachel (Jer. 
xxxi. 15). D^*- 


Eain. In the Bible Early Rain signifies the rains 
of the autumn (Deut. xi. 14 ; Jer. v. 24); and 
Latter Rain, the rain of spring (Prov. xvi. 16; 
Job xxix. 23 ; Jer. iii. 3). 

S, e, I, 5, C, y, long; &,£,!, S, ft, f, short; o&re, iSr, Urt, HU, ***« i «***e, v£U, tbrm; yt«a«, tfrm; dW, tbr, d«, w»U, Mbd, fcTott 

.—?-■- 7— -r 

WULMJ<*I*< *JJ_*iy LP-*J# 

— — 


Rainbow (Gen ii, : i$$ God took the rainbow, 
hiinerto but a beautiful object in the heavens 
when the_ sun's rays fell on falling rain, and con- 
secrated it as the sign of His love and the witness 
of His promise (Ecclus. xliii. 11). 


Raisins. [Vine.] 

Ram, Battering (Ez. iv. 2, xxi. 22). The batter- 
ing-rams in use among the Assyrians and Baby- 

lonians "were of several kinds, 
joined to movable towers which 
held warriors and armed men. 
Others were without wheels." 
Ra'ma, Matt. &. -18) Preferring to 
Jer. xxxi. 15. The original pas- 
sage alludes to a massacre. This 
the Evangelist turned into a touch- 

ing reference to the slaughter of 



Ri'motn-giMad, the " heights of Gilead," one of 
the great fastnesses on the east of Jordan. It 
seems identical with Ramath-Mizpeh (Josh. xiii. 
26), It was the city of refuge for the tribe of 
Gad (Deut. iv. 43 ; Josh. xx. 8, xxi. 38). Was 
15 miles from Philadelphia. 

Ra'phael (Tob. xii. 15). According to another 
Jewish tradition, Raphael was one of the four 
angels which stood round the throne of God 
(Michael, Uriel, Gabriel, Raphael). 

Re'chab ( 



Raven, "to be black." This bird was not allowed 
as food (Lev. xi. 15). Ravens were the means 
of supporting the prophet Elijah (1 K. xvii. 4, 
6). They are mentioned as instances of God's 
protecting love and goodness (Job. xxxviii. 41, 
Luke xii. 21, Ps. cxlvii. 9). 

Razor. The practice of shaving the head after a 

D <> . ) 7H / 4 o 

<'6tfafr (rider). 1. One of the two "captains of 
bands," whom Ishbosheth took into his service, 
and who conspired to murder him (2 Sam. iv. 2). 
2. The father or ancestor of Jehonadab (2 K. x. 
15, 23; I Chr. ii. 55; Jer. xxxv. 6-19). From 
this Rechab the tribe derived their name. 



the Innocents at Bethlehem, near 
to the sepulchre of Rachel. 

Ra'mah, "a hil.I"- The home of 
Elkanah, Samuel's father (I Sam. 
i. 19, ii. U), the birthplace of 
Samuel himself, his home and s_. -' 

official residence, the site of his v --— S. 

altar (vii. 17, viii. 4, xv. 34, xvi. 
13, xix. 18), andfinally his burial- 
place (xxv. 1, xxviii. 3). It was 
in Mount Ephraim CI Sam. i. 1), and in the 
neighborhood pf jSbechem. 

Ra'math-le'hi, the name- bestowed by Samson on 
the scene of his slaughter of the thousand Philis- 
tines with the ja^bove^Judg. xv. 17). 

Ra'math-miz'peh f Ramoth-Gilead.] 

Rame'ses, or Raam'ses, a city and district of Lower 
Egypt, first mentioned in Gen. xlvii. 11. This 
land of Rameses either corresponds to the land 

- : 'I „-——-£ 


vow-must have created a necessity for a barber 
(Num. vi. 9. 18, viii. 7; Judg. xiii. 5; Acts 
xviii. 18). The instruments were probably the 
razor, the basin, the mirror, and scissors (see 2 
Sam. xiv. 26). Like the Levites, the Egyptian 
priests were accustomed to shave their whole 

Re'ba, one of the five kings of the Midianites slain 
by the children of Israel (Num. xxxi. 8 ; Josh, 
xiii. 21). 

2.ebec T ca. The Greek form of the name Rebekah 
(Rom. ix. 10 only). 


of G'oshen, or was a district of it. In the narra- 
tive of the Exodus it is the starting-point of the 
journey (Ex. xii. 37; see also Num. xxxiii. 3, 5). 


Rebek'ahrdaughter of Bathuel (Gen. xxii. 23) and 
sister of Laban, married to Isaac, her father's 
cousin. She is first presented in Gen. xxiv. 
For nineteen years she was childless ; then Esau 
and Jacob were born. When Isaac was driven 
by a famine into the country of the Philistines, 
Rebekah' s beauty became a source of danger to 
her husband. It has been conjectured that she 
died during Jacob's sojourn in Padan-aram 


Recorder, an officer of high rank in the Jewish 
state. In David's court the recorder appears 
among high officers (2 Sam. viii. 16, xx. 24; 1 
Chr. xviii. 15). In Solomon's, he is coupled with 
the three secretaries, and probably is their presi- 
dent (1 K. iv. 3 ; comp. 2 K. 
xviii. 18, 37; 2 Chr. xxxiv. 8). 
g|& Red Sea. By the Israelites called 

"the sea." In extreme length the 
Red Sea stretches from the straits 
of Bab el-Mendeb to the modern 
head of the Gulf of Suez. Its 
greatest width may be stated rough- 
ly at about 200 geographical miles. 
The passage of the Red Sea was 
the crisis of the Exodus. The 
importance of this event is shown 
by the manner in which spoken 
of in the 0. T. written in later 
times. It is the chief fact of Jew- 

eed. Under this name may be 
noticed : 1 . Agmon occurs Job 
xl. 26. An Egyptian plant ; some 
aquatic reed like plant. 2. Gome, 
"rush" and "bulrush," denotes 
the celebrated paper-reed of the 
ancients. The papyrus plant has 
an angular stem from 3 to 6 feet 
high, though occasionally it grows 
to the height of 14 feet ; it has no 
leaves. 3. 'Aroth, "paper-reed" 
in Is. xix. 7; but there is not the 
slightest authority for this. 4. 
Kaneh, the generic name of a reed of any kind ; 
perhaps the measuring-reed was this plant. 
Refiner. The refiner's art was essential to the 
working of the precious metals. The instruments 
required by the 
refiner were a 
crucible or fur- 
nace, and a bel- 
lows or blow- 
pipe. The work- 
man sat at his 
work (Mai. iii. 

3) - 
Rehobo'arii, son of 

Solomon, by the 
Ammonite prin- 
cess Naamah (1 
K. xiv. 21, 31), 
and his successor 
(1 K. xi. 43). 
Rejecting the 
advice of the 
elders to concili- 
ate the people 
at the beginning 
of his reign, he 
caused the for- 
midable song of 
insurrection t o 
be heard among Jewish high-priest. 

the Ten tribes. He died B. c. 958, after a reign 
of 17 years, having ascended the throne B. c. 975 1 
at the age of 41 (1 K. xiv. 21; 2 Chr. xii. 13j. 

«fi.rl, rrfde.prush; t, i, o, silent; 9 aa s; fh as sb; «, «b, as k; & as } t g aa in get; s as 1; 1 as gx; q as la linger, list; <3x as in tfilne. 


— — " - " — 

RehO'both 1. The third of the series of wells 

dug by Isaac (Gen. xxvi. 22). 2. One of the four 
3Jties built by Asshur. 3. The. city of one of the 



early kings of the Edomites (Gen. xxxvi. 
, 37fl Chr. i. 48). 

Reins, i. e. kidneys, from the Latin renes. In 
the ancient system of physiology the kidneys fgg 
were believed to be the seat of longing. 

R^m'phan (Acts vii. 43) and Chiun (Am. v. mm 
26), supposed to be names of an idol wor- |f|| 
shipped by the Israelites in the wilderness. -11J 
The opinion seems to be that Chiun was a ^ 
Hebrew or Semitic name, and Remphan an 
Egyptian equivalent substituted by the LXX. 

Reph'aim, The Valley of, ''the valley of the 
giants." The scene of some of David's ^R 
most remarkable adventures. He twice en- 
countered the Philistines there. It was near 

RepVidim (Ex. xrii. 1, 8: xix. 2). "Rests" — 
or "stays;"' the place lies in the march of 
tin Israelites from Egypt to Sinai. 

Reuben {Behold a son). Jacob's first-born child 
(Gen. xxix. 32), the son of Leah. To him alone 
the preservation of Joseph's life appears due. 

tion is givon by the great majority of critics as A. 
d. 95-97. Eusebius records that, in the persecu- 
tion under Domitian, John the Apostle and Evan- 
gelist was banished to the island Fatmos. 
Modern interpreters are generally placed in 
three great divisions, a. The Historical or 
Continuous expositors, in whose opinion the 
Revelation is a progressive history. 6. The 
Praeterist expositors, who are of opinion that 
the Revelation has been almost, or altogether, 
fulfilled, e. The Futurist expositors, who be- 
lieve that the whole book, excepting perhaps 
the first three chapters, refers to events yet to 
uf^f^ ■• eoine. 

Re'zin, king of Damascus. He attacked Jotham 
(2 K. xv. 37); but his chief war was with Ahaz, 
whose territories he invaded with Pekah (about 
b. c. 741). He was attacked, defeated, and 
slain by Tiglath-Pileser II., king of Assyria. 

Re'zon, son of Eliada, a Syrian, who at the head 
of a band of freebooters set up a petty king- 
dom at Damascus (1 K. xi, 23). 

Rke'gium, an Italian town on the Bruttian coast, 
occurs in the account of St. Paul's voyage to 
Puteoli, after the shipwreck (Acts xxviii. 13). 
The figures on its coins are the very "twin 


Of the repulsive crime which mars his history, 
and which turned the blessing of his dying father 
into a curse, we know from the Scriptures only 
, the fact ^Gen. xxxv. 22). At the time of the mi- 
gration into Egvpt, Reuben's sons were four 
(Gen. xlvi. 9; "l Chr. v. 3). # The census at 
Mount Sinai (Num. i. 20, 21, ii. 11) shows the 
numbers of the tribe were 46,500 men fit for war- 
like service. 

Reu'el. 1- One of the sons of Esau, by his wife 
Bashemath, sister of Ishmael (Gen. xxxvi. 4, 10, 
13, 17; 1 Chr. i. 35,37). 2. One of the names 
of Moses' father-in-law (Ex. ii. 13). 

Reu'mali; the concubine of Nahor, Abraham's 
brother ',( Gen. xxii. 24). 

Revelation of St. John, the last book of the N. T. 
It is often called the Apocalypse, which is its title 
in Greek, signifying "Revelation." The evi- 
dence adduced in support of his being the author 
consists of (I) the assertions of the author, and 
(2) historical tradition. The date of the Revela- 

brothers" which gave the name to St. Paul's 

Rho'da, the maid who announced Fetor's arrival at 
the door of Mary's house after his miraculous re- 
lease (Acts xii. 13). 

Rhodes. St. Paul touched at this island on his re- 
turn from the third missionary journey (Acts xxi. 
1). Rhodes is at the S. W. extremity of Asia 
Minor. Its position has had much to do with its 

Rib'lah. Riblah in the land of Hamath, a iila.ce 
between Palestine and Babylonia. Here Nebu- 
chadnezzar waited (Jer. xxxix. 5, 6, lii. 9, 10, 
26,27; 2 K. xxv. 6, 20, 21). Pharaoh Necho 
returned to Riblah and summoned Jehoahaz from 
Jerusalem before him (2 K. xxiii. 33). This 

/Jtiblah Still retains its ancient name. 

Riddle. "To bend off,'' "to twist'' (Judg. xiv. 
12-19), artifice (Dan. viii. 23), a proverb (Prov. 


i. 6), a song (Ps. xlix. 4. lxxviii. 2), an oracle 
(Num. xii. 8), a parable (Ez. xvii. 2), and any 


wise or intricate sentence (Ps. xciv. 4 ; Hab. iL 
6, &c. ). The riddles the queen of Sheba came to 
Solomon (1 K. x. 1; 2 Chr. ix. 1) wera 


"hard questions." Solomon is said to have been 
fond of riddles. 

Riin'mon (pomegranate) the name of several towns, 

. probably so called from producing pomegranates. 

Riin'mon, a deity worshipped by the Syrians of 
Damascus, where there was a temple or house of 
Rimmon (2K. v. 18). Perhaps the abbreviated 
form of Hadad-Rimmon, Hadad being the sun- 
god of the Syrians. 

Ring. The ring was an indispensable article of a 
Hebrew's attire, inasmuch as it contained his sig- 
net. It was the symbol of authority (Gen. xii. 
42; Esth. iii. 10). The signet-ring was worn on 
the right hand (Jer. xxii. 24). We conclude from 
Ex. xxviii. 11 that the rings contained a stone 
engraven with a device, or owner's name. The 
custom appears among the Jews of the Apostolic 
age (James ii. 2). 

River. With the exception of the Jordan and the 


Litany, the streams of the Holy Land are either 

dried up in summer, or else reduced to very 
Ismail streamlets. 
River of Egypt. 1. The Nile 

(Gen. xv. 18). [Nile.] 2. 

A desert stream on the 

border .of Egypt. 
Riz'pal, concubine to king 

Saul, and mother of his two 

sons, Armoni and Mephib- 

osheth. After the death of 

Saul Rizpah accompanied 

the royal family to Mahan- 

aim (2 Sam. iii. 7). We 

hear nothing more of Riz- 
pah till the tragic story in 2 

Sam. xxi. 8-11- 
Roe, Roebuck. The Hebrew 

words denote some species 

of antelope. The gazelle 

was allowed as food (Deut. 

xii. 15, 22, Ac); was very 

fleet of foot (2 Sam. ii 18; 

1 Chr. xii. 8); was hunted (Is. xiii. 14 ; Prov. vi. 

5); was celebrated for its loveliness (Cant. ii. 9, 

17, viii. 14) 


the residence of Barzillai the Gri- 

ft, e, I, »i «» ?> l° n e; *• e, I, O, *, t, abort; care, far, list, fftll, wbfcti Uiere, vgil, term} pique, tbrm; ddne, Wr, dft. wolf, fcTod, t&Xi 



Epistle to the Romans, and the 2«1 Epistle to 
Timothy. It is chit-fly with St. Paul's history 
that Rome comes before us. Five of his Epistles 
were in all probability written from Rome. It is 
universally believed that he suffered 
martyrdom there. Christianity may 
have been introduced into the city not 
long after the Pentecost by the 
"strangers of Rome," who were then 
at Jerusalem (Acts ii. 10). There 
were many Christians at Rome before 
St. Paul visited the city (Rom. i. 8, 
13, 15,.xv. 20). 



eadite (2 Sam. xvii. 27, xix. 31), east of the 
Jordan. q q O f? 

Eoll. A boo>& ■w-ferfcient times consisted of a 
single long strip of paper or parchment, which 


and of Christ, and one of the four women named 
by St. Matthew in the genealogy of Christ. 
Their son, Obed, was the father of Jessee, the 
father of David. 



was kept rolled up on a stick, and un- 
rolled to read. It was usually written on 
one side. Tlio term in Is. viii. 1, more 
correctly means tablet. 

Roman Empire. 'Th.e-iwJ historic mention 
of Rome in the Bible is in 1 Mace. i. 10. 

_The population of the Empire in the 
time of Augustus has been calculated at 
85.000,000. Augustus divided the prov- 
inces into two classes: (1.) Imperial; 
_{2.) Senatorial. The N. T. writers des- 
ignate the governors of Senatorial prov- 
inces proconsuls (Acts xiii. 7, xviii. 12, 
xix. 38). For the governor of an Im- 
perial province, the -word Governor is 
used. The chief prophetic notices of 
the Roman Empire are in Daniel. Ac- 
cording to some, the Romans are intend- 
ed in Deut. xxviii. 49-57. 

Romans, Epistle to the. The Epistle was 
written from Corinth during St. Paul's 
third missionary journey. It is probable 
St. Paul addressed a mixed Church of 
Jews and Gentiles. It is the summary 
of what St. Paul had written before, the 
result of his dealing with the two antag- 
onistic forms of error, the gathering to- 
gether of the fragmentary teaching in the 
Corinthian and Galatiau letters. 

Rome, the famous Capital of the ancient world, is 
on the Tiber at a distance of about 15 miles from 

This word, in Matt, xxiii. 6 ; 
Mark xii. 39 ; Luke xiv. 7, 8, xx. 46, 
signifies the highest place round the 
table — the "uppermost seat," as in 
Luk.3 xi. 43. 

Rose ( Cant. ii. 1; Is. xxv. 1). Most 
probably the narcissus is intended. 
The rose is referred to in Ecclus. xxiv. y 
14 (cornp. also ch. 1. 8 ; xxxix. 13 ; 
Wisd. ii. 8). Roses are greatly prized 
m the East. 

TSibsir (Ez. xxxviii. 2, 3, xxxix. 1 
"Magog the chief prince ot Meshech 
and Tubal," ght to run, "Magog 
the prince of R )sh, Meshech, and Tu- 
bal." The meaning is, that Magog is the 
head of the three great Scythian^ tribes, of 


;uth, Book of. The main object is to give an ac- 
count of David's ancestors. Its date and author 
are quite uncertain. It is probable that the books 
ot Judges, Ruth, Samuel, and Kings, originally 

§,cftrV£<f-t>ut one work, 
ye, Ex. ix. 32; Is. xxviii. 25; in the latter the 
margin reads "spelt." In Ez. iv. 9, the text has 
'fitches," and the margin "rie." It is probable 
that "spelt" is intended. It differs but slightly 
from our common wheat. 


Its mouth. Rome is mentioned in the books of 
Maccabees and in the N. T., viz., the Acts, the 


which "Rosh" is thus the first. By Rosh it ap- 
parently meant the tribe on the north of the 
Taurus, and in this we have the first trace ot the 
Russ or Russian nation. 
Rosin. Properly "naphtha," as in the LXX. and 

Rubies. 'Some suppose "coral" to be intended. 
Others contend for pearls, and explain the "rud- 
diness" alluded to by supposing that the original 

; signifies merely a reddish ti.ige. 

Rue (Luke xi. 42). Doubtless the common Ruta 


graveolens a shrubby plant about 2 feet high, of 

strong medicinal virtues. 
Ru'fus, mentioned in Mark xv. 21 with Alexander, 

as a son of Simon the Cyrenian (Luke xxiii. 26). 

Again, in Rom. xvi. 13, Paul salutes a Rufus as 

'*elect in the Lord '" 
Jtakh. JReed.] 
Ruth. A Moabitish woman, the wife, first of Mali 

SaDao'tn r , "fte Lord of (Rom. ix. 29; James v. 4). 
Sabaoth is the Greek form of the Hebrew word 
tsebaoth, "armies," and is translated in the O. T. 
by "Lord of Hosts," "Lord God of Hosts." 

Sabbath (shabbath, "a day of rest"). The name 
is applied to divers great festivals, but principally 
to the seventh day of the week. The consecra- 
tion of the Sabbath was coeval with the Creation. 
The Sabbath was the key-note to a scale of Sab- 
batical observance — consisting of itself, the sev- 
enth month, the seventh year, and the year of 
Jubilee. One great aim of the Sabbath-day and 
the Sabbatical year was to debar the Hebrew from 
the thought of absolute ownership of anything. 
That the perversion of the Sabbath become 
very general in our Saviour's time is apparent 
from Matt. xii. 1-15; Mark iii. 2; Luke vi. 1-5, 
xiii. 10-17; John v. 2-18, vii. 23, ix. 1-34. 
Among the Christians the "Lord's Day" — the 
first day of the week— gradually took the place of 
the Jewish Sabbath. 


-ROMAS- G&.W 1 

Sabbath-day's Journey ( 

N GUARpjfc 

). Moses eu- 

lon, secondly, of Boaz ; the ancestress of David I joined every m an to "abide in his place ' (Ex. 

ffirl/rgde.p^U; e, 1, o, ailent; c ae b; ch as sb; c, ch. as h. ; £ as 4, £ as in get; § as Jtf s as gi; n as la Ur. C er. link; «fc as In tfctae, 

2 3 



xxiii. 6, 7, 8), a religious party among the Jews 

at the time of Christ, who deemed the written 
law alone obligatory. The distinguishing doctrine 
of the Sadducees was the denial of man's resur- 
rection after death. 
Saffron (Cant. iv. 14). Saffron 
has from the earliest times been 
in high esteem as a perfume. The 
word is derived from the Arabic 
~:Ztftan, "yellow." 
Sala. y Salah, or Shelah, the 
. father, of Eber (Luke iii. 35). 
Sal 'amis, a city at the east end of 
the island of Cyprus, and visited 
by Paul and Barnabas. 
Sala'thiel (I have asked of God), son 
of Neri, and father of Zorobabel, 
according to Luke iii. 27. From 
his insertion, in 1 Chr. and St. 
Matthew's Gospel, after the child- 
less Jechonias, we infer that, on the failure 
of Solomon's line, he was the next heir to 
the throne. 

Sa'lem (peace). The place of which Melchizedek 
was king (Gen. xiv. 18 ; Heb. vii. 1, 2). It is 


rvi. 29). But as some departure was unavoid- 
able, it was necessary to determine the allowable 
amount, which was fixed at about six furlongs, 
from the wall of the city. 

r^r— ^ 


13). It symbolized hospitality ; as an antiseptic, 
durability, fidelity, and purity. 
Salt, City of, the fifth of the six cities of Judah in 
the "wilderness" (Josh xv. 62). 


Sabbatical Year. As each seventh day and seventh 
month were holy, so was each seventh year, by 
the Mosaic code. We first encounter this law in 
Ex. xxiii. 10, 11. We next meet with the enact- 
ment in Lev. xxv. 2-7, and finally in Deut. xv. 
At the completion of a week of Sabbatical years, 
the Sabbatical scale received its completion in 
the year of Jubilee. 

Sabkbut (Dan. iii. 5, 7, 10, 15), the rendering of 
the Chaldee sabbeca. The sackbut was a wind- 

of goat's-hair (Is. 1. 3; Rev. vi. 12), and resemb- 
lin > the cilieium of the Romans. It was used for 
sacks, and for rough garments used by mourners. 
Sacrifice. The peculiar features of each kind of 
sacrifice are under their re- 
spective heads. The Law of 
Leviticus»now unfolds distinct- 
ly the various forms of sacri- 
fice: (a.) The burnt-offering. 
Self-dedicatory. (b.) The 
meat-offering (unbloody); the 
peace-offering (bloody). Eu- 
charistic. (c.) The sin-offer- 
ing ; the trespass-offering. Ex- 
piatory. — To these may be 
sacrifice. added, (d.) The incense offered 

after sacrifice in the Holy Place. 


agreed on all hands that Salem is employed for 

Sa'lim, a place named (John iii. 23) to 

denote the situation of Aenon, the 

scene of St. John's last baptisms. The 

name has been discovered six English 

miles south of Beisan (Scythopolis), 

and two miles west of the Jordan. 

Sal'ma, or Sal'mon (Ruth iv. 20, 21 ; 1 

Chr. ii. 11, 51, 54; Matt. i. 4, 5; 

Luke iii. 32). Son of Nahshon, and 

father of Boaz, the husband of Ruth. 

On the entrance into Canaan, Salmon 

took Rahab of Jericho to be his wife, 

"and from this union sprang the Christ. 

Sal'mon, a hill near Shechem, on which 

Abimelech and his followers cut down 

the boughs with which they set the 

tower of Shechem on fire (Judg. ix. 48). 


Salt Sea> ov Dead Sea. [Sea, the Salt.] 

Salt, Valley of, a valley in which occurred two 
memorable victories. 1. That of David over the 
Edomites (2 Sam. viii. 13 ; 1 Chr. xviii. 12). 2. 
That of Amaziah (2 K. xiv. 7; 2 Chr. xxv. 11). 
Perhaps the open plain at the lower end of the 
Dead Sea. 

Salutation. Salutation at meeting consisted of 
various expressions of blessing (Ruth ii. 4). The 
salutation at parting consisted originally of a 
simple blessing, but in later times in the form 
"Go in peace," or rather "Farewell" (1 Sam. i. 
17, xx. 42; 2 Sam. xv. 9). 

Sama'ria, a city of Palestine. From b. c. 925, 
Samaria retained its dignity as the capital of the 
ten tribes, and the name is given to the northern 
kingdom as well as the city. It must have been 
a place of great strength. St. Jerome asserts 
that Sebaste, which he identifies with Samaria, 
was the place in which St. John the Baptist suf- 
fered death. He also makes it the burial-place 



Bad'ducees (Matt. iii. 7, xvi. 1, 6, 11, 12, xxii. 23, 
34; Mark xii. 18; Luke xx. 27; Acts iv. 1, v. 17, 

4 & 


Salmo'ne, the east point of the island of Crete 
(Acts xxvii. 7). Qf)^0 

Salo'me. 1. The wife of Zebe- 
dee, as appears from comparing 
Matt, xxvii. 56 with Mark xv. 
40. It is the opinion of modern 
critics tl at she was the sister of 
Mary, the mother of Jesus 
( John xix. 25. Theonly events 
recorded of Salome are, Matt. 
xx. 20, Mark xv. 40, and Mark 
xvi. 1. 2. The daughter of 
Herodias by her first husband, 
Herod Philip (Matt. xiv. 6). 
Saifc Salt to the Hebrews was 
an appetizing condiment, a val- 
uable antidote to the effects of 
the heat of climate on animal food, and enter- 
ing largely into their religious services (Lev. ii. 


of the prophets Elisha and Obadiah. 
Samar'itans. The word Samaritan must have de- 
noted every one subject to the king of the north- 
ern capital. But it became contracted. The 
traditional hatred in which the Jew held the 
Samaritan is expressed in Ecclus. 1. 25, 26. The 
Samaritans of our Lord's day were a people dis- 
tinct from the Jews, though lying in their midst ; 
a people preserving their identity, though seven 


centuries had rolled away since brought from As- 
syria by Esarhaddon. 

a, e, I, 5, u, y, long;. &, e, I, O, a, y, short; care, tar, last, 1*11, wb$t; there, vejl, dm; pique, Jfrm; ddi»e, *dr, d«j, w»U, ftfbd, fo"n*: 


amaritan Pentateuoh, a Recension of the Hebrew 
Text of the Mosaic Law, in use with the Samari- 
tans, and written in the ancient Hebrew, or so- 
called Samaritan character. 


19, xiii. 28). He held some command in Sa- 
maria (Neh. iv. 2). 

Sandal, a sole attached to the foot by thongs. San- 
dals were worn by all classes in Palestine. They 
were dispensed with in-doors. During meal- 
times the feet were uncovered. To carry or un- 
loose a person's sandal was a menial office. The 
use of the shoe in the transfer of property is 
noticed in Ruth iv. 7, 8. 

San'Eedrim, the supieme council of the Jewish 
people in the time of Christ and earlier. We 
gather that it consisted of chief priests, elders, 
scribes, and lawyers (Matt. xxvi. 57, 59 ; Mark 
xv. 1; Luke xxii. 66; Acts v. 21). The number 
of members is usually given as 71. The president 
was styled Nasi. 

Sapphi'ra, [Ananias.] 

S&p'phire, a precious stone of a bright blue color, 
the second in the second row of the high priest's 
breastplate (Ex. xxviii. 18). The sapphire of the 
ancients was not our gem of that name, but our 
Lapis lazuli. 

Sa'ra. [Sarah.] 

Sa'rah. The wife of Abraham and mother of 

SAUL ?& 

q r\ "v ,« 

Sardonyx (Rev. xxi. 20), ''a white opaque layer, 
superimposed upon a red transparent stratum of 
the true red sard.'' 


Sa'mos, a Greek island off that part of Asia 
Minor where Ionia touches Caria. Samos 
comes before our, notice in Acts xx. 15. 

Samothra'cia, an island in the account of St. 
Paul's first voyage to .Europe (Actsxvi. 11). 

Sam'son, ''little sMnJ- Or "sun-like." The cir- 
cumstances of his birth are in Judg. xiii.; and 
the three following chapters are devoted to his 
life and exploits. Samson takes his place (1.) 
as a judge — an office which he filled for twenty 
years (Judg. xv. 20, xvi. 31); (2.) as a Nazarite 
(Judg. xiii. 5, xvi. 17); and (3.) as one en- 
dowed with supernatural power by the Spirit of 
the Lord (Judg. xiii. 25, xiv. 6, 19, xv. 14). 

Sam'uel was the son of Elkanah and Hannah or 
Anna, and was "born at Ramathaim-Zophim. 
The mother of Samuel is described as a proph- 
etess in her gifts (1 Sam. ii. 1). She sought 
from God the gift of the child, and her prayer 
was heard. As soon as he was weaned, she 
brought him to the Tabernacle at Shiloh, and 
there solemnly consecrated him. From this 
time the child "ministered unto the Lord before 
Eli." He seems to have slept within the Holi- 
est Place, and his -special duty was to put out . 
the sacred candlestick, and to open the doors at 
sunrise. His first prophetic call is in Sam. iii. 
1-18. His presence at Mizpah, his elevation, his 
marriage, and his life are all given in the first 
book of Samuel. 

Samuel, Books of. -: In-Jthe Hebrew MSS. these 
form one book. They commence with the history 
of Eli and Samuel, and contaiti the establishment 
of the Hebrew monarchy and the reigns of Saul 
and David. Although the authorship cannot be 


Satep'ta. [Zarkphath.] 
Sar'gon, one of the greatest of the Assyrian 
kings (Is. xx. 1). He was Sennacherib's father, 
and his immediate predecessor, and reigned 
, from B. c. 721 to 702, and seems to have been a 
'• usurper. He was a great aud successful war- 

Sa'ron, the district in which Lydda stood (Acts 
ix. 35); the Sharon of the 0. T. [Sharon.] 
Sa'ruch. Sercg the son of Reu (Luke iii. 35). 


ascertained, it appears that it must have been 
composed subsequent to the secession of the Ten 
Tribes (b. c. 975). _ 
Banbal'lat, a Moabite of Horonaim (Neh. ii. 10, 


Isaac. Her name is first introduced in Gen. xi. 
29. In Gen. xx. 12, Abraham speaks of her as 
"his sister." The change of her name from 
"Sarai" to "Sarah" was made at the time 
Abram's name was changed to Abraham. 
"Sarah" signifies "princess." She died at 
Hebron at the age of 127 years, 28 years before 
her husband, and was buried in the cave of 
Sa'rai, the original 
name of Sarah, 
the wife of Abra- 
Sar'amel, the place 
at which the high- 
priesthood was 
conferred upon 
Simon Maccabaeus 
(1 Mace. xiv. 28). 
Probably some 
part of Jerusalem 
Sardine ,-Sardius, the 
first stone in the 
first row of the 
high-priest's breast- 
plate. The sard is 
a superior variety 
of agate. 
Sar'dis, a city just below the range of Tmolus. 
It was the ancient residence of the kings of 


Sa'tari. The word itself, the Hebrew satan, is 
simply an "adversary." The personal existence 
of a Spirit of Evil is clearly revealed in Scrip- 
ture. His direct influence over the soul is that 
of a powerful and evil nature on those in whom 
lurks the germ of the same evil. Besides this, 
we learn that Satan is the leader of a host of 
evil spirits or angels who share his evil work, 
and for whom the " everlasting fire is prepared" 
(Matt. xxv. 41). On the subject of Possession, 
see Demoniacs. 
Satyrs (Is. xiii. 21, xxxiv. 14). The Hebrew word 
signifies "hairy" or "rough." In the passages 
cited it probably refers to demons of woods and 


desert places, half men and half goats (comp. 
Lev. xvii. 7; 2 Chr. xi. 15). 
Saul, more accurately Shattl. 1. Saul of Reho- 
both, one of the early kings of Edom (Gen. 

fftrl, r^de, P9 sh; «, I, o, silent; f aa s; *fc as sk; «, «h, as k; 6 as «. * »s in *et; j as *; 1 ai gx; « as In linger, link; tbuls thine. 





xxxvi. 37, 38; 1 Chr. i. 48). 2. The first king 
ef Israel, the son of Kish of the tribe of Benj- 
amin. He was reinariiaOte /or his strength and 

Do I Oiy 4-;4 


activity (2 Sam. i. 23) and was of gigantic stature. 
His father, Kish, was a poweri'ul and wealthts 
chief. On the mountains Saul met with Samuel 
for the first time. A Divine intimation indicated 
the approach of the youthful Benjamite. At day- 
break of the following day, Samuel poured over 
Saul's head the consecrated oil, and announced 
to him his future office (ix. 25). The subsequent 
choice, with the life and death of Saul, are given 
in 1 Sam. 3. The Jewish name of St. Paul. 


found in dry and in dark places, chiefly in warm 
climates. They are carnivorous, and move in a 
threatening attitude, with tail elevated. In hot 
climates the sting often occasions 
suffering, and sometimes alarm- 
dag symptoms. 

Scourging. The punishment of 
scourging was prescribed by the 
Law (Lev. xix. 20). The in- 
strument in ancient Egypt was 
the stick, applied to the soles of 
the feet. Under the Roman 
method the culprit was stripped, 
stretched with cords on a frame, and 
beaten with rods-. 
Soreeeli-owl. ' [Owl.] 

Scribes. Three meanings are given : 1. 
To write ; 2. To set in order ; 3. To 
count. The word has been referred to 
each of these. The special training for a 
Scribe began about the age of thirteen, 
in the school of some famous Rabbi. 
Master and scholars met, the former sitting on a 
high chair, the elder pupils on a lower bench, the 
younger on the ground, both literally "at his 
feet." The education was chiefly catechetical 
(Luke ii). For the Scribes there were the best 
places at feasts, the chief seats in synagogues 
(Matt, xxiii. 6; Luke xiv. 7)._ 
Scrip. The Hebrew appears in 1 Sam. xvii. 40, 
as a synonyme for the bag in which the shepherds 
of Palestine carried food for necessaries. 
Scripture. In the earlier books we read of the 
Law, the Book of the Law. The thought of the 
Scripture as a whole first appears in 2 Chr. xxx. 
5, 18 ("as it was written,'/ A. V.). 
Scyth'ian occurs in Col. iii. 11 as a term for rude, 
Oo4 0/4/ 


shores, or bird fly across its surface, are dis- 

Seal. The use of some method of sealing is of 


Saw. Egyptian saws were single handed. We 
read of sawn stones used in the Temple (1 K. vii. 
9). The saws "under" or "in" which David is 
said to have placed his captives were of iron. 

Sceptre originally meant a rod or staff. The allu- 
sions to it are of a metaphorical character. The 
sceptre of the Persian monarch is described as 
"golden." i. e. probably of massive gold (Esth. 

Sce^va, a 

Jew at Ephesus at the timeof St. Paul's 
risit (Acts: " 
as a "high-priest." 

second visit (Acts xix. 14-16). He is described 

■ Db3 821 494 


Scorpion (Deut. via. 15; Ez. ii. 6 ; Luke x. 19, xi. 
12; Rev. ix. 3, 10). The wilderness of Sinai is 
especially ailuded to as inhabited by scorpions at 
the time of the Exodus. Scorpions are generally 


ignorant, degraded. Scythians dwelt mostly 
north of the Black Sea and Caspian, and were re- 
garded extremely low in intelligence and civiliza- 

5ea, used in Scripture to denote any great collec- 
tion of waters, as the river Nile and Eu- 
Sea, Molten. Solomon caused a laver to be 
cast which from its size was called a sea. 
It was made partly or wholly of brass, or 
copper. It is said to have been capable of 
containing 2000, or, according to 2 Chr. 
iv. 5, 3000 baths. 
Sea, The Salt. The most ancient name for 
the Dead Sea. Another name is, the Sea 
oe the Arabah (A. V. "sea of the plain") 
in Deut. iv. 49 ; 2 K. xiv. 25. In the 
prophets (Joel ii. 20 ; Ezek. xlvii. 18) the 
East Sea. In Ez. xlvii. 8, it is styled 
the sea. In the Talmudical books it is 
called both the "Sea of Salt," and "Sea 
of Sodom." The name "Dead Sea" ap- 
pears first used in Greek. The Arabic 
name is the "Sea of Lot." The so-called 
Dead Sea is the final receptacle of the 
river Jordan. Its water surface is 46 Eng- 
lish miles long; its greatest width about 10£ 
miles. Its depth, at about one-third of its length 
from the north end, is 1308 feet. The statements 
that no living creature could exist on the 


remote antiquity. In Egypt at a very early period 
were engraved stones. In many cases the seal 
consisted of a lump of clay, impressed wiih the 
seal and attached to the document. Engraved 
signets were in use among the Hebrews in early 
time's (Ex. xxviii. 11, 36, xxxix. 6). 

Se'bat, [Month.] 

Seeun'dus, a Thessalonian who went with the 
Apostle Paul from Corinth as far as Asia (Acta 

xx.4). ';> ■.;-- 

Seer. [Prophet.] 


Se'ir {hairy, shaggy). We have both "land of 
Seir" (Gen. xxxii. 3, xxxvi. 30), and "Mount 
Seir" (Gen. xiv. 6). It is the original name of 
the mountain ridge along the east side of the val- 
ley of Arabah, from the Dead Sea to the Elanitic 

• Gulf. 

Se'irath, the place to which Ehud fled after his 
murder of Eglon (Judg. iii. 26,27). It was in 
••'Mcutot Ephraim" (27). 

Se'la and Se'lah, 2 K. xiv. 7; Is. xvi. 1; rendered 
" the rock" in the A. V. in Judg. i. 36, 2 Chr. 
xxv. 12, Obad. 3. Probably the city later known 
as Petra. It was in the midst of Mount Seir. 

Do/ 82,5k 4' 


Selah, This word occurs seventy- one times in the 
Psalms, and three timet in Babakkuk. It is 

a«fc,i, o, u, y, long; a, *, I, 6, a, y, eiiort; ear^Aiir, list, fgU-whsti tbeie, veil, term; plqae, ffnn; d6ue, io-- <to. wolf, ftfbd, foot; 


> ' ■ " ' .' , ' — 


probably a term which had a meaning in the 
musical nomenclature of the Hebrews. 

Seleu'cia, near 


mouth of the Ororrtes, 
the seaport of Anti- 
och. The distance be- 
tween the two towns 
was about 16 miles. 
We are told that St. 
Paul, with Barnabas, 
sailed from Seleucia 
(Acts xiii. 4). 

Sem. Shem the patri- 
arch (Luke iii. 36). 

Semitic Languages. 
... [Shemitic Languages; 


Se'nir. This name oc- 
curs in 1 Chr. v. 23 ; 
Ez. xxvii. 5. It is the 
Amorite name for a 

"portion of the moun- 
tain which the He- 
brews called Hermon, 
and the Phoenicians 


Sennache'fib was the 
son and successor of 
Sargon. Sennacherib 
mounted the throne B. 
C. 702. In his third 
year (b. c. 700) he 
made war on Egypt, 
and finally marched 
against Hezekiah, king of Judah. He sent mes- 
sengers to Hezekiah (2 K. xviii. 17), and wrote 
him a threatening letter (2 K. xix. 14). In one 
night the Assyrians lost 185,000 men ! Sennach- 
erib reigned 22 years, and was succeeded by Esar- 
haddon, b. c. 680. His sons smote him with the 
sword (2 K. xix. .37: X§-^ xxv ii- 38). 
Sepharva'im (2 K.lx^c--lS^ Is. xxxvii._ 13, comp. 
2 K. xviii. 34), the famous town of Sippara, on 
the Euphrates above Babylon. 
Sephe'la, the Greek form of has-Shefelch, the na- 
tive name for the southern division of the district 
between the central highlands of the Holy Land 
and tie Mediterranean. The Shefelah was one 
of the most productive regions of the Holy 
Land. It was in ancient times the cornfield of 
Syria. . _ 

Sep'tuagint. The Septuagint or Greek version of 
the Old Testament, owed its origin to the same 
cause as the Targums. The Jews of Alexandria 
had less knowledge of Hebrew than their breth- 
ren in Palestine ; their familiar language was 
Alexandrian Greek, hence would arise in time an 

entire Greek ver- 
sion. The Ver- 
sion was made at 
Alexandria. It 
was begun about 
280 B.C. The Law 
(Pentateuch) was. 
translated at first. 
The Septuagint 
version was high- 
ly esteemed by the 
Hellenistic Jews 
before the coming 
of Christ. . 
Sepulchre. [Bur- 


Serai'ah. I. King's 
scribe or secre- 
tary in the reign 
of David (2 Sam. 
viii. 17). 2. The 
high-priest in the 
reign of Zedekiah 
(2K. xxv. 18). 

Sef'aphim, an order 
of celestial beings, 
whom Isaiah be- 
held in vision 
standing above 
Jehovan as He sat 
upon His throne 


xiii. 7, sq.). He yielded to the evidence of 


Serpent. -The Heb. Nachash is the generic name 
of any serpent. The art of taming and charming 
serpents is alluded to in Ps. ] viii. 5, Keel. x. 11, 
Jer. viii. 17, and intimated by St. James (iii. 7). 
Serpents used for this purpose, in Africa and In-< 
dia, are the hooded snakes and horned Cerastes. 
The snake that fastened on St. Paul's hand when 
he was at Melita (Acts xxviii. 3) was probably the 
common viper. 

Se'fug, great grandfather of Abraham. His age is 
given as 230 years (Gen. xi. 20-23). 

Servant. [Slave.] 

Seti (Gen. iv. 25, v. 3 ; 1 Chr. i. 1), the third son 
of Adam, and father of Enos. The signification 
of his name is "appointed' ' or "put" in the place 
of -the murdered Abel. 

Seven. The frequent recurrence of certain num- 
bers in sacred literature is obvious. This is true 
of the numbers three, four, seven, twelve, and 
forty; but seven so far surpasses the rest that it 
may fairly be termed the representative symbolic 
number. The Sabbath, being the seventh day, 
suggested the adoption of seven as the coefficient, 

■ ■ ■ 



the patriarchs (Gen. xvii. 1, xxviii. 3). The 
idea attaching to the name is that of strength and 

Slia r drac' 


(Is. vi. 2). 1477 

Ber'gius Pau'lus was proconsul of Cyprus when 
Paul visited that island with Barnabas (Acts 


so to say, for the appointment of all sacred 
Shad'dai, an ancient name of God, rendered "Al- 
mighty." By El-Shaddai, God was known to 

drach, the Hebrew 
or Chaldee name of 
Hananiah. The his- 
tory is in Dan. i. iii 

Sha'lim, The Land of, a 
district through which 
Saul passed in quest 
of his father's asses 
I 1 Sari*. IX. 4, only). 

Shal'Iecheth, The Gate, 
one of the gates of the 
''house of Jehovah" 
(1 Chr. xxvi. 16). 
The gate "to the 
causeway of the as- 

Shal'lum. 1. Fifteenth 
king of Israel, who 
conspired against 
Zechariah, son of Jer- 
oboam II., killed him, 
and brought the dy- 


nasty of Jehu to a close, 
b. c. 770. After reign- 
ing for a month he was 
dethroned and killed by 
Menahem (2 K. xv. 10- 
14). 2. The husband of 
Huldah the prophetess 
(2 K. xxii. 14). 3. 
Third son of Josiah king 
of Judah, known as Je- 
hoahaz (1-Chr. iii. 15; 
Jer. xxii. 111. 

Shal'man. Shalmaneser, 
king of Assyria (Hos. x. 

Shalmane'ser, the Assy 
1 ian king who reigned be- 
fore Sargon, and after 
Tiglath-pileser. Soon 
after his accession he led 
his forces into Palestine, 
where Hoshea had re- 
volted (2 K. xvii. 3). 
In B. c. 723 Shalmaneser 
invaded Palestine the 
second time, and laid 
siege to Samaria. 

Sham'gar, son of Anath, 
judge of Israel. Israel 
was in a depressed con- 
dition, and Shamgar was 
raised up to be a deliv- 
erer. With no arms but 
an ox-goad (Judg. iii. 
31; 1 Sam. xiii. 21), he 
made a desperate assault 
upon the Philistines, and 
slew 600 of them 

SnamTnan. Ine third son 
of Jesse, and brother of 
David (1 Sam. xvi. 9, 
xvii. 13). Called also 
Shimea, Shimeah, and 

Sha'phan, the scribe or 
secretary of king Josiah. 

Sha r phat, the father of the 
prophet Elisha (1 K. xix. 
16, 19; 2K. iii. 11, vi. 


Share'zer, a son ol Sen- 
nacherib, and brother of 
Adrammelech (2 K. xix. 

Sha'ron, a district of the 
Holy land (1 Chr. v. 16; 
Acts ix. 35, A. V. Sa- 
ron). That broad, rich 
tract between the moun- 
tains of central Holy 
Land and the Mediterranean. 
Sha'ronite, The. Shitrai, who had charge of the 
royal herds pastured in Sharon (1 Chr. 


*k rl > *TJde, p^ah; t, i, o, silent; f as s; (b as sh; «, cb, as k; g as j, g as in get; 5 as *; 5 as gz; n as In linger, Unit; Ol as In tfclne. 




Sha'ul, the son of Simeon by a Canaanitish wo- 
man (Gen. x'.vi. 10; 1 Clir. iv. 24). 
Sha'veh, the Valley of, "the "Valley of the King" 


(Gen. xiv. 17), the site of a pillar set up by Ab- 

Shawm, a musical instrument resembling the clar- 

Shearing-house, The, a place between Jezreel and 
Samaria, at which 
Jehu encountered for- 
ty-two members of the 
royal family of Judah, 
whom he slaughtered 
(2K. X, 12, 11). 
She'ar-ja'shub (lit ''a 
remnant shall return") 
the son of Isaiah (Is. 
vii. 3). The name had 
a mystical significance 
(Is. x. 20-22). 
She'ba, the son of Bich-- 
ri (2 Sam. xx. 1-22), 
the last chief of the 
Absalom insurrection. 
He is described as a 
''man of Belial." She- 
Joab following in pur- 
suit. His head was 
finally secured by 
Joab (2 Sam. xx. 18). 
She'bah, the well which 
gave its name to the 
city of Beersheba 
(Gen. xxvi. 33). 
Sheb'na, a person of 
high position in Hez- 
ekiah's court (Is. xxii. 


She'chem (back or shoulder), an important city in 
Central Palestine. It lies in a valley, protected 
by Gerizim on the south, and Ebal on the north. 
The defilement of Dinah, Jacob's daughter, and 


last counsels (Josh. xxiv. 1, 25). Here the ten 
tribes renounced the house of David (1 K. xii. 
16). From the origin of the Samaritans, Shechem 
blends itself with this people. Shechem 
is the Sychar of John iv. 5, near 
which the Saviour conversed with the 
Samaritan woman at Jacob's Well. 
The Well of Jacob and the Tomb of 
Joseph are still shown in the neighbor- 
hood of the town. 2. A man of Ma- 
nasseh, of the clan of Gilead (Num. 
xxvi. 81). 
She'chemites, The. The family of Shech- 
em, son of Gilead (Num. xxvi. 31 ; 
comp. Josh. xvii. 2). 
Shechi'nah. This term was used by the 
latter Jews, and borrowed by Christians 
to express the visible majesty of the 
Divine Presence. The term is first 
found in the Targums. 
Sheep. The first mention of sheep oc- 
curs in Gen. iv. 2. They were used in 
the sacrificial offerings (Ex. xx. 24 ; IK. viii. 
C3 ; 2 Chr. xxix. 33). Sheep and lambs formed 
an important article of food (1 Sam. xxv. 18 ; 1 
K. i. 19, &c.)._TJie, wppL.'yas used as clothing 


Shemitic or Semitic to the languages spoken by 

his descendants. 


the massacre by Simeon and Levi, are given in 
Gen. xxxiv. 1, sq. The oak tinder which Abra- 
ham worshipped survived to Jacob's time (Gen. 
xxxv. 1-4) It was here Joshua delivered his 


(Lev. xiii. 47j Job xxxi. 20, &c). It is very 
striking to notice the immense numbers of sheep 
reared in Palestine in Biblical times. The com- 
mon sheep of Syria and Palestine are the broad- 

Sheep-gate, The, one of the gates of Jerus- 
alem as rebuilt by Nehemiah 
(Neh. iii. 1, 32, xii. 39). 
Sheep-market, The (John v. 2). 
We ought to supply "gate" (not 
"market"), meaning the gate in 
the preceding article. 
Shgkei. A shekel seen by Ramban 
A. D. 1210, gives the inscriptions 
as above, "the Shekel of Shekels," 
and "Jerusalem the Holy;" also 
gives the weight of about half an 
•ounce. In early times shekels 
were known to the Jewish Rabbis 
with Samaritan inscriptions. 
Shem, the eldest son of Noah (Gen. 
v. 32). He was 98 years old, 
married, and childless, at the time 
of the Flood. After it, he, with 
his father, brothers, sisters in-law, 
and wife, received the blessing of 
God (ix. 1). Two years afterwards 
he became the father of Arphaxyd (xi. 10) 
the prophecy of Noah (ix. 25-27), the first bless- 
ing falls on Shem. He died at the age of 600 
years. Modern scholars have given the name 


1 ** / £> 

She'mal'ah, a prophet in the reign of Rehoboaia. 
When the king had assembled 180,000 men to re- 
conquer the northern kingdom, Shemaiah was 
commissioned to charge them not to war against 
their brethren ( 1 K. xiu 22 ; 2 Chr. xi. 2). Ha 
wrote a chronicle containing the events of Reho- 
boaia's reign (2 Chr. xii. 15). 

Sheme'ber, king of Zeboim, and ally of the king 
of Sodom when attacked by Chedorlaomer (Gen. 
xiv. 2). 

She'mer, owner of 
the hill on which 
Samaria was built 
(1 K. xvi. 24). 

Shemi^da, a son of 
Gilead (Num. 
xxvi. 32; Josh, 
xvii. 2). 

Shemlda'ites, The, 
the descendants 
of Shemida the 
son of Gilead 
(Num. xxvi. 32). 

Shem'inith. The 
title of Psalm vi. 
Either a certain 
air known as the 
eighth, or a cer- 
tain key in which 
the Psalm was to 
be sung. 

Shemitic Lan- 
guages. 1. The 
" Shemitic fam- 
ily," and "Shem- 
itic languages," are based, as is well known, on a 
referenceto Gen. x. 21, seqq. A comparison of 
the Shemitic languages presents them as uneven- 
ly developed. The Arabic is the richest : but it 
would have been rivalled by the Hebrew had a 
career been vouchsafed equally long and favorable. 




Samuel the prophet (1 Chr. vi. 83). 
She'phain, mentioned in Num. xxxiv. 10, 11. The 
ancient interpretei-3 render the name by Apamea. 
Shepherd. In a nomadic state of society every 

t *» h *t *c S» l0B S» *t «» h *s *t 9» efcertC ®&r«*£a*<, ?**«» *Q&L wtoo*£ there, veil, ttw ; 9*4<m>. .<*rj»; «•£»*< «*>*„ <f jy wplf, «l , ©d, itfatl 

wan is more or less a ehepherd. The occupation 
>f tending flocks was undertaken by the sons of 

vealthy chiefs (Gen. xxx. 29, ff., xxxvii. 12, ff.), f Shi'hor of Egypt 


q o rr t • 

Shigga'ion (Ps. vii. 1), a particular kind of Psalm, 
the specific character of which is now not known. 




and by their daughters (Gen. xxix. 6, ff.; Ex. ii. 
19). The office of the Eastern shepherd was at- 
tended with much hardship, and even danger. 
The shepherd's equipment consisted of: a man- 
tle, a scrip or wallet, a sling, and a staff. If at a 
distance from his home, he was provided with a 
light tent. The hatred of the Egyptians towards 
shepherds (Gen. xlvi. 34) may have been due to 
their contempt for the sheep, which appears to 
have been valued neither for food nor sacrifice. 

Shere'zer Properly "Sharezer ;" one of the mes- 
sengers in Zech, vh. %. 

She'shach (Jeremiah xxv. 36, li. 41), a synonyme 
either for Babylon or Babylonia. 

Shesh'baz'zar, the Chaldean or Persian name given 
Zerubbabel, inEzr. i.; 1 Esdr. ii. 

Sheth. The patriarclvgETH (1 Chr. i. 1). 

She'va. The scribe or royal secretary of David (2 
Sam. xx. 25). 

Shew-bread (Ex^ xxv.j 80, xxxv. 13, xxxix. 36, 
&c), literally "bread of the face" or '"faces." 
Within the Ark it was directed that there should 
be a table of shittim wood, i. e. acacia, overlaid 


with pure gold, and "having a golden crown to 
the border." The further description will be 
found in Ex. xx^,23g3Pj 

Shib'boleth (Judg. xii. 6), the Hebrew word the 
Gileadites under Jephthah mnde use of at the 
passage of the Jordan. The Ephraimites in their 
dialect substituted for sh the simple sound_ s ; 
and the Gileadites, regarding every one who failed 
to pronounce sh as an enemy, put hirn to death 
accordingly. The word has two meanings : 1st, 
an ear of corn 5 -.2dly,, a., stream or flood. 

Shield. The ordinary shield consisted of a frame- 
work of wood covered with leather. It was fre- 
quently cased with metal, either brass or copper. 
The surface of the shield was kept bright by the 
application of oil (Is. xxi. 5). The shield was 
worn on the left arm, attached by a strap. 

[SlHOR. 1 

Shil'lem. Son of Naphtali, 
ancestor of the Shillem- 
ites (Gen. xlvi. 24 ; Num. 
xxvi. 49). 

Shilo'ah, The Waters of, a 
soft- flowing stream men- 
tioned by Isaiah (viii. 6), 
better known as Siloam — 
the only perennial spring 

■-of JeTusalem. 

Shrioh. Shiloh is used as 
the name of a person, in 
Gen. xlix. 10. Suppos- 
ing the translation correct, 
the meaning of the word 
is Peaceable or Pacific, 
and the allusion is to the 
expected Messiah, who in 
Is. ix. 6 is called the 
Prince of Peace. 

Shi'loh, a city of Ephraim. 
The ark of the covenant 
was kept at Shiloh from 
the last days of Joshua to 
the time of Samuel (Josh, 
xviii. 10, Judg. xviii. 31 ; 
1 Sam. iv. 3). The un- 
godly conduct of the sons 
of Eli occasioned the loss 
of the ark, and Shiloh 
from that time sank into 

Shim'ea. 1. Son of David 
by Bathsheba (1 Chr. iii. 
6). 2. The brother of 
David (1 Chr. xx. 7). 

Shim'eath. An Ammonitess, one of the murder- 
ers of king Joash (2 K. xii. 21 [22] ; 2 Chr. xxiv. 

SMm'ei. 1. Son of Gershontheson of Levi (Num. 
iii. 18 ; 1 Chr. vi. 17, 29. 2. Shimei the son £J 
Gera, a Benjamite of the house of Saul (2 Sam. 
xvii §-13, xix. 18; 1 K. ii. 36-46). 

SMm'ites, The. The descendants of Shimei son of 
G«rsh6~in (Num. iii. 21). 

Shim'rith. A Moabitess, one of the assassins of 

: king Joash (2 Chr. xxiv. 26). 

Shim'ron. 1. A city of Zebulun (Josh. xi. 1, xix. 
15). 2. The fourth son of Issachar, and head of 
the Shimrdnites. 

Shim'ron-me'roa The king of Shimron-meron is 
mentioned in Josh, 
xii. 20). Probab- 
ly the name of the 
place called Shim- 
ron (Josh. xi. 1, 
xix. 15). 

Shi'nab. The king 
of Admah in the 
time of Abraham 
(Gen. xiv. 2). 

Shi'nar. The an- 
cient name of the 
great alluvial tract 
through which the 
Tigris and Euphra- 
tes pass ; known 
later as Chaldaea 
or Babylonia. 

Ship. The ship in 
which St. Paul was 
wrecked had 276 
persons on board 
(Acts xxvii. 37), 
besides a cargo of 
wheat (ib. 10, 38); 
and all these seem 
taken on to Puteoli 
in another ship 
(xxviii. 11), which 
had its own crew 
and cargo. An- 
cient ships were 
steered by means 

of two paddle rudders. Two allusions to anchor- 
ing are found in the N. T. (Heb. vi. 19; Acts 
xxvii. 29). The rig of an ancient ship was simple 
and clumsy. Its great feature was one large mast, 

with one large square sail. To prevent starting 
of the planks, and foundering, cables or chains 
were provided to be put around the frame of the 


ship. These were called undergirders. With a 
fair wind an ancient ship would sail fully seven 
knots an hour. 

Shiph'rah (Ex. i. 15), one of the two midwives 
who disobeyed the command to kill the male chil- 

Shi'shak, king of Egypt, the Sheshenk I. of the 
monuments. His reign offers the first determined 
synchronisms of Egyptian and Hebrew history. 
Shishak received the fugitive Jeroboam (1 K. xi. 
40), and attacked Rehoboam. 

Shittah-tree, Shittim (Heb. shittah), some species 
of Acacia. The wood of this tree was employed 
in the construction of the tabernacle. It yields 
-gtutt.arabic by incisions. 

Sho'a occurs in Ez. xxiii. 23, with Pekod andKoa. ' 
3The three designate districts of Assyria. * 

ShS'bach, the general of Hardarezer king of the 
Syrians of Zoba, who was defeated by David (2 
Satn;-^ 15-18). 

Shoe. [Sandal.] 



Shoshan'nim. The melody "after" (A. V. "upon") 
whioh the Psalms were to be sung. 

Shu'ah. Son of Abraham by Keturah (Gen. xxv. 
2; 1 Chr. i. 32). 

fOrl, TBde, PV«b; *, *, o, ailent; $ as s; $h. as six ; «, cu, oj k; £ as J, g as m get; s ui;j aigi;o aain linger, liijk; *ix aa in t&lne. 

■ M-IJU. .-. 

___ — — ....^. 


"■" — ■ " r ~ - • ' .- 


Shu'al, The Land of I I Sam, xiii. 17). Perhaps 
identical with the "land of Shalim" (1 Sam. ix. 



Si'chem (Gen. xii. 6). [Shechem.] 
Sid'dim, The Vale of (Gen. xiv. 3, 8, 10). In this 
valley the kings of Sodom, Gomorrah, Admah, 

Zeboim, andBela, awaited the invaders. 

It is therefore about the "plain, or circle, 

Greek form of Zidon. 


Shu'ham, son of Dan, and ancestor of the Shu- 
HAMItxs (Num. xxvi. 42). 

Shu'hite, frequent in Job as the epithet of Bildad. 
The indications point to a region bordering on 

Shu'lamite, The, Solomon's Song vi. 13. If Shu- 
lamite and Shunammite are equivalent, we may- 
conjecture that the object of Solomon's passion 
was Abishac;. 

Shu'nanimite, The, applied to two persons: Abi- 
shag, the nurse of king David (1 K. i. 3, 15, ii. 


17, 21, 22), and the nameless hostess of Elisha 
(2K. iv. 12, 25,30). 

Sliu'ncm, the native place of Abishag (1 K. i. 3), 
mentioned as 5 miles smith of Mount Tabor. 

Shtir, a place just without the eastern border of 
Egypt, mentioned in the narrative of Hagar's 
flight from Sarah (Gen. xvi. 7). Perhaps a forti- 
fied town east of the ancient head of the Red 

Shu'shan," or Su'sa, said to have received its name 
from the abundance of the lily in its neighborhood. 
It was the capital of the country called Elam. 

of Jordan. 
Si'don, the 


Sidd'nians, the Greek form of the word 

Si'hon, king of the Amorites when Israel 
arrived on the borders of the Promised 
Land (Num. xxi. 21 ). 
Si'hor, accurately Shi'hor, once The Shi- 
hor or Shi'hor of Egppt, when unquali- 
fied a name of the Nile. It is held to 
signify l the black" or "turbid." 
Si'las, an eminent member of the early 
Christian Church, described under that 
name in the Acts, but as Silvanus in St. 
Paul's Epistles. He first appears in Acts xv. 
22 ; as an inspired teacher, xv. 32. He appears 
to have been a Roman citizen (Acts. xvi. 37). 
His presence at Corinth is noticed in 2 Cor. i. 19; 


Nehemiah resided here (Neh. i. 1). Shushan 
was situated on the Ulai or Choaspes. It is iden- 
tified with the modern Sus or Shush, and its ruins 
are about 3 miles in circumference. 

Shu'thelah, head of an Ephraimite family (Num. 
xxvi. 35), and lineal ancestor of Joshua, the son 
Of Nna_(l Chr. vii. 20-27). 

SibT>ecliai, one of David's guard (1 Chr. xi. 29, 
xxvii. 11). Sibbechai's great exploit was Ms 



single combat with the Philistine giant at Gezer, 
or Gob i2 Sam. xxi. 18 ;_ 1 Chr. xx. 4). 
Sib'bolSth, the Ephraimite pronunciation of the 
wprd Shibboleth (Judg. xii. 6). [Shibboleth.] 


1 Thess. i. 1 ; 2 Thess. i. 1). Whether 
he was the Silvanus of 1 Peter v. 12 is 
doubtful. A tradition represents Silas 
io have become bishop of Corinth. 
Silk. It is probable that the texture was 
known to the Hebrews from the time 
their commercial relations were extended 
by Solomon. The value set upon silk by 
the Romans (Rev. xviii. 12) is noticed by 
Joseph*] s as well as by classical writers. 
Sil'la. The scene of the murder of king 
Joash (2 K. xii. 20). What or where 
Silla was is conjecture. 
-ring. Silo'ah, The Pool of, properly "the Pool of 

Shelach" (Neh. iii. 15). [Siloam.] 
Sild'am (Shiloaeh, Is. viii. 6 ; Shelach, Neh. iii. 15 ; 

Siloam, John ix. 7, 11). Siloam is one of the 

few undisputed locali- ^^^m^^. 

ties in the topography 

of Jerusalem. This 

pool is oblong ; about 

18 feet broad, and 19 

feet deep ; but it is never 

filled. The present pool 

is a ruin ; its sides fall- 
ing in ; its pillars 

broken ; its stair a frag- 
ment ; its walls giving 

way ; the edge of every 

stone worn round or 

sharp by time. This 

pool, the second, seems 

to have poured its 

waters into a third, 

before watering the Serpent denoting Immortality. 

royal gardens. This third is perhaps " Sol- 
omon's pool," or the " King's pool." Siloam 


is a sacred spot, even to the Modern ; much more 
to the Jew. 


Sild'am, lower in (Luke xiii. 4). Of this we know 
nothing beyond these words of the Lord. 

Silva'aus. [Silas.] 

Silver. Silver was used for ornaments (Gen. xxiv. 
53) and for vessels. Images for worship were of 
silver (Ex. xx. 23), and the manufacture of silver 
shrines for Diana was a trade in Ephesus (Acts 
xix. 24). Throughout the 0. T. we find "silver" 
used for money. 

"92 850 


Sil'verlings, a word used in Is. vii. 23 as a trans- 
lation of the Hebrew elsewhere rendered " sil- 
ver" or "money." 

Sim'eon {heard). 1. The second of Jacob's sons 
by Leah. His birth is recorded in Gen. xxix. 
33. Besides the massacre of Shechem, the only 
personal incident related of Simeon is his being 


selected by Joseph as the hostage (Gen. xiii. 19, 
24, 30; xliii. 23). The tribe is mentioned in 
Gen. xlvi. 10. 2. A devout Jew, inspired by the 
Holy Ghost, who met the parents of our Lord in 
the Temple, took Him in his arms, and gave 
thanks (Luke ii. 25-35). 
Sim'eon Ni'ger (Acts xiii. 1). [Niger.] 


1. Son of Mattathias. [Maccabees.] 
2. Son of Onias the high-priest. 3. "A governor 


&, fe, I # 3, a, f, long; & f e, I, 6, A, ?» Abort; o&rc, iar, Uet, «»U, wh» t^ there, veil, Urm; pique, Xfcrm; d6ue, idr t da, W9U, food, fcfet; 

1 - ' _ 

^ ■^ . ■ .■ « 


of the Timple. " 4. Simon the Brother of Jests 
Matt, xiii. 5-3 ; Mark vi. 3). 5. Simon" the 
-Caxaaxite, one of the Twelve (Matt, x, 4, Mark 

Greek form of Zio.v, tbe famous Mount of the 

Siph'moth, o>\? ef the places in the south of Judith 
David frequented during his freebooting life (1 
Sam. xxx. 28). 

Si'rach, the father of Jesus (Joshua), the writer of 
the Book of Ecelesiasticus. 

Si'rah, The Well of, from which Abner was recalled 
by Joab to his death at Hebron (2 Sam. iii. 20). 

l^p^^itly on the northern road from Hebron. 

Sir ion, one of the names of Mount Hermoa, that 
known to the Zidoniai > (Deut. iii. 9 . 

Sis'era. Captain of the army of Jabin king of 
Canaan who reigned in Hazor. The rout of Me- 
giddo and Sisera"s flight and death are drawn out 
nii'k-r Barak, l>,:::"aH. Jael. Kishox. 

Sit'nah, second of the two wella dug by Isaac in 
Gerar, the possession of which the herdmen dis- 
puted (Gen. xxvi. 21 1. 

Sivaa. " [Moxth.] 

Slave. Slavery was recognized, though not estab- 
lished, by the Mosaic Law. 1. The circum- 
stances under which a Hebrew might be reduced 
to servitude were— (1) poverty ; (2) the comuais- 


iii. IS), otherwise Simon Zelotes (Luke vi. 15; 
Acts i. 14). 6. Simox of Ctrexe. — AHelle'-. 
istic Jew of Cyrene, pressed into the service to 
bear the cross (Matt, xxvii. 32 ; Mark xv. 21 ; 
Luke xxiii. 26). 7. Simox the Leper. — A. 
resident at Bethany (Matt xxvi. 6, &c. : Murk 
xiv. 3, &c; John xii. 1, &c). 8. Simox 
Magus. — A Samaritan distinguished as a sor- 
cerer or "magician" (Acts viii. 9). 9. Simox 
Peter. [Peter.] 10. Simox, a Pharisee, in 
whose house a penitent woman anointed the 
head and feet of Jesus (Luke vii. 40). 11. 
Simon the Taxxer. — A Christian convert at 
Joppa, 'Acts ix. 43). 12. Simox, the father of 
Judas Iscariot (J^qhn 3*i., 71, xiii. 2, 26). 

Bin, a city of Egypt) J&Aitioned only by Ezekiel 
(xxx. 15, 16). ,-, . ,-vy.. 

Sin, Wilderness of, a tract of the wilderness west 
of Sinai. Here the manna was first gathered. 
in-offjring. The sin-offering was the sacri lice, 
in which propitiation and atonement were most 
distinctly marked. The ceremonial is described 
in Lev. iv. and vi. The Trespass-offeiuxg 
was, in some cases, offered with it as a distinct 
pari of the same sacrifice. 

Sin'a, Mount, thte Gi^eS form of Sixai (Acts 
vii. 30, 38). _ __ 

Si'nal. NearlyrjnSfhie , centre of the peninsula 
which stretches between the horns ot the Red 
Sea, lies a wedge of rocks rising to between 
8000 and 9000 feet above the sea. These 
mountains may be divided into two masses — 
that of Jebel Serial ^6759 feet high) and the 
central group, denoted by Sinai. This group 
rises abruptly, first to the cliffs of the Ras 
Sufsafeh, behind which towers Jebel Musa (i he 
Mount of Moses) and farther back the summit 
of Jebel Katerin (Mount St. Catherine, 8705 feet), 
all overtopped by Urn Skaumer (9300 feet), the 
highest point of the. whole peninsula. 

Si'nim (Is. xlixQ^.f ?fliey may be identified with 




acter, as implied in Lev. xx v. 39. consisting in 

work and personal attendance. 


sion of theft ; and (3) the exercise of paternal 
authority. 2. The servitude of a Hebrew might 
be terminated in three ways: (1) by the satisfac- 


Slime. Bitumen in the Vulgate. Spoken of as 

used for cement in the plain of Shinar, or 
Babylonia (Gen. xi. 3). Bitumen pits in Sid- 
d ; m are mentioned (Gen. xiv. 10); and the ark 
in which Moses was placed had a coating of 
GtfyfKmfen and pitch (Ex. ii. 3). 

Smith. [Haxdh p. aft.] 

^Smyrna (Rev. ii. 8-ll\ founded by Alexander 
the Great. In the time of Strabo the city was 
one of the most beautiful in all Asia. Olyui- 
1 iyu games were ci-lel rated here. 

Snail. 1. Ps. lviii. v The rendering is prob- 
ably correct. 2. The name of sc-nie unclean 
animal in Lev. xi. 30. Some kind of lizard 
n ay be inter, led. 

Snow. In the ravines of the highest ridge of 
Lebanon, snow 
never wholly 
disappears : the 
summit of Her- 
man also perpet- 
ually glistens 
with f r o z e n 
snow. AtJerus- 
alem snow often 
falls to the depth 
of a foot or more 
in January and 
February, but it 
seldom lies. 

So, mentioned in 2 K. xvii. 4. identified with the 
first and second kings of the Ethiopian xxvth 


the classical Sinae, the inhabitants of the south- 
ern part of Chinp-.^ 4 

Si'on, Mount, 11 phe Jpf^ the names of Mount 
Hermon (Deuteronomy iv. 48 only). 2. The 

tion of all claims; (21 by the year of Jubilee 
(Lev. xxv. 40): and (3) the expiration of six 
years of servitude (Ex. xxi. 2; Deut. xv. 12). 
The occupations of slaves were of a menial char- 


Stfa.y VJ Tne Hebrew term borith refers to vegetable 
alkali, or some kind of potash, which forms one 
of the usual ingredients in our soap. 

SodW.'one of the most ancient cities of Syria. 
It is mentioned with Gomorrah, Admah. Zebaim, 
and Bela or Zoar. Sodom was the chief. _ The 
catastrophe by which they were destroyed is de- 
scribed in Gen. xix. The miserable fate ot Sod- 
om and Gomorrah is held up as a warning in the 
Old and New ^ 

Testaments (2 
Pet. ii. 6 ; Jude 
4-7; Mark vi. 

ix. 2i 

gate f( 

iod omiti 

ix. 29), the 
Greek and Vul- 
gate form of 

Sod'omites, em- 
ployed for those 
who practised 
as a religious 
rite the abomin- 
able and unnatural vice from which the inhabit- 
' ants of Sodom and Gomorrah have derived their 


ffirl, rgde.p^sh; t, i, o, silent; 9 as »i fU as six; «, «b, as k; 5 &* J' & as in get; s as x; j as gz; a as In linger. Ugk; «b as In tbine-, 

1 — - - ■ ■ " 



everlasting infamy (Deut. xxiiL 17; 1 K. xiv. 24, 
xv. 12, &c). 
Sol'omon, the youngest of David's sons (1 Chr. iii. 


5). The death of Absalom occurred when Sol- 
omon was about ten years old, and David pledged 
his word in secret to Bathsheba that he, and no 
other, should be the heir (1 K. i. 13). Adonijah, 
next in order of birth to Absalom, "was a goodly 
man" (1 K. i. 6), in full maturity of years. Fol- 
lowing Absalom, he assumed kingly state. A 
solemn feast at Ex-rogel was to inaugurate the 
new reign. Bathsheba and Nathan took counsel 
together. The king was reminded of his oath. 
Solomon went down to Gihon, and was pro- 
claimed and anointed king. Adonijah' s plot had 

failed. A few months more, and Solomon found 
himself, by his father's death, the sole occupant 
of the throne. The earliest facts in the new 
reign are told in 1 K. ii. All the data for a con- 
tinuous history that we have of Solomon's reign 
are — (a.) The duration of the reign, 40 years (1 
K. xi. 42) b. c. 1015-975. (5.) The commence- 
ment of the Temple in the 4th, its completion in 
the 11th year of his reign (1 K. vi. 1, 37,38). 
(e. ) The commencement of his own palace in the 
7th, its completion in the 20th year (1 K. vii. 1 ; 


2 Chr. viii. 1). (d.) The conquest of Hamath- 
Zobah (Chr. viii. 1-6). The king soon fell from 

_ _ 


the loftiest height to the lowest depth. He gave 
himself to "strange women," and the worship of 
strange gods. Disasters followed. Something 

may be learned 
from the books 
that bear his 
name ; also from 
the fact that so 
little remains out 
of so much, of 
which the histo- 
rian speaks (I K. 
iv. 32, 33). 
Solomon's Serv- 
ants (Children 
of. Ezr. ii. 50, 
58; Neh. vii. 57, 
60;. The per- 
sons thus named 
were the descend- 
ants of the Ca- 
naanites, reduced 
by Solomon and 
compelled to la- 
bor in the stone- 
quarries (1 K. v. 
13, 14, ix. 20). 
Solomon's Song. 

Solomon, Wisdom 
of. [W I s d o m , 
3 $4- Book of.] 

Son, used to imply almost any kind of descent or 

Soothsayer. [Divination.] 

Sop'ater, son of Pyrrhus of Beroea, one of the J 
companions of St. Paul on his return from 
Greece into Asia (Acts xx. 4). 
Sorcerer. [Divination.] 
So'rek, the Valley of, a wady in which lay 
the residence of Delilah (Judg. xvi. 4). 
Possibly near Gaza. 

Sosip'ater, kinsman or fellow-tribesman of 
St. Paul (Rom. xvi. 21), probably same 
as Sopater. 
Sos'thengs, a Jew at Corinth, seized and 
beaten in the presence of Gallio (see 
Acts xviii. 12-17). Paul wrote the First 
Epistle to the Corinthians jointly in his 
own name and that of a certain Sos- 
thenea(l Cor. i. 1). 
Sower, Sowing. The operation of sowing 
is of simple character. The Mosaic law 
prohibited the sowing of mixed seed (Lev. 
xix. 19; Deut. xxii. 9). 
Spain (1 Mace. viii. 3 ; Rom. xv. 24, 28). 
The early introduction of Christianity into 
Spain is attested by Irenaeus and Tertullian. 
Sparrow, in all passages excepting two ren- 
dered "bird" or u fow]."_ In Ps. lxxxiv. 
3, and Ps. cii. 7, It is rendered "spar- 
row." It occurs twice in the N. T., Matt. x. 29, 
Luke xii. 6, 7. The English tree sparrow (Passer 
Montanus, L.) may be seen in numbers on Mount 
Olivet. The rock sparrow (Petronia stulta, 
Strickl.) is a common bird in the barer portions 
of Palestine, eschewing woods. 
Spearmen (Acts xxiiL 23). Probably troops so 



Nicodemus for the preparation of the Lord's 
body (John xix. 39, 40) are " myrrh and aloes," 
by which latter word must be understood the 
highlyscented wood of the Aquilaria agalloehum. 
Spider. The Hebrew in Job viii. 14, Is, lix. 5, ia 


correctly rendered "spider." But in Prov. xxx. 
28 it -refers probably to some kind of lizard. 
Spikenard (Cant. i. 12; iv. 13, 14. The ointment 
with which our Lord was anointed as He sat at 
meat in Simon's house at Bethany, the costliness 
of which may be inferred from Mark xiv. 3-5 j 
John xii. 3, 5. 


lightly armed as to be able to keep pace on the 
march with mounted soldiers- 
Spice, Spioes. A general term to denote aromatic 
substances. The spices mentioned as used by 


Spinning. Prov. xxxi. 19 implies the use of the 
same instruments in vogue down to the present 

Sponge (Matt, xxvii. 48 ; Mark xv. 36 ; John xix. 
29). The commercial value of the sponge was 
known from early times. 
Sta'ohys, A Christian at Rome, saluted by St. Paul 
in Rom. xvi. 9. 

Stacte, the name of one of the sweet spices 
which composed the holy incense (see Ex. 
xxx. 3^^QG 

Stater, or Tetradrachm ; value 64 cent3. 
Steel. In all cases the true rendering is 

StepVanas, a Christian convert of Corinth 
whose household Paul baptized as the 
"first fruits of Achaia'"* (1 Cor. i. 16, 
xvi. 15;. 
Ste'phen, the first Christian martyr. His 
name indicates his Hellenistic origin. 
His importance is stamped on the narra- 
tive. He was brought before the San- 
hedrin. His speech and his execution 
fey stoning, are r.lated in the Acts (vii.). 
Stocks, applied to two different articles, 
one of which answers to our pillory ; the 
other to our "stocks." The stocks, 
properly so called, are noticed in Job 
' xiii.^27j xxxiii. 11, and Acts xvi. 24. 
Stoics. The Stoic school was founded by 
Zeno of Citium (cir. b. c. 290), and derived 
its name from the "portico" in which he 
taught. The morality of stoicism is based oo 

S. 6. ** $t *K S , to*Ci &, «• I, 6 ^ t *bortj «£re- Jar. Ifut, <fJt wb»t; there, v£il. Um~ pique. 

I----r^^s-..-.:-.^.,.^.„m!_.,JJ — ■■. l ^^»^ «. J ■ ■ ■— » j i . i !■■ ■ , '■■ ■■ .J,- ■ ■ ' .. ■ ^ ■■' ■ ■■ ■ ^ ■«» .^j »i .sljsW.^JJU^ ^ ^^ 

% din*, idr, dfe. wyM, ftfod. 4ft^i 



Stoinaoher. SomA arficlfe of female attire (Is. iii. 24), 
the character of which is conjecture. 


The name is derived from the fact of Jacob's 
having there put up "booths" (Succoth). Suc- 
coth lay near the ford of the torrent Jabbok. 
Succoth is named as the spot at which brass 
founderies were placed for casting the metal 
work of the Temple. 2. The first camping- 
place of the Israelites (Ex. xii. 37, xiii. 20; 
Numi xxxiij 5, 6). 

3uc'eoth'-3e'noth. <2 K. xvii. 30). Supposed 
to signity the " tents of daughters." Raw- 
linson thinks it represents Zerbanit, a god- 
doss worshipped at Babylon. 

Suretyship. In the time of Solomon surety- 
ship was common (Prov. vi. 1, xi. 15, xvii. 
18, xx. 16, xxii. 26, xxvii. 13). 

Su'sa (Esth. xi. 3, xvi. 18. [Shushan.] 

Susan'na. 1. The heroine of the story of 
the Judgment of Daniel. 2. One of the 
women who ministered to the Lord (Luke 


3) - „ 


Stones, Precious^ -Prieci&us stones were highly 

valued in the earliest times. They are used in 

Scripture, in a figurative sense, to signify value, 

beauty, durability, &c. 

Stoning. [Punishments.] 
Stork. The White) Stork is 

one of the largest birds, 

standing nearly four feet J 

high. It is in the list of ,3 

unclean birds (Lev. xi. 3 

19 ; Deut. xiv. 18). The i 

Black Stork, though less 

abundant, is scarcely less 

widely distributed. Both 

species are very numer- 
ous in Palestine^ .»_, _ - 
Strain at (Matt. xxiiirE4|. 

There can be little doubt 

the true reading is, "strain 

out." N. V. 
Stranger. A person o'fjfd*- 

eign, i. e. non-Israelitish, 

extraction resident within 

the promised land. The 

stranger appears eligible 

to civil offices, that of 

king excepted (Deut. 

xvii. 15). If a bondsman, he was obliged to 

submit to circumcision (Ex. xii. 44). 
Straw. Both wheat and barley straw were used 

by the ancient Hebrews chiefly as fodder (Gen. 

xxiv. 25; IK. ie. JJ8,, ^t was employed by the 

Egyptians for mating bricks (Ex. v. 7, 16). 
Stream of Egypt (Is. xxvii. 12). [River of 

Egypt.] i\-*if> 1 

Street. The street called-" Straight," in Damas- 
cus (Acts ix. 11), was a noble thoroughfare, 100 

feet wide, divided by colonnades into three ave- 

Swallow. The characters ascribed are strictly 
applicable to the swallow. Many species of 
swallow occur in Palestine. 
Swan. It occurs in the list of unclean birds. The 
renderings of the LXX., " porphyrio " (purple 
water-hen) and "ibis," are either of them more 



Elders (Luke vii. 3), presided over (Luke viii. 
41,49. xiii. 14; Actsxvhi. 8, 17). The third, sixth, 
and ninth hours were iu the times of the N. T. 


nues, the central one for foot passengers. Streets 
occasionally had names (Acts ix. 11). 

Stripes. [Punishments.] 

Srs'coth. 1. An anient town (Gen. xxxiii. 17). 



Sweat, Bloody (St. Luke xxii. 44). Of this malady, 
known by the term diapedeis, there have been 
examples. The cause assigned is generally vio- 
lent mental emotion. 

Swine. The flesh of swine was forbidden (Lev. 
xi. 7 ; Deut. xiv. 8). It is probable that dieteti- 
cal considerations may have influenced the pro- 
hibition. There can be but little doubt that the 
heathen nations of Palestine used the flesh as 
food, rs y\ '> W A 

Sycamine-tree (Luke xvii. 6), distinct 
from the sycamore (xix. 4). The syca- 
mine is the mulberry-tree. Both black 
and white mulberry-trees are common in 
Syria and Palestine. 

Sycamore. Although the Sycamine is 
properly, and in Luke xvii. 6, the Mul- 
berry, and the Sycamore the Fig-mulberry- 
or Sycamore-fig (Fieus Syeomorus), yet 
the latter is the tree generally referred 
to in the 0. T. The Sycamore, or Fig- 
mulberry, is in Egypt and Palestine a 
tree of great importance. It affords a 
delightful shade. The fruit grows from 
the trunk on little sprigs, and in clusters, 
like the^grape. 

Sy'char (John iv. 5), a name applied to 
the town of Sbechem. 

Sy'chem, the Greek form of Shechem. 

Sye'ne, properly Seveneh, a town of 
of Egypt, on the frontier of Ethiopia 
(Ezk.xxix. 10, xxx. 6). 

Synagogue. The word means a "congregation;" 
used in the New Testament to signify a recog- 
nized place of worship. The synagogue stood, 
if possible, on the highest ground, in or near the 
city to which it belonged. There was often but 
one Rabbi. Sometimes there was a college of 


(Acts iii. 1, x. 3, 9), the fixed times of devotion. 
The officers of the synagogue exercised in certain 
cases a judicial povrt^ U f^ 

Syn'tyohe, a female member 
of the Church of Philippi 


Syracuse, on the eastern 
coast of Sicily. St. Paul 
arrived thither from Melita, 
on his voyage to Rome (Acts 
xxviii. 12). 

Syr'ia, the term used for the 
Hebrew Aram. It is difficult 
to fix the limits. Syria Pro- 
per was bounded by Amanus 
and Taurus on the N., by the 
Euphrates and the Arabian 
desert on the E., by Pales- 
tine on the S., by the Medi- 
terranean near the mouth of 
the Orontes, and then by 
Phoenicia upon the "W. This 
tract contains about 30,000 
square miles. The general 
character of the tract ia 
mountainous. Syria holds 
an important place, not only 
in the Old Testament, but in the New. The 
Syrian Church soon grew to be one of the most 
flourishing (Acts xiii. 1, xv. 26, 35, 41, &c. 
Sy'ro-phoeni'cian I Mark vii. 26), perhaps a mixed 
race, half Phoenicians and half Syrians. Mat- 
thew (xv. 22) speaks of "a woman of Canaan" 
in place of St. Mark's "Syro-phoenician." 


Ta'anach, i 

an ancient Canaanitish city, conquered 


by Joshua (Josh. xii. 21). Taanach and Megidde 
were the chief towns of the western portion of 
Esdwelon (1 K. iv. 12). 
Ta'heel, an officer of the Persian government in 
Samaria in the reign of Artaxerxes (Ezr. iv. 7). 
Perhaps a Syrian. 

jxu ancient- iuwu ^ \jeii. i^LAiii. ±tj. une xtauui. uuuicumco wclc wao a. ijuiic^c ui i. ciuajja a oywxu. 

fftrl, rede, p^isli; t, i, o, silent; 9 as s; £h as 8b; c, cb, u k; g W J, §_aa In get; s as s; j as gz; n as In linger, link; th as In thirtp. 






Tabering, an obsolete English word, used in Na- 
hum ii. 7. The Hebrew connects itself with toph, 
"a timbrel." 




Tabernacle. The Tabernacle was the tent of Jeho- 
vah, called by the same name as the tents of the 
people, in the midst of which it stood. It was also 
called the sanetuary, and the tabernaele of the con- 
gregation. During Moses' first retirement with 
God in Sinai, an exact pattern of the whole was 
shown him (Ex. xxv. 9, 40, xxvi, 30, xxxix. 32, 
42, 43 ; Num. viii. 4 ; Acts vii. 44 ; Heb. viii. 5). 
The Court of the Tabernaele, in which the Taber- 

bl.S 87 

Ta'bor, the Plain cf., ow darpar. 
nacle itself stood, was 100 cubits by 50. The 
Tabernacle itself was thirty cubits in length by 10 
in width (45 feet by 15), and 10 in height ; the 
interior being divided into two. The former was 
the Holy Place, containing the golden candlestick, 
the table of shew-bread and the altar of incense. 
The latter was the Most Holy Place, or the Holy 
of Holies, containing the ark. The front of the 
Sanctuary was closed by a hanging of fine linen, 
embroidered. A more sumptuons curtain divided 

lip 111 



the Holy from the Most Holy Place. It was 
called ■"■the. Veil. 

Tabernacles, The Feast of (Ex. xxiii. 16, "the 
♦east of in-gathering"), the third of the three 

great festivals of the Hebrews, which lasted from 
the loth till the 22d of Tisri. The following pas- 
sages refer to it : Exod. xxiii. 16 ; Lev. xxiii. 34- 
36, 39-43 ; Num. xxix. 12-38 ; Deut. xvi. 13-15, 
xxxi. 10-13. In Neh. viii. there is an account 
cf the observance of the feast of Ezra. The time 
of the festival fell in the autumn. Its duration 
was seven days. During the seven days the 
Israelites were commanded to dwell in booths 
formed of the boughs of trees. 

Tab'itha, also called Dorcas by St. Luke, a female 
disciple of Joppa, " full of good works." While 
St. Peter was at Lydda, Tabitha died ; upon which 
the disciples at Joppa sent for the Apostle. Upon 
his arrival, "Peter put them all forth," prayed 
for the Divine assistance, and then commanded 
Tabitha to arise (comp. Mark v. 41 ; Luke vii. 54). 
She opened her eyes, and sat up. This great 
miracle was the occasion of many conversions 

[_ gegjjActs ix. 36-42). 

Ta'bor and Mount Ta'bor, one of the most interest- 
ing mountains in Palestine. It rises abruptly 
from the north-eastern arm of the Plain of Es- 
draelon. The top of Tabor consists of an irregu- 
lar platform, embracing a circuit of half an hour's 
walk, and commanding wide views of the sub- 
jacent plain. Barak, at the command of Deborah, 
assembled his forces on Tabor, and descended 
into the plain, and conquered Sisera (Judg. iv. 

This should be The Oak of 
Tabor. It is mentioned 
in 1 Sam. x. 3, only. 
Tabret, [Timbrel.] 
Tab'rimon, properly Tab- 
rimmon, i. e. "good is 
Rimmon," the Syrian 
god. The father of Ben- 
hadad I., king of Syria 
in the reign of Asa (1 

xxvi. 6, 11, 33, xxxv. 11. 
It indicates the small 
hooks by which a curtain 
is suspended. 
Tad/mor. The city known 
to the Greeks and Ro- 
mans as Palmyra. It was 
built by Solomon. 
Tah'panhes, Tehaph'nehes, 
of Egypt, mentioned in the 
the time of Jeremiah and Ezekiel. The name is 
Egyptian. The Jews in Jeremiah's time remained 
here (Jer. xliv. 1). Here stood a house of 
Pharaoh-hophra, before which Jeremiah hid 
great stones (xliii. 8-10). 
Tah'penes, an Egyptian queen, wife of the 
Pharaoh who received Hadad the Edomite, 
and gave him her sister in marriage (1 K. 

xi - W16 

Tah'tim Hodshi, The Land of, one of the 
places visited by Joab. It occurs between 
Gilead and Dan-jaan (2 Sam. xxiv. 6). 

Talent. [Weights.] 

Tal'itha Cu'mi, two Syriac words (Mark v. 

.41), signifying, ''Damsel, arise." 

Tal'mai. One of the three sons of " the 
Anak," slain by the men of Judah (Num. 
xiii. 22; Josh. xv. 14. 

Talmud ( i. e. doctrine, from the Hebrew ''to 
learn''), a collection of writings, containing 
a full account of the civil and religious laws 
of the Jews. It was a fundamental principle 
of the Pharisees that by the side of the 
written law there was an oral law, to com- 
plete and explain the written law. This oral 
law, with the numerous commentaries upon 
it, forms the Talmud. It consists of two 
parts, the Misbna and Gemara. 

Ta'mar (palm-tree). 1. The wife successively 
of the two sons of Judah, Er and Onan 
(Gen. xxxviii. 6-30). Er and Onan had 
successively perished suddenly. Judah' s wife 
died; and there only remained a child, She- 
lah. She resorted to the expedient of in- 
trapping the father. The fruits of this inter- 
course were twins, Pharez and Zarah. 2. 
Daughter of David and Maachah, and sister of 
Absalom (2 Sam. xiii. 1-32; 1 Chr. iii. 9). 
She and her brother were remarkable for their 

Tahap'anes, r 

a city 

beauty. This fatal beauty inspired a frantic pas- 
sion in her half- brother Amnon, who forcibly 
accomplished his design upon her. 3. Daughter 
of Absalom (2 Sam. xiv. 7), became the mother 
of Maachah, the future wife of Abijah (1 K. xv. 2). 
Tam'muz, properly "the Tammuz" (Ez. viii. 14). 
Jerome identifies Tammuz with Adonis. That 
Tammuz was the Egyptian Osiris washeld by many. 


Ta'phath, the daughter of Solomon, who was mar- 
ried to Ben-Abinadab (1 K. iv. 11). 

Tare'a, the same as Tahrea, the son of Micah (1 
Chr. viii. 35). 

Tares. The zizania of the parable (Matt. xiii. 25) 
denote the weed called "darnel." Before it 
comes into ear it is very similar to wheat. 

Tare-urn. The Scriptures in the Chaldee language 
or dialect. 

Tar'pelites, The, a race of colonists planted in the 
cities of Samaria after the captivity of the north- 
jerH fejngdoni (Ezr. iv. 9). 

Tar'shish. 1. Probably Tartessus, a city and em- 
porium of the Phoenicians in the south of Spain. 
(Gen. x. 4; Jon. i. 3, iv. 2 ; 1 Chr. i. 7, &c. 2. 


From Chronicles there would seem to have been 
a Tarshish accessible from the Red Sea. The 

V. •/• % 5* fi, f, long j &, e, i, 6, tt, f, ehort: care, iiir. last, *aU, wtoatj there, veil, Man', jtfqu* 


expression, ''ships of Tarshish," originally meant 
ships destined to go to Tarshish ; hence, we may 
infer the word was also used to si gnify any distant 
££rm: d6 u e, fOr, dg, wolf, f<T<wl, frffct* 



place. This is shown by the nature of the im- 
ports (1 K. x. 22). 

Tar'sus, the chief town of Cilicia, illustrious as 
the birthplace of Paul (Acts ix. 11, xxi. 39, xxii, 
3), It was a city of considerable consequence. 
Augustus made it a "free city." 




19; Jc 


Tar'tak, one of the gods of the Avite, or Awite, 
colonists of Samaria (2 K. xvii. 31), said to have 
been worshipped under the form of an ass. 

Tar'tan (2 L. Mfil.^'fo Is. xx. 1), generally re- 
garded as a proper name, but more probably au 
official designation. .-, ^. 

Taverns, The TKree. [Three Taverns.] 

Taxes. Under ''the Judges, the only payments of 
permanent obligations were the Tithes, the First 
Fruits, the Redemption-money of the first-born, 
and other offerings as belonging to special occa- 
sions. The kingdom, with its greater magnifi- 


cence, involved, of course, a larger expenditure! 
and therefore a Jieayier .taxation. 
Taxing. Two distinct taxings are mentioned by 
St. Luke. The first the result of an edict of Au- 
gustus (Luke ii. 1), and is connected with the 
name of Cyrenius, or Quirinus. [Cyrenius]. The 
second, and more important ( Acts.v . 37), is asso- 
ciated with the revolt of Judas of Galilee. 
Te'beth. [MoNittjilV 

Teko'a and Teko'ab.. 1. A town six Roman miles 
from Bethlehem. Tekoa is chiefly memorable as 
the birthplace of the prophet Amos (Amos vii. 

14). 2. A name 
occurring in 1 
Chr. ii. 24, iv. 
5. There is lit- 
tle doubt that 
the town of Te- 
koa is meant. 
Tel' aim. The 
place at which 
Saul numbered 
his forces be- 
Timbrel. fore his attack 

on Amalek (1 Sam. xv. 4), and may be identical 
with Telem. q q tl ' 1 
Te'lem. One of the cities in the south of Judah 
(Josh xv. 24), probably the same as Telaim. 
tema, the ninth son of Ishmael (Gen. xxv. 15 ; 1 

30); whence the tribe (Job vi. 
and the land (Is. xxi. 13, 14). 
Te'matf.^l. A son of Eliphaz, son of Esau by 
Adah (Gen. xxxvi. 11; 1 Chr. l. 3G). 2. A coun- 
try named after the Edomite phylarch, or from 
which the phylarch took his name. 

Temple Perhaps no build- 
ing of the ancient world 
has excited so much at- 
tention as the Temple 
Solomon built at Jerusa- 
lem. David first proposed 
to replace the Tabernacle 
by a more permanent 
building, but was forbid- 
den for the reasons as- 
signed by Nathan (2 Sam. 
vii. 5, &c). Solomon, 
with the assistance of 
Hiram king of Tyre, com- 
menced this great under- 
taking in the fourth year 
of his reign (b. c. 1012), 
and completed it in seven 
years (b. c. 1005). It oc- 
cupied the site prepared 
for it by David. The 
whole area enclosed by 
the outer walls formed a square of about 600 feet. 
As in the Tabernacle, the Temple consisted of 
three parts, the Porch, the Holy Place, and the 
Holy of Holies. The Porch of the Temple was 
10 cubits deep. The front of the porch was sup- 
ported by the two great brazen pillars, Jachin and 
Boaz, 18 cubits high, with capitals of 5 cubits 
more, adorned with lily-work and pomegranates 
(1 K. vii. 15-22). The Holy Place, or outer hall, 
was 40 cubits long by 20 wide. The Holy of Holies 
^ -r - ^ i^rr-,^ was a cube of 20 cu- 
bits. Both within and 
without, the building 
was conspicuous by 
the lavish use of gold. 
It glittered in the 
morning sun like the 
sanctuay of an El 
Dorado. This Tem- 
ple was destroyed on 
the capture of Jerusalem by Nebuchadnezzar, b. 

c. 5sc; 

Temple op Zerubbabel. — "We have very few par- 
ticulars regarding the Temple the Jews erected 
after their return from Captivity (about B. C. 520). 

Temple op Herod. — Herod announced (b. c. 20 
or 19) his intention of restoring the Temple. He 
pulled down the whole to its foundations, and 
laid them anew on an enlarged scale. The new 
edifice was a stately pile of Graeco-Roman archi- 
tecture, built in white marble with gilded acroteria. 

b2^ 880 



nant" (Ex. , Deut., U. ee.; 1 K. viii. 21, ftc), or the 
Testimony (Ex. xxv. 16, 21, &c). In the midst 



of the cloud, and darkness, and lightning, and 
fiery smoke, and thunder, Moses was called to 
receive the Law. Their division into Two Tables 
is expressly mentioned, and no doubt the First 
Table contained Duties to God, and the Second, 
Duties to our Neighbor. 
Tent. An Aral) tent is called belt, "house;" its 
covering consists of stuff made of black goats' - 
hair (Cant. i. 5). This is sufficient to resist the 


The New Testament has made us familiar with 
the pride of tbe Jews in its magnificence. 
Ten Commandments. In Scripture we have the 
"Ten Words" (Ex. xxxiv. 28), the "COVE- 


heaviest rain. The ends of the tent-ropes are 
fastened to short pins, which are driven into the 
ground (Judg. iv. 21). The tent is divided into 
two apartments. 
Te'rah, father of Abram, Naher, and Haran, and 
ancestor of the Israelites, Ishmaelites, Midian- 
ites, Moabites, and Ammonites (Gen. xi. 24-32). 
The account of him is very brief. He was an 
idolater (Josh xxiv. 2), dwelt in TJr of the Chal- 
dees (Gen. xi. 28), and in his old age went with 
his son (Gen. xi. 31). And finally, "the days of 

Terah were 
two hundred 
and five years ; 
and Terah died 
in Haran" 
(Gen. xi. 32). 
Ter'aphim, only 
in plural, im- 
ages connected 
with magical 
rites. Tera- 
phim were con- 
sulted for or- 
acular answers 
by the Israel- 
ites (Zech. x. 
2; Judg. xviii. 
6, 6; 2 K. 
xxiii. 24), and 
by the Baby- 
lonians (Ez. 
xxi. 19-22). 
Te'resh, one of 
two eunuchs 
whose plot to 
Ahasuerus was 
(Esth, ii. 21, vi. 2). He was hanged. 
Ter'tius, probably a Roman, was the amanuensis 
of Paul in writing the Epistle to the Romans 
(Rom. xvi. 22). 

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1 , 

ertul'lus, "a certain orator" (Acts xxiv. 1) who 

was retained by the High Priest and Sanhedrim 
to accuse the Apostle Paul. He belonged to the 
class of professional orators. 


«« Ml , 



the governor of the fourth part of a 

country. ( 1 . ) Herod Antipas was distinguished 

s ' 'Herod the tetrarch. " (2. ) Herod Philip was 

"tetrarchoflturaea." (3.) Lysanias was "tetrarch 

of Abilene." 

Thaddae'us. From a comparison with the cata- 
logue of St. Luke (Luke vi. 15 ; Acts i. 13) it 
seems that the three names of Judas, Lebbaeus, 
and Thaddaeus were borne by one and the same 

Tha'mar.; Tamar. 1 (Matt. i. 3). 

Tharik-ofllring-, or Peace-offering. The properly 
eucharistic offering among the Jews, in theory 
resembling the Meat-offering, and indicating 


Thebes by the arm of Babylon (Ez. xxx. 14-16). 

The Persian invader completed the destruction 

tliiit the Babylonian had begun. 
The'bez, a place memorable for the death of the 
brave Abimelech (Judg. ix. 50). It is 
on the road to Scythopolis. 
Theoph'ilus, the person to whom St. 
Luke inscribes his Gospel and the 
Acts of the Apostles (Luke i. 3 ; £ 
Acts i. 1). From Luke i. 3, ithas 
been argued that he was high in 
official, position. 
Thessalo'nians, First Epistle to the, |i 
was written by Paul at Corinth, a (M^TW 
few months after he had founded 
the Church at Thessalonica, at the {5^ 
close of the year 52 or beginning 
of 53. The Epistles to the Thessa- 
lonians are the earliest of St. 
Paul's writings — perhaps the earli- 
est written records of Christianity. 
Certain features in the Thessaloni- 
an Church called for St. Paul's in- 
terference, to which he addresses 

Thessalo'nians, Second Epistle to the, 
appears to have been written from Corinth not 
long after the First, for Silvanus and Timotheus 
were still with St. Paul (i. 1). 
Thes'saloni'ca. The original name of this city was 
Therma. Cassander named it after his wife 
Thessalonica, the sister of Alexander the Great. 


rhs* and Thistles.' Eighteen or twenty Hebrew 
words point to different kinds of prickly or 
thorny shrubs. These are rendered "thorns," 
"briers," "thistles," &c. The "crown of thorns" 
(Matt, xxvii. 29), put in derision upon our Lord's 


l.iat the offerer was reconciled to, and in cove- 
nant with, God. Its ceremonial is described in 
Lev. iii. 

Tha'ra. Terah the father of Abraham (Luke iii. 34). 

Theatre. ~ The Greek and English terms denote 
the same thing. It was in the theatre at Caesarea 
that Herod Agrippa I. gave audience to the 
Tyrian deputies, and was himself struck with 
death, because he heard so gladly the impious ac- 
clamations of the people (Acts xii. 21-23). 

Thebes (A. V. No, the multitude of No, populous 
No), a chief city of ancient Egypt. No-Amon is 
the name of Thebes in the Hebrew Scriptures 
(Jer. xlvi. 25; Nah. iii. 8). The origin of the 
City is lost. In the 1st century before Christ, 


Diodorus visited Thebes, and he preserves the 
tradition of its early grandeur. The grandeur of 
Egypt is here in almost every pillar, obelisk, and 
Btone. Ezekiel proclaims the destruction of 


Saloniki is still the most important town of Eu- 
ropean Turkey, next after Constantinople. A 
flourishing Church was formed there ; and the I 
Epistles show that its elements were much more 
Gentile than Jewish. 
Theu'das, the name of an insurgent mentioned in 
Acts v. 35-39. He appeared at the head of about 
four hundred men. Probably one of the insur- 
rectionary chiefs or fanatics by whom the land 
was overrun in the last year of Herod's reign. 
Thieves, The two. The men who 
under this name appear in the 
crucifixion were robbers, belonging 
to lawless bands by which Pales- 
tine was infested. It was neces- 
sary to use an armed police to en- 
counter them (Luke xxii. 52). Of 
the previous history of the two who 
suffered on Golgotha we know 

| Q$h4p|. 

Thistle. [Thorns and Thistles.] 
Thom'as, one of the Apostles. The 
word means "a twin." He is said 
to have been born at Antioch. In 
the catalogue of the Apostles he is 
coupled with Matthew in Matt. x. 
3; Mark iii. 18; Luke vi. 15; and 
with Philip in Acts i. 13. All that 
we know of him is derived from 
the Gospel of St. John. _ The 
earlier traditions, as believed in the 

4th century, represent him as preaching in Par- 

thia or Persia, and as finally buried at Edessa. 

His martyrdom is said to have been occasioned 

by a lance. 


head, was obviously some small, flexile, thorny 
shrub, perhaps cappares spinosae ; Hasselquist 
says Arabian Nabk. 
Three Taverns. A station on the Appian Road, 
along which St. Paul traveled from Puteoli to 
Rome (Acts xxviii. 15). It was near the modern 
Cisterna, and was a frequent meeting-place of 
Threshing. [Agriculture.] 
Threshold. Of two words so rendered, one 
seems to mean sometimes a projecting beam 
(Ez. ix. 3, x. -I, 18). 
Throne. The Hebrew word applies to any ele- 
vated seat occu- 
pied by a person 
in authority. 
throne was apg 
proached by six ? - 
steps (1 K. x*-. 
19; 2 Chr. ix: 
18). The maC 
terials and work- 
manship were timbrel. 
€b9JLf» f> 

Thum'mim. [Urim and Thummim.] 
Thunder is hardly ever heard in Palestine from 
the middle of April to the middle of Septem- 
ber. Hence selected by Samuel as a striking 
expression of the Divine displeasure (1 Sam. 
xii. 17). In the imaginative philosophy of the 
Hebrews, thunder was regarded as the voice o? 

yati'ra, a city on the Lycus, on the confines of 
Mysia and Ionia. Dyeing formed an important 
part of industrial activity, as at Colossae and 
Laodicea (Acts xvi. 14). The principal deity 
was Apollo. 
Thyine Wood (Rev. xviii. 12). There can be little 
doubt that the wood is that of the Callitris quad- 


rivaluis of present botanists. This tree was much 

prized on account of the beauty of its wood. 
Tibe'rias, a city in the time of Christ, on the Sea 
of Galilee ; first mentioned in John vi. 1, 33, 

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xxi. 1). Josephus states it was built by Herod 
Antipas. The Mishna was compiled at this place 


by the great Rabbi, Judah Hakkodesh (a. r>. 190). 
Tiberias was the capital of Galilee until the reign 
of Herod Agrippa, II. 

Tibe'rias, The Sea of (John xxi. 1). [Gennesaret, 
Sea or.] o 4 u o 

Tibe'rius (Tiberius Claudius Nero), the 2d Roman 
emperor, successor of Augustus, who began to 
reign a. d. 14, and reigned until a. d. 37. He 
was a step- son of Augustus. He was born at 
Rome on the 16th of November, b. c. 45. He 
became emperor in his 55th year, after having 
distinguished himself as a commander and as an 
orator. He was despotic in his government, 
cruel and vindictive in his disposition. Tiberius 
died, a. d. 37, at the age of 78, after a reign of 
23 years. Our Saviour was put to death in the 
reign of Tiberius. 


benites, the Gadites, and the half tribe of 
Manasseh (1 Chr. v. 26). He appears contempo- 
rary with Rezin, Pekah, and Ahaz ; and there- 
fore to have ruled Assyria during the lat- 
ter half of the eighth century before our 
era. His reign lasted at least seventeen 

•year^. | Q 

Ti'gris is used by the LXX. as the Greek 
equivalent of the Hebrew Hiddekel, It 
rises from two principal sources in the 
Armenian mountains, and flows into the 
Euphrates. Its length is reckoned at 
1140 miles. 

Tik'van, the father of Shallum the husband 
of the prophetess Huldah (2 K. xxii. 14). 

Tile. Luke v. 19, "through the tiling," 
("tiles," N. R. ), has given much trouble to 
expositors. Did not St. Luke use the ex- 
pression without reference to the material 
of the roof in question ? 

Tlmae'us, the father of the blind man, Bar- 
timaeus (Mark x. 46). 

1 HI 4-0 



(1 Mace. v. 6). 2. The Greek name of Timothy 
Tim'othy. The father was a Greek, i. t. 



Timbrel, Tabret (Heb. toph). The Heb. is the 
duff or diff of the Arabs. It is "a hoop (some- 
times with pieces of brass fixed in it to make a 
jingle) over which a piece of parchment is 


Tib'ni. After Zimri Burnt himself in his palace, 
half the people followed Tibni and half Omri (1 
K. xvi. 21, 22). Omri was the choice of the 
army. The struggle lasted four years (comp. 1 
K. xvi. 15, 23U 

Ti'dal (Gen. xiv-.>t^3)s J. We conclude that he was 
a chief over various tribes. 

Tig'lath-pile'ser, second Assyrian king mentioned 
as having come into contact with the Israelites. 
He attacked Samaria in the reign, of Pekah (2 K. 


distended. Tt 
is beaten with 
the fingers, 
and is the true 
tympanum of 
the ancients. ' ' 
Tim'na, Tim'- 
nah. _ 1. A 
concubine o f 
Eliphaz son 
of Esau, and 
mother of 
Amalek (Gen. 
xxxvi. 12). 2. 
A duke, or 
phylarch, o f 
Edom (1 Chr. 
,-i.: 61-54). 




XV. 29). He overran the whole district to the 
jgast jpf Jordan, carrying into captivity " the Reu- 

1. A place probably identical with the 
or, more accurately, Timnathah, of 
Samson (Judg. xiv. 
1, 2, 5). 2._ Inac- 
curately written 
Timnath in the A. 
V., the scene of the 
adventure of Judah 
with his daughter- 
in-law Tamar (Gen. 
xxxviii. 12, 
is nothing to 
indicate its 
Ti m'nath . 

Tim' nathah, 
the residence 
corner tower. f Samson's 

wife (Judg. xiv. 1, 2, 5). 
Tim'nath-se'rah, the name of the city pre- 
sented to Joshua (Josh. xix. 50), and in 
"the border" of which he was buried 
(xxiv. 30). It is specified as "in Mount 
Ephraim." In Judg. ii. 9, the name is 
Altered to Timkath-heres. 

Ti'mon, one of the seven, commonly called "dea- 
cons" (Acts vi. 1-6). He was probably a Hel- 
Timo'theus. 1. A ''captain of the Ammonites" 


by descent (Acts xvi. 1, 3). The care of the 
boy devolved upon his mother Eunice and her 
mother Lois (2 Tim. i. 5). Itis uncertain whether 
Lystra or Derbe was the residence of the devout 
family. The preaching of the Apostle prepared 
him for a life of suffering (Acts xiv. 22). During 
the interval of the Apostle's first and second 
journeys, the boy grew up to manhood. He was 
solemnly set apart to do the work of an Evangel- 
ist (1 Tim. iv. 14; 2 Tim. i. 6, iv. 5). Hence- 
forth Timothy was one of his most constant com- 
panions. He continues, according to the old 
traditions, to act as bishop of Ephesus, and dies 
a martyr's death under Domitian or Nerva. 


Timothy, Epistles of Paul to. The First Epistle 
•was probably written between St. Paul's first and 
second imprisonments at Rome. The Second 
Epistle appears to have been written soon after- 

■ wards and at Rome. 

Tin. Among the spoils of the Midianites, tin is 
enumerated (Num. xxxi. 22). It was known to 
the Hebrew metal workers (Is. i. 25 ; Ez. xxii. 
18, 20). The markets of Tyre were supplied 
with it (Ez. xxvii. 12). It was used for plum- 
mets (Zech. iv. 10). Tin is not found in Pales- 
tine. The mines of Britain were the chief source 
of supply to the ancient world. 

Tiph'sah (1 K. iv, 24), the limit of Solomon's em- 
pire towards the Euphrates. It was known to the 
Greeks and Romans under the name of Thapsacus. 

b4f o\)c\ 571 


Ti'ras, the youngest son of Japheth (Gen. x. 2), 
usually identified with the Thracians. 

Tire, an ornamental headdress worn on festive 
occasions (Ez. xxiv. 17, 23). 

fftrl, rede, pysh; », *, o. silent; f M Bj fb W sb; «, «b, M k; £ as J, g as m g*t; { uiiiugiisula ling*-. U»kJ <b as In tbinc, 

— *- --' ' — 


TirTiakah, king of Ethiopia, the opponent of Sen- 
aacherib (2 K. xix. 9 ; Is. xxxvii. 9). His ac- 
cession was probably about B. c. 695. 

ir'shatha, the title of the governor of Judaea 
under the Persians (Neh. viii. 9, x. 1). 

Tir'zah, an ancient Canaanite city (Josh. xii. 24). 
It reappears as the residence of Jeroboam and 

; Eis successors (1 K. xiv. 17, 18). 

Tish'bite, The, the well-known designation of Elijah 
(1 K. xvii. 1, xxi. 17, 28 ; 2 K. i. 3, 8, ix. 3G) 
the prophet. Assuming that a town is alluded to, 
as Elijah's native place, it is not necessary to in- 
fer that it was itself in Gilead. The name "Tish- 
bite" is regarded as referring to the place Thisbe 
in Naphtali. 

Ti'tans. According to Greek legends, the van- 
quished predecessors of the Olympian gods. Sev- 
eral Christian fathers inclined to the belief that 
Teitan was the mystic name of "the beast" in 
Rev. xiii. 18. 



them to Jerusalem, His circumcision was either 
not insisted on at Jerusalem, or was resisted. He 
is very emphatically spoken of as a Gentile. He 
is said to have been permanent 
bishop in Crete, and to have 
died there at an advanced age. 
The modern capital, Candia, 
appears to claim the honor of 
being the burial-place. 
Ti'tus, Epistle to. This Epistle 
has marks in its phraseology 
and style which assimilate it to 
the general body of the Epis- 
tles of St. Paul. 

Tob, The land of , a place in which 
Jeptthah took refuge when ex- 
pelled from home (Judg. xi. 3), 
and where he remained, at the 
head of a band of freebooters, 
till brought back by the sheikhs 
of Gilead (ver. 5). 
Tdbl'ah. "Tobiah the slave, the Ammonite," 
played a conspicuous part in the rancorous oppo- 
sition made by Sanballat the Moabite and his ad- 
herents to the rebuilding of Jerusalem. 
Tobl'jah. One of the Captivity in the time of 
Zechariah, in whose presence the prophet was 
commanded to take crowns of silver and gold and 
put them on the head of Joshua the high-pri$s$ 
(Zech. vS. 10, 14). 
Td'bit, Book of, a book of the Apocrypha, probab- 
ly written in Greek. The scene is placed in As- 
syria, whither Tobit, a Jew, had been carried by 

b44 902 D7l) 


Tongues, Confusion of. Unity of language is a* 
sumed by the sacred historian apparently as a 
corollary of the unity of race. The human family 



Tithe. Instances of the use of tithes are prior to 
the Levitical tithes under the Law. In Biblical 
history the two prominent instances are — 1. 
Abram presenting the tenth of his spoils to Mel- 
chizedek (Gen. xiv. 20 ; Heb. vii. 2, 6). 2. Jacob 
devoting a tenth of all his property to God (Gen. 
xxviii. 22). The first enactment of the Law is 
that the tenth of all produce, as of flocks and 
cattle, belongs to Jehovah, and must be offered to 
Him (Lev. xxvii. 30—33). This tenth is assigned 
to the Levites ; and further, they are to dedicate 
to the Lord a tenth of these receipts, to be de- 
voted to the high-priest (Num. xviii. 21-28). 
This legislation is modified or extended in the 

endeavored to check the tendency to separation 
by the establishment of a great central edifice. 
The project was defeated by Jehovah, who deter- 
mined to "confound their language." As there- 
suit, the people were scattered abroad upon the 
face of the earth, and the memory of the event 
was preserved in the name Babel. 
Tongues, Gift of. The promise of our Lord to his 



Book of Deuteronomy, i. 0. from thirty-eight to 
forty years later. 

Ti'tus. Titus is first seen in close association with 
Paul and Barnabas at Antioch . He g oes with 


Shalmaneser. It is a didactic narrative ; and its 
point lies in the moral lessons it conveys. 
Togar'mah, as a geographical term, is connected 

with Armenia (Ez. xxvii. 14, xxxviii. 6). 
Td'I, king of Hamath on the Orontes, who, after 
the defeat of his enemy the Syrian king by David, 
sent his son Joram, or Hadoram, to do him hom- 
age with presents of gold and silver and brass (2 
Sam. viii. 9, 10). 
To'la. 1. The first-born of Issachar, and ancestor 
of the Tolaites (Gen. xlvi. 13 ; 1 Chr. vii. 1, 2). 
2. Judge of Israel after Abimeleeh (Judg. x. 1, 
2). Tola judged Israel for 23 years. 

Tomb. From the burial of 
Sarah (Gen. xxiii. 19) to the 
rites prepared for Dorcas 
(Acts ix. 37), there is no 
mention of any sarcophagus, 
or coffin, in Jewish burial. A 
simplicity of rite was the dis- 
tinguished characteristic in 
Jewish sepulchres. The early 
Jewish rulers had no fixed or 
favorite place of sepulture. 
Each was buried without much 
caring either for the sanctity 
or convenience of the place 
chosen. Later, of the 22 
kings of Judah who reigned 
at Jerusalem from 1048 to 
590 b. c, eleven, or exactly 
one half, were buried in one 
hypogeum in the " city of 
David." There are around 
Jerusalem, in the Valleys of 
Hinnon and Jehoshaphat, and to 
the north, a number of remarkable rock-cut 
sepulchres. The Tombs of the Judges form one 
of the most remarkable of the catacombs around 


disciples in Mark xvi. 17, was fulfilled on the day 
of Pentecost, when cloven tongues like fire sat 
upon the disciples, and " every man hoard them 
speak in his own language" (Acts ii. 1-12). Con- 
nected with the "tongues," there was the corres- 
ponding power of interpretation. 
Topaz (Ex. xxviii. 17; Job xxviii. 19). The 
topaz of the ancient Greeks and Romans is 


allowed to be our chrysolite, while their chrysolite 
is our topaz. 
To'pheth, and once To'phet, was in the S. E. of 
the "Valley of the Son of Hinnom" (Jer. vii. 31). 
It seems to have been part of the king's gardens^ 

a. e. I, o, O, y, long; &, e, I, 6, *, f, abort; care, Jar, list, Sail, wbftlijheu, VfcU, ttrmj pXque , firm ; ddue, «6r. d«, Wfll, *<T©d, foot; 


and watered by Siloam. The name Tophet oc- 
curs only in the 0. T. The New does not refer 
to it. Tophet was probably the king's "music- 


grove" or garden, denoting originally nothing 
evil or hateful. Afterwards it was polluted by the 
sacrifices of Baal and the fires of Molech. The 
pious kings defiled it, till it became the "abhor- 
rence" of Jerusalem. 

Tortoise (Heb.-fe&9)',"?l£v. xi. 29, identified with 
the Arabic dhab, "a large kind of lizard." 

Tower. Fortified posts in exposed situations are 
mentioned (Gen. xxxv. 21; Mic. iv. 8, &c). Be- 
sides these military structures, we read of towers 
in vineyards as an almost necessary append- 
age to them (Is. v. 2 ; Matt. xxi. 33 ; Mark 
xii. 1). . 

Town Clerk, t%d li tie ascribed to the magistrate 
at Ephesus (Acts xix. 35). The service of 


25. was the half shekel applied to defray the gen- 
eral expenses of the Temple. This "tribute" of 
Matt. xvii. 24 must not be confounded with that 
. "^-^^ ^^-^ paid to the Roman emperor 
(Matt, xxii. 17). 
Trip'olis, the Greek name of a 
Phoenician city of great com- 
mercial importance. 
Tro'as, the city from which St. 
Paul first sailed (Acts xvi. 8, 
11). Its situation was on the 
coast of Mtsta. In the time 
of St. Paul it was a colonia 
with the Jus Italieum. 
Trogyl'lium, the rocky ex- 
tremity of the ridge of My- 
cale, exactly opposite Samos 
(Acts xx. 15). 
Troop, Band. Employed to 
represent the Hebrew word 
gedud, which has the sense of an irregular 
force for marauding and plunder. 
Trophimus. Both he and Tychicus accom- 
panied St. Paul from Macedonia as far as 
Asia (Acts xxi. 27-29). He was a Gentile, 
and a native of Ephesus. Trophimus was 
probably one of the two who, with Titus, con- 
veyed the 2d Epistle to the Corinthians (2 Cor. 
viii> 1.0-24). 
Trumpets, Feast of (Num. xxix. 1; Lev. xxiii. 24), 

10 .'J 01 

ULAI 87 


/re, a celebrated commercial city of Phoenicia, 
on the coast of the Mediterranean Sea. Tyre is 
named for the first time in the Book of Joshua 

f !■':!%„ 



this class of men was to record the laws and 
decrees of the state, and to read them in pub- 

Traohonl'tis (Luke iii. 1) is in all probability 
the Greek equivalent for the Aramaic Argob. 

Trance. In the -N. T. we meet with the word 
three times (Acts x. 10, xi. 5, xxii. 17). The 
state in which a man has passed beyond the usual 
limits of consciousness Bed volition. 

Trespass-offering. [Sin-offering.] 

Trial. 1. The trial of our Lord was a trial for the 
offence laesae majestatis; punishable with death 
(Luke xxiii. 2, 38 ; John xix. 12, 15). 2. The 
trials of St. Stephen, and St. Paul, before the 
high-priest, were according to Jewish rules (Acts 
iv., v. 27, vi. 12, xxii. 30, xxiii. 1)._ 3. The trial 
of St. Paul and Silas at Philippi, was on the 
charge of innovation in religion (Acts xvi. 19, 

(xix. 29), where it is adverted to as a fortified 
city. The first passages which afford glimpses of 
the actual condition of Tyre, are in the Book of 
Samuel (2 Sam. v. 11), in connection with 
Hiram king of Tyre ; and subsequently in the 
Book of Kings, in connection with the build- 
ing of Solomon's temple. Nebuchadnezzar 
laid siege to Tyre, and _ it submitted to the 
Chaldees. The prosperity of Tyre in the 


r *2). 4. The trials of St. Paul at Caesarea (Acts 
xxiv., xxv., xxvi.) were according to Roman 

Tribute. The tribute mentioned in Matt. xvii. 24 


the feast of the new moon, which fell on 
the first of Tizri. It was one of the seven 
days of Holy Convocation, "a day of blow- 
ing 'of 'trumpets." 
Tryphe'na and Tryphd'sa, two Christian 
women at Rome, enumerated in St. Paul's 
letter (Rom. xvi. 12). They may have 
been sisters, but more likely were fellow- 
Try'phon, a usurper of the Syrian throne. 

His proper name was Diodotus. 
Tu'bal is reckoned with Javan and Meshech 
among the sons of Japheth (Gen. x. 
2 ; 1 Chr. i. 5). Josephus identifies 
the descendants of Tubal with the 
Tu'bal-ca'in, the son of Lamech the 

Cainite by his wife Zillah (Gen. iv. 22). 
Turpentine-tree (Ecclus. xxiv. 16), the Pista- 
cia terebinthus, common in Palestine. 
Turtle, Turtle-dove (Gen. xv. 9). From its 
habit of pairing for life, and its fidelity for 
its mate, it was a symbol of purity and an 
appropriate offering. 
Tych'icus and Troph'imus, companionsof St. 
Paul. In Acts xx. 4, Tychicus and Troph- 
imus are said to be "of Asia;" but while 
Trophimus went with St. Paul to Jerusalem 
(Acts xxi. 29), Tychicus was left probably at 
Miletus (Acts xx. 15, 88). From 2 Tim. iv. 
20, we learn that Trophimus had been left 
by the Apostle, in infirm health, at Miletus. 
Tyran'nus (Acts xix. 9). The presumption is, 
that Tyrannus was a Greek, and a public teacher 
of philosophy or rhetoric 


time of Augustus was great. The city was 
visited by Christ (Matt. xv. 21 ; Markvii. 24). 
It was perhaps more populous than Jerusalem. 
At the time of the crusades Tyre was still a 
flourishing city. 


Ty'rus. This form is in Jeremiah, Ezekiel, Hosea 
(Joel has "Tyre"), Amos and Zechariah. 


Ithiel and Ucal must ba 

TJ'cal (Prov. xxx 

sons of Agur 

the son of Ja- 

keh. Ewald 

considers both 

symbo 1 ical 

TT'lai (Daniel 

viii. 2, 16), a 

river near to 

Susa, where 

Daniel saw his BaAT 0F wicker-work 

vision of the ram and the he-goat- Identified 

e tribute mentioned in Matt. xvii. 24, I of philosophy or rhetoric. vi sion or the ram and the he-goat- 

fOrl, r^ae, e9 jU»f €, i, e, flileut : o a» »; (b as sb; «,cb,Mk; g as J, g aa la get; $ ** s ; j as g*J QUb Ufiger, link.' tbnia ftter ? 




with the Choaspes, the modern Kerkhah, an afflu- 
ent of the Tigris. 


Unclean Meats. These were things strangled, or 
dead of themselves, or through beasts or birds of 
prey ; whatever beast did not part the hoof and 
chew the cud ; and certain animals rated as 
"creeping things ;" certain classes of birds men- 
tioned in Lev. xi. and Deut. xiv.; whatever in the 
waters had not fins and scales ; whatever winged 


A i\ O fc~\ £* 

Undergiraing, Acts xxvii. 17. [Ship.] 
Unicorn, the rendering of the Hebrew Reem. It 
has nothing to do with the one-horned animal of 
the Greek and Roman writers. Con- 
sidering that the Reem is a two-horned 
animal of great strength and ferocity, 
well known to the Jews, mentioned as 
fit for sacrificial purposes, and is asso- 
ciated with bulls and oxen, we think 
some species of wild-ox is intended; 
probably some gigantic Urus. 
U'phaz, Jer. x. 9 ; Dan. x. 5. [Ophir.] 
Ur, Hafan's nativity (Gen. xi. 28), 
from which Terah and Abraham start- 
ed (Gen. xi. 31). It is called "Ur of 
the Chaldaeans;" St. Stephen places 
it in Mesopotamia. It has been iden- 
tified with the city of Or-fah in the 
highlands of Mesopotamia. 
Ur'bane,Urbanus. A Christian disciple 
in the list of those whom St. Paul 
salutes* (Rom. xvi. 9). 
Uri'ah. 1. One of the thirty com- 
manders of David (1 Chr. xi. 41 ; 2 

I i 


Uz. 1. A Son of Aram (Gen. x. 23 ; 1 Chr. i. 17), 
and grandson of Shem. 2. The country in which 
Job lived (Job i. 1), "The land of Uz" lav 


Sam. xxiii. 39). 


insect had not besides four legs the two hind-legs 
for leaping; besides things offered to idols ; and 
blood or whatever contained it ; and therefore 
flesh from the live animal ; as also all fat disposed 
among the intestines, and probably wherever dis- 
cfernable and separable (Lev. iii. 14-17, vii. 23). 
Uncleanness The Israelites were to be "holy 


unto God" (Lev. xx. 24, 26), "a kingdom of 
priests, and a holy nation." Uncleanness as re- 
ferred to man, may be arranged in three degrees ; 

(1) that which defiled merely " until even," and 
was removed by bathing and washing the clothes ; 

(2) that graver sort which defiled for seven days, 

He was a foreigner — a Hittite. 
His name and speech (2 
Sam. xi. 11) indicate that he 
had adopted the Jewish re- 
ligion. He married Bath- 
sheba, a woman of extraor- 
dinary beauty, the daughter 
of Eliam. In the first war 
with Ammon he followed 
Joab to the siege. He re- 
turned to Jerusalem, at an 
order from the king. The 
king met with an unexpected 
obstacle in the austere, sol- 
dier-like spirit of Uriah. On 
the third day, David sent 
him back to camp with a let- 
ter containing the command 
to Joab to cause his destruc- 
tion in the battle. It is one 
of the touching parts of the 
story that Uriah falls uncon- 
scious of his wife's dishonor. 
2. High-priest in the reign 
of Ahaz. (Is. viii. 2 ; 2 K. 
xvi. 10-16). Probably the same as Urijah, who 
built the altar for Ahaz (2 K. xvi. 10). 
Uri'as. 1. Uriah, the husband of Bathsheba 

(Matt. i. 6). 2. Urijah (1 Esdr. ix. 43). 
U'riel, "the fire of God," an angel named only in 
2 Esdr, iv. 1, 36, v. 20, x. 28. 
U'rieb Uriel of Gibeah was the father of Maachah, 
r Michaiah, the favorite wife of Rehoboam, and 
mother of Abijah (2 Chr. xiii. 2). 
flri'jah. 1. Urijah the priest in the reign of Ahaz 
(2 &. xvi. 10). 2. The son of Shemaiah of Kir- 
jath-jearim. He prophesied in the days of Jehoi- 
akim, by whom he was slain with the sword (Jer. 
xxvi. 20-23). 


removed by the "water of separation ;" (3) un- 
cleanness from the morbid, puerperal, or mens- 
trual state ; and in the case of leprosy lasting 
often for life. 


U'rim and Thum'miiii. Unm means "light," and 
Thummim "perfection." All we know of them is 
given in the order in Ex. 
xxv. 16 ; xxviii. 30. Not 
a word describes them. 
They are mentioned as 
things already familiar 
both to Moses and the 
people, connected natural- 
ly with the functions of 
the high-priest, as mediat- 
ing between Jehovah and 
His people. 
Usury. The practice of 
mortgaging land, some- 
times at exorbitant interest, grew up among the 
Jews during the Captivity, in direct violation of 
the law (Lev. xxv. 36, 37; Ez. xviii. 8, 13, 17) 
Jewish law forbids usury 

either E. or S. E. of Palestine (Job i. 3) ; ao 
jacent to the Sabaeans and Chaldaeans (Job i. 
15, 17), consequently W. of the Euphrates. 
Uz'za, The Garden of, the spot in which Manasseh 
king of Judah,. and his son Amon, were both 


buried (2 K. xxi. 18, 26). It was suggested the 

farden was so called from being the spot at which 
Tzzadle'd during the removal of the ark. 
Uz'zah, or Uz'za, one of the sons of Abinadab, in 
whose house at Kirjath Jearim the ark rested for 
20 years. When David first undertook to carry it 


to Jerusalem, Ahio went before the cart (1 Chr. 
xiii. 7) and Uzzah walked by the side. "At the 
threshing-floor of Nachon" (2 Sam. vi. 6), or 
Chidon (1 Chr. xiii. 9), the oxen stumbled. 
Uzzah caught the ark to prevent its falling. The 
profanation was punished by his instant death. 


The ark ought to have been borne on the shoefc 

ders of the Levites. 

*. *t *. », «» 1. tog* &i Si l i *• *» f> ebon; care, far, list, ffcll, wb^ti there, ▼£*!, tfam; pique, tfrm; d*ne, I6r, dg, wylt, MM, «<fl*l 


Wzi, son of BukkL(l Chr. vi. 5, 51 ; Ezr. vii. 4). 
Though the lineal ancestor of Zadok, it does not 
appear that he was ever high-priest. 

665 928 596 


Urti'ah, King of Judah (b. c. 808-9—756-7). His 
name appears also as Azariah. After the murder 
of Amaziah, his son Uzziah was chosen to occupy 
the vacant throne at the age of 16 ; and for the 
greater part of his long reign of 52 years he 
lived in the fear of God. He was much influ- 
enced by Zechariah (2 Chr. xxvi. 5). He deter 

*924 5-97 

1046? 2HH5 


S3 4 6 

Vash'nl, firstborn of Samuel as the text now 
stands (1 Chr. vi. 28 [13]). But in 1 Sam. viii. 
2 his firstborn is Joel. Probably in the Chroni- 
cles the name of Joel has 
dropped out. 
Vash'ti, the "queen" of Ahasu- 
erus, who was repudiated and 
deposed (Esth. i.). It is 
probable she was only one of 
the inferior wives, dignified 
with the title of queen. 
Veil. In ancient times the veil 
was adopted either as an article 
of dress (Cant. iv. 1, 3, vi. 7), 
or by betrothed maidens in 
the presence of their future 
husbands (Gen. xxiv. 65, 
xxix. 25), or by women of loose char- 
acter (Gen. xxxviii. 14). 
Veil of the Tabernacle and Temple. 

[Tabernacle ; Temple.] 
Versions, Ancient, of the Old and New 
Testaments. Aethiopic Version. — 
Executed from the Greek. Arabic 
Versions. — From the Hebrew, the 
Pesliito Syriae, and the LXX. Armenian Ver- 
sion. — From the Greek. Chaldee Versions. — 
From the Hebrew. Egyptian Versions. — Made 
from the LXX. Gothic Version. — Of Greek 
origin, showing the transition text of the 4th 
century. Greek Versions of the_ Old Testa- 
ment. — These embrace the Septuagint and seven 

10 45 



proto-martyr. It somewhat reproduces TyndaPt 
work. This was the first Authorized Version. 
V. Tayerner (153'J .--Tliis may be described as 


mined to burn incense on the 
altar of God, but was opposed 
by the high-priest and eighty 
others (Ex. xxx. 7, 8; Num. 
xvi. 40, xviii. 7). Enraged at 
their resistance, he pressed 
forward with his censer, and 
was suddenly smitten with 
leprosy. Uzziah was buried 
"with his rathets' 1 ". (2 Chr. 
xxvi. 23). 
tlzzi'el. Fourth son of Ko- 


an expurgated edition of Matthew's. VI. Cran- 
mer. — In the same year as Taverner's, and com- 
ing from the same press, appeared this English 
Bible. It was the Authorized Version of the 
English Church till 1568. VII. Geneva.— The 
exiles to Geneva in the reign of Mary made a 
translation, which was for sixty years the most 
popular of all versions. It was based on Tyn- 
dal's Version. It entirely omitted Apocrypha. 
VIII. The Bishops' Bible. — Eight bishops, with 
deans and professors, brought out a magnificent 
folio (1568 and 1572). Is was based on Cran- 
mer's. IX. Rheims and Douat. — English Cath- 
olic refugees at Rheims undertook aversion. The 
N. T. was published at Rheims in 1582. The 
work of translation was com- 
pleted later by the publication 
^__^ of the 0. T. at Douay in 1609. 

^7*-ta . X. Authorized Version. — 

~°f^!^S^ Among the demands at the 
C Hampton Court Conference in 
1604, was one for a new, or a 


hath, father of Mishael, Elzaphan or Elizaphan, 
and Zithri, and uncle to Aaron (Ex. vi. 18, 22 ; 
Lev. x. 4). oo.iri 

Uzzi'elites, The, the descendants of Uzziel, and 
one of the four great families of the Kohathites 
(Num. iii. 27; 1 Chr. xxvi. 23). 


Vale, Valley. The structure of the Holy Land 


does not lend itself to the formation of valleys in 
our sense of the word. The abrupt transitions 
Of its crowded rocky hills preclude the existence 
of any extended sweep of valley 


others. Made from the Hebrew. Latin Ver- 
sions. [Vulgate.] Samaritan Versions. 
[Samaritan Pentateuch.] Slavonic Version. 
—The Old Testament is from the LXX. Syriac 
Versions.— The O. T. first, from the Hebrew ; 
second, from the Hexaplar Greek. 
Version, Authorized. I. "Wycliffe (b. 1324; d. 
1384).— The N. T. was translated by Wycliffe 
himself. The 0. T. was undertaken by Nicholas 
de Hereford. The version was based entirely 
upon the Vulgate. _ n. 
Tyndal. — Tyndal is the 
patriarch of the Author- 
ized Version, the true 
hero of the English 
Reformation. He spent 
years of labor in Greek 
and Hebrew. In 1525 
the whole of the N. T. 
was printed in 4to. 


complete translation, 
different from Tyndal' s, 
bearing the name of 
Miles Coverdale, appeared in 
1535. This was from the German and Latin. 
IV. Matthew.— In 1537, a large folio Bible ap- 
peared as edited by Thomas Matthew. Tradition, 
connects this Matthew with John Rogers, the 


revised translation. The work 
was congenial to James, and in 
1606 was commenced. It was 
intrusted to 54 scholars. Pub- 
lished in 1611. The Revision 
of the version of 16U had its 
origin in the convocation of 
Canterbury in 1870. A commit- 
tee of 101 of the best scholars of Eng. and the U. 
S. were engaged in the work. The Revised N. T. 
was published in 1881. 
Village. This word is often used to imply un- 
walled suburbs outside walled towns. _ The Tal- 
mudists define a village as a place destitute of a 

Vine, the well-known plant cultivated from the 
earliest times. The first mention is in Gen. ix. 
20, 21. The vines of Palestine were celebrated 


for luxuriant growth and immense clusters of 
grapes. The vintage, which formerly was a 
season of general festivity, commenced in Sep- 
Vine of Sodom (Devit. xxxii. 32). It is supposed 

^^^M.^eiUatffaas; v*aasu;«,«o,Mk; & ** J> & «* "> get; s "«; X as gx; B aa la linger, link; tn aa in «fcine. 



this passage alludes to the celebrated apples of 
Sodom. It has been variously identified, 
fi'negar, applied to a beverage of wine or strong 


drink turned sour; artificially made by an admix- 
ture of barley and ■wine, and thus liable to fer- 
mentation. It was used by laborers (Ruthii. 14). 
Similar was the acetum of the Romans. This 
was the beverage of which the Saviour partook 
in His dying moments (Matt, xxvii. 48 ; Mark 
xv. 36 ; John xix. 29, 30). 

Viper. [Serpent.] 

"Vows. The earliest mention of a vow is that of 
Jacob (Gen. xxviii. 18-22, xxxi. 13). Vows are 
mentioned in Job xxii. 27). The Law regulated 
the practice of vows. Three sorts are mentioned : 
I. Vows of devotion ; II. Vows of abstinence ; 
III. Vows of destruction. 

Vulgate, The, the Latin version of the Bible. The 
name is equivalent to Vulgata editio (the current 
text of Holy Scripture). The history of the 
earliest Latin Version of the Bible is lost. All 
that can be affirmed is, that it was made in Africa 
in the 2d century. In the 6th century the use of 
Jerome's Version was universal among scholars 
except in Africa. In the 7th century the traces 
of the Old Version grow rare. In the 8th cen- 
tury Bede speaks of Jerome's Version as "our 

I 0525 


thoritative text of Scripture, the want of a stand- 
ard text became urgent. At length an edition was 
published in 1590, under Pope Sixtus V. An- 
other edition under 
papal authority ap- 
peared in 1592 in the 
Pontificate of Clement 
VIII. By far the 
greater part of the 
current doctrinal ter- 
minology is based on 
the Vulgate. Predes- 
tination, justification, 
supererogation (super- 
erogo), sanctification 
salvation, mediation 
regeneration , revelation 
visitation (met.), pro- 
pitiation, first appear 
in the Old Vulgate 
Grace, redemption, elec- 
tion, reconciliation, sat 
isf action, inspiration 
scripture, were devoted 
there to a new and 
holy use. Sacrament 
and communion are 
. from the same source ; 
and though baptism is 
Greek it comes to us 
from the Latin. It 
would be easy to ex- 
tend the list by the 
addition of orders, 
penance, congregation, 

Vulture. There seems 

no doubt but that the 

original words refer 

to some of the smaller 

species of raptorial birds, as kites or buzzards. 


"Wages. The earliest mention of wages is in Gen. 


edition." la the 8th century Charlemagne in- 
trusted to Aicmn (circ. A. D. 802) the task of re- 
vising the Latin text. It was subsequently re- 
vised by many eminent scholars. When the 
Council of Trent declared the Vulgate the au- 


xxix. 15, 20, xxx. 28, xxxi. 7, 8, 41). In Egypt, 
money payments of wages were in use (Ex. ii. 9). 
The only mention of the rate of wages is in the 
parable of the householder (Matt. xx. 2). The 
law was strict in requiring daily payment of wages 
(Lev. xix, 13 ; Deut. xxiv. 14, 15). 
Wagon. The Oriental wagon is a vehicle of two 
or three planks fixed on two solid circular blocks 
of wood, from two to five feet in diameter, as 
wheels. The vehicle is drawn by buffaloes or 


Walls. 1. The practice common in Palestine of 
carrying foundations down to the solid rock 

f ()'V<yf 260 I 


(Luke vi. 48). 2. Incrusting or veneering a wall 
of brick or stone with slabs, as marble or alabas- 


ter. 3. To support mountain roads or terraces 
on the sides of hills. 

Wandering in the Wilderness. [Wilderness of 

WaT. Before entering on a war of aggression the 
Hebrews sought for Divine sanction. Formal 
proclamations of war were not interchanged. 
When an engagement was imminent a sacrifice 
was offered (1 Sam. vii. 9), and an address de- 
livered. Then followed the battle-signal. The 
bodies of soldiers killed were plundered ; the sur- 
vivors were either killed mutilated, or carried 
into Captivity. 

Washing the Hands and Feet. It was necessary 
that the hand, thrust into the common dish, 


should be clean ; and again, as sandals were in- 
effectual against dust, washing the feet on enter- 
ing a house was an act of respect and refresh- 
ment. The former of these was transformed by 
the Pharisees into ritual observance (Mark vii. 3). 
Watches of Night. The Jews divided the night 
into military watches. The proper Jewish reck- 
oning recognized only three such, entitled the 
first, (Lam. ii. 19), the middle watch (Judg. vii. 
19), and the morning watch (Ex. xiv. 24; 1 Sam. 
xi. 11). These would last from sunset to 10 p. 
M.; from 10 p. m. to 2 a. m.; and from 2 A. m. to 
sunrise. Subsequently the number was four, de- 
scribed either according to numerical order or 
by the terms "even, midnight, cock-crowing, and 

►3fc-»llT-aa , ThJm 

n ^^Bff&KH 


morning ' (Mark xiii. 35). These terminated at 
9 P. M.>. midnight, 3 a. m., and 6 A. M. 
Water" of Jealousy (Num. v. 11-31). The ritual 
consisted in the husband's bringing the woman 
before the priest, and the essential part is tha 

%9»lt % Cj Jtt long; 6, «, i, 0, ft, J, abort; care, fur, Ust, fall, v*?*: <•*$*», veil, tlnn; pique, Xfrm J d*ue, Mr, do, wpU, ftfod, i«f«*j 



oath, to which the " water " was subsidiary, sym- 
bolical, and ministerial. Josephus adds, if the 


suspicion was unfounded, she obtained concep- 
tion, if true, she died infamously. 
Water of Separation. ' [Purification ; Unclean- 


Wave-offering. This rite, with that of "heaving" 
or "raising" the offering, was an inseparable ac- 
companiment of peace offerings. 

Way. There is hardly a single passage in which 
this word would not be made clearer and more 
real if "road to" were substituted for "way of." 


ane the web itself ( Judjj* xvi. 14 » A. V."beam" ^ 
The textures produced^ by Jewish weavers were 
various. The coarser kinds were made of goat's 
or camel's hair (Ex. xxvi. 7j Matt. iii. 4). Wool | 





Weapons. [A§tMS.])£ij 

Weasel (Lev. xi. 29). The Hebrew ought to be 
translated "mole." Moles are common in Pal- 

Weaving. The "vestures" Joseph wore (Gen. 
xli. 42) were of Egyptian looms. The Bible 
speaks of the beam to which the warp was at- 
tached (1 Sam. xvii. 7; 2 Sam. xxi. 19), and of 
the pin to which the cloth was fixed and on which 
rolled (Judg, xvi. 14). We have notice of the 


shuttle (Job vii. 6); the thrum which attached 
the web to the beam (Is. xxxviii. 12, margin); 


was used for ordinary clothing, while for finer 
work flax was used, varying in quality. The 
mixture of wool and flax in cloth for a garment 
was interdicted (Lev. xix. 19; Deut. xxii. 11). 
Wedding. [Marriage.] 

Week (Gen. viii. 10, xxix. 27). The week and 
the Sabbath are as old as man himself. In the 
N. T. we find such clea- recognition of and 
familiarity with the week 
as needs scarcely be 
dwelt on. The Chris- 
tian Church, from the 
very first, was familiar 
with it (1 Cor. xvi. 2). 
Weeks, Feast of. [Pen- 

Weights and Measures. 
A. Weights. A tal- 
ent of silver, in Ex- 
odus, contained 3000 
shekels, distinguished 
as the "shekel of the 
sanctuary." The gold 
talent contained 10,000! 
shekels. The chief| 
Unit was the Shekel 1 
(i. e. weight), subdi- 
vided into the Beka 
(i. e. half) or half- 
shekel, and the Gerah 
(i. e. a grain or bean). 
The chief multiple, or 
higher unit, was the 
Kikkar, translated Tal- 
ent ; subdivided into 
the Maneh. For Gold, 

a different Shekel was used. There appears 
to have been a third standard for Copper. 
B. Measures. I. Measures of Length. — In 
the Hebrew, as in every system, there are two 
classes ; length and distance, or itinerary meas- 
ures. The Hebrew lesser measures were the 
finger's breadth; the palm or handbreadth; the 
span. Three cubits were used, namely: (1.) 
The cubit of a man (Deut. iii. 11); (2.) The old 
Mosaic or legal cubit, a handbreadth larger than 
the first ; (3.) The new cubit, still larger, agreed 
with the larger Egyptian cubit. The reed 
for measuring buildings was equal to six 
cubits. Of Measures of Distance the 
smallest is the pace, and the largest the 
day's journey, (a) The Pace (2 Sam. vi. 
13), whether single or double, is defined as 
30 inches for the former, and 5 feet for 
the latter. (6) The Day's Journey. The 
ordinary day's journey among the Jews 
was 30 miles; but when in companies, 
only 10 miles. (c) The Sabbath-day's 
Journey of 2000 cubits (Acts i. 12) would 
be six-tenths of a mile. (d) The stadium 
of 600 Greek feet is common in the N. T. 
Our version renders it furlong. The 
fathom is the full stretch of the two arms 
from tip to tip of middle finger, and in a 
man of full stature is six feet. II. Meas- 
ures of Capacity. — the absolute values of 
the liquid and dry measures are stated different 
ly, and as we are unable to decide between them, 
we give a double estimate : 

{Juepktu.) (StMitntsti.) 
Gallons. Gallons. Bushels. 
Homer or Cor 86-696 or 44-286 10% or 6}* 
EphahorBath 8-6696 or 4-4286 
Sean .... 28893 or 1-476? 
Hln .... 1-4449 or -7381 
Omer .... -8669 or '4428 
Cab .... -4816 or -246 
I Lpg .... -1204 or -0015 

Well. The necessity of water (Judg. i. 
15) in a hot climate has always involved 
questions of property of the highest im- 
portance. Wells in Palestine are usually 
excavated from solid limestone rock. 
The brims are furnished with a curb or 
low wall of stone. Water was raised by : 

1. The rope and bucket, or water-skin; 

2. The sakiyeh, or Persian wheel ; 3. A 
lever moving on a pivot. Wells are 
usually furnished with troughs of wood 
or stone, into which water is emptied for 
the use of persons or animals. Women 
are usually the water-carriers. 

Whale. The Hebrew terms tan and tan- 
nin are variously rendered by "dragon," "whale," 
"serpent," "sea-monster." The "great fish" 
that swallowed the prophet Jonah must have 
been a large specimen of the White Shark, that 
dreaded enemy of sailors, and the most voracious 
of Squalidae. This shark sometimes attains the 
length of thirty feet. The whole body of a man 
in armor has been found in the stomach of a 


white shark. 

Wheat. Syria and Palestine produced wheat of 
fine quality and in large quantities (Ps. cxlvii. 14, 
lxxxi. 16, &c). Our Lord alludes to grains of 
wheat which in good ground produce a hundred- 
fold (Matt. xiii. 8). Wheat is reaped towards the 
end of April, in May, and in June, according to 
soil and position. 

Whirl'wind. The Hebrew conveys the notion of a 
violent wind or hurricane, not the specific notion 
of a whirl-wind. 

■ Widow. 


Widows were left dependent partly on 
relations, especially the eldest son, and partly oa 
participation in the triennial third tithe (Deu£ 

furl, rnde, prish; e, f, o, silent; c aa s; fb as sfa; c, en, as k; £ as J, g as in get; s as i; i as gz; n as In linger, link; tb as in thine. 



10645 18 iii 


xiv. 29, xxvi. 12). With regard to the remar- 
riage of widows, see Deut. xxv. 5, 6 ; Matt. xxii. 
23-30). In the Apostolic Church the widows 


were sustained at the public expense. 
Wild Beasts. 1. Behemah, the general name for 
"domestic cattle, "denotes"any large quadruped. ' ' 
2. Chayyah is frequently used of "wild beast." 
Wilderness of the Wandering. Uncertainties com- 
mence from the very starting-point of the route of 
the Wandering. It is impossible to fix the point 
at which in "the wilderness of Etham" (Num. 
xxxiii. 6, 7) Israel emerged from the sea. The 
direction in which the people started on their 
wanderings is defined, '% the way of the Red Sea" 

(Num. xiv. 25 ; 
Deut. i. 40), 
which seems 
clearly to mean 
down the Arabah 
to the head of the 
Elanitic Gulf. 
Willows (Lev. 
xxiii40; Job. xl. 
22 ; Is. xliv. 4 ; 
Ps. cxxxvii. 2). 
The tree upon 
which the captive 
Israelites hung 
their harps was 
$s the weeping-willow. 
7S, The Brook of the, a wady (Isaiah xv. 7). 
One of the boundaries of the country. 
Wills. Under a system of close inheritance like 
that of the Jews, the scope for bequest was limit- 
ed. Houses in walled towns no doubt must have 
frequently been bequeathed by will (Lev. xxv. 



(Acts xxvii. 12), and Euroelydon (Euraquilo,N.R.), 
a wind of very violent character from E. N. E. 
(Acts xxvii, 14). 

Wine. The ripe fruit was carried to 
the wine-press, and placed in the 
upper of two receptacles and subject- 
ed to "treading." A certain amount 
of juice exuded from the ripe fruit 
from its own pressure. This was 
kept separate and formed the "sweet 
wine" (Acts ii. 13). The "treading" 
was effected by one or more men. 
The expressed juice escaped by an 
aperture into the lower vat. Some- 
times wine was preserved in its un- 
fermented state, and drunk as must, 
but generally it was bottled off after 
fermentation. The wines of Palestine 
varied. We have special notice of the 
wine of Helbon (Ez. xxvii. 18), and the 
wine of Lebanon, famed for its aroma 


I Wool, an article of highest value among the Jews) 
as the staple material for clothing (Lev. xiii. 47; 
Deut. xxii. 11; Job xxxi. 20; Prov. xxxi. 13; Ez. 

(Hos. xiv. 7). 
was usual to 

In the early Christian Church it 
mix the sacramental wine with 


Wimple, hood or veil (Is. iii. 22). The same word 
translated "veil" in Ruth iii. 15, signifies rather 
a shawl or mantle. 

Window. In an Oriental house, an aperture closed 
in with lattice- work. 

Winds. The Hebrews recognized four winds as 
issuing from the four cardinal points. In ad- 
dition to the four regular winds, we have notice 
of local squalls (Mark iv. 37; Luke viii. 23). We 


meet with the term Lips to describe 

the south 
west wind, Cams or Caurus the north-west wind 


r> < 30 7a 845r£r „ , T . , 

Wine-Press, vv ine-presses of the Jews consisted 

of two vats at different elevations. The vats 

were usually hewn out of solid rock. Ancient 

wine-presses are still to be seen. 

Winnowing. [Agriculture.] 

Wisdom of Jesus, Son of Sirach. [Ecclesiasti- 

Wisdom, The, of Solomon, a book of the Apocry- 
pha. From internal evidence, the book was 
composed in Greek at Alexandria sometime be- 
fore the time of Philo (about 120-80 B. c). 
Wise Men. [Magi.] 

r^~''Z^^ Witch, Witchcrafts. [Divination; 
Witness. Special provisions exist 
with reference to evidence in Num. 
xxxv. 30; John viii. 17; Num 
13; Lev. v. 1; Ex. xx. 16, 
xxiii. 1; Lev. xix. 16, 18, 
&c; Deut. xiii. 9, xvi. 7; 
Acts vii. 58; Ex. xxii. 13. 
Wizard. [Divination; 

Wolf. The wolf of Palestine 
is the common Canis lupus. 
Wolves were doubtless com- 
mon in Biblical times. 
Women. The wives and 
maidens of ancient times 
mingled freely and openly 
in the affairs of ordinary life. Women took 
part in public celebrations (Ex. xv. 20, 21; Judg. 
xi. 34). The odes of Deborah (Judg. v.) and of 
Hannah (1 Sam. ii. 1, &c.) exhibit intellectual 
cultivation. Women also occasionally held pub- 
lic offices (Ex. xv. 20; 2 K. xxii. 14; Neh. vi. 
14 ; Luke ii. 36 ; Judg. iv. 4). The management 
of household affairs devolved mainly on the 
Wood. [Forest.] 



jS^Hos. ii. 5). 
oolen, iinen and. Israelites were forbidden to 
wear a garment of woolen and linen. The reason 
given by Josephus for the law is, that such were 
worn by the priests alone. 
Worm, the representative of several Hebrew words. 
Sas (Is. Ii. 8) denotes some species of moth ; 
Rimmah (Ex. xvi. 20) points to various kinds of 
maggots ; Toleah (Deut. xxviii. 39) to larvae de 
structive to the vines. The death of Herod 
Agrippa I. was by worms (Acts xii. 23): accord- 
ing to Josephus, his death took place five days 
after his departure from the theatre. 


Wormwood, in a metaphorical sense, in Deut. xxix. 
18, and elsewhere. The Orientals typified sorrows, 
cruelties, and calamities of any kind by plants of 
a poisonous or bitter nature. The name of the 
star in Rev. viii. 11. Four kinds of wormwood 
are found in Palestine. 


Worshipper, a translation of the Greek neoeoros 
(Actsxix. 35, O.V.). The term became applied to 
communities which undertook the worship of em- 
perors even during their lives. The first occur- 
rence of the term in connection with Ephesus ia 
on coins of the age of Nero (a. d. 54-68). 

Wrestling. • [Games.] 

Writing. Writing is first mentioned in Ex. xvii. 
14. and the connection implies that it was so 

5. 8, 1, 5, O, f, long; 5, «, I, », *, f, •J»ort ! ; car*»f&r, test, fell, wh»t; there, vjM, Una; pique, Una ; doue, idr, dQ, wylt, ltfbd, OtoU 




familiar as to be used for historic records. In- 
vestigationshave shown thatthe square Hebrew 
character has been formed from a more ancient 
type by a gradual process of developement.and 
this ancient type was probably Phoenician. The 
oldest evidence on the subject of the Hebrew 
alphabet is derived from the alphabetical Psalms 
and poems. From these we ascertain that the 
number of letters was twenty-two, as at pres- 
ent. Hebrew 
waa originally 
written without 
any divisions be- 
tween the 
words. The 
modern syna- 
gogue rolls and 
the MSS. of the 
Samaritan Pen- 
tateuch have no 
rowel points, 
Vit the words 
ye divided. It 
gmost probable 
that the ancient 
as well as the 
most common 
material which 
the Hebrews 
used for writing 
was dressed skin 
in some form or 
other. In the 
Bible the only 
allusions to the 
use of papyrus 
are in 2 John 
12, and 3 Mace. 
iv. 20. Parch- 
ment was used 
for the MSS. of 
the Pentateuch 
in the time of 
Josephus. It 
was one of the 
provisions in the 

Talmud that the Law should be written on the 
skins of clean animals, tame or wild, or of clean 
birds. The skins when written upon were formed 
into rolls. The rolls were generally written on 
one side only. They were divided into columns 
(A. V. "leaves," Jer. xxxvi. 23). But besides 
skins, for permanent kinds of writing, tablets of 
wood covered with wax (Luke i. 6,3) served for 


ment of skins a reed was used. The ink was of 
lampblack dissolved in gall-juice. It was 
carried in an inkstand, suspended at the girdle. 
To professional scribes there are allusions in 
Ps. xlv. 1 ; Ezr. vii. 6; Esdr. xiv. 24. 


Xan'thictts, a Macedonian month, same as the 





Hebrew Nisan. 
Xerx'es, the Ahasuerus of Esther (the names be- 
ing also identical), as is shown by resemblance of 
character, by certain chronological indications, as 
well as by commonly received historical state- 


ordinary purposes. They were written upon with 
a pointed style, sometimes of iron. For parch- 

Yarn. The notice of yarn is contained in an ex- 
tremely obscure passage in 1 K. x. 28 (2 Chr. i. 
16)-i C > 
Year. A year of 360 days appears in use in 
Noah's time, or at least in the time of the writer 
of the narrative of the Flood. A year of 360 
days is the rudest known. The Hebrew year, 
from the time of the Exodus, was evidently lunar, 
though in some manner rendered virtually solar. 
But it is certain that the months were lunar, each 
commencing with a new moon. There must 
therefore have been some method of adjustment. 
Probably the Hebrews determined their new 
year's day by the observation of heliacal or other 
star-risings or settings. The later Jews had two 
commencements of the year, whence it is said 
they had two years, the sacred and civil. We 
prefer to speak of the sacred and civil reckon- 
ings. The sacred reckoning was that instituted 
at the Exodus, according to which the first month 
was Abib; by the civil reckoning the first month 
was the seventh. The interval between the two 
was thus exactly half a year. The year was 
divided into — 1. Seasons. Two seasons are men- 
tioned in the Bible, "summer" and "winter." 
2. Months. [Months.] 3. Weeks. [Weeks.] 
Year, Sabbatical. [Sabbatical Year.] 
Year of Jubilee. [Jubilee, Year of.] 
Yoke. 1. A well-known implement of husbandry, 
used metaphorically for subjection. 2. A pair of 
oxen, so termed (1 Sam. xi. 7; 1 K. xix. 19, 21). 
The Hebrew Term is also applied to asses (Judg. 
xix. 10) and mules (2 K. v. 17), and even to a 
couple of riders (Is. xxi. 7). 3. The term is also 
applied to land. 

j 0794 

Zaana'im, The Plain of,or " the oak of Zaanaim," 
a tree mentioned as marking the spot near 
which Heber the Kenite was enramjjed when 
Sisera took refuge in his tent (Judg. iv. 11). 
Its situation is defined " near Kedesh." Zaa- 
nannim is found in Josh. xix. 33. 
Zab'ade'ans, an Arab tribe attacked and spoiled 

by Jonathan, on 
his way back 
from his fruit- 
less pursuit 
of the army (if 
Demetrius (1 
Muw. :,u. :■:) . 
Zao'bai, father of 
Barueh, who as- 
sisted Nehemiah 
in rebuilding the 
city wall (Xeh. 
iii. 20). 

Za'bud, son of 
Nathan (1 K. iv. 
5), is described 
as a priest (A. 
V. "principal 
officer"), and as 
holding at the 
court of Solo- 
mon the post of 
"king's friend." 
Zab'uhm, the 
Greek form of 
the name Zebu- 
lun (Matt. iv. 
13, 15; Rev. vii. 

Zaccbae'us, a tax- 
collector near 
Jericho, who, 
being short in 
stature, climbed 
up into a syca- 
more-tree in or- 
der to obtain a 
sight of Jesus as He passed through that place. 
(Luke xix. 1-10). Zacchaeus was a Jew. The 
term "the chief among the publicans" describes 
him, no doubt, as the superintendent of customs 
in the district where he lived. The office must 
have been a lucrative one. 
Zachari'ah. 1. Or properly Zechariah, son of 
Jeroboam II., 14th king of Israel, and last of the 


house of Jehu. There is a difficulty about the 
date of his reign. But whether we assume an 

tOrl, r^de, pvsb; e, i, o, silent; c as s; fh. as sh; «, cb, as b; g as J, g aa in fet; s as x; j as gx; q as in linger, link; <fa u la txtlne. 



interregnum or an error in the MSS., we must 
place Zachariali's accession b. c. 772-1. His 
reign lasted six months. He was killed in a con- 

david's tomb at mt. zion. 

spiracy, of which Shallum was the head, and in 
fulfillment of prophecy (2 K. x. 30). 2. The 
father of Abi, or Abijah, Hezekiah's mother (2 
K. xviii. 2). 
Zachari'as. 1. Father of John the Baptist (Luke 
i. 5, &c). 2. Son of Barachias, who, our Lord 
says, was slain by the Jews between the altar and 
the temple (Matt, xxiii. 35; Luke xi. 51). There 
can be little or no doubt that the allusion is to 

eastern device. 

Zechariah, the son of Jehoiada (2 Chr. xxiv. 20, 
21). m 
Za'dok (just), son of Ahitub, and one of the two 
chief priests in the time of David, Abiathar be- 
ing the other. Zadok was of the house of Ele- 
azar, the son of Aaron (1 Chr. xxiv. 3), and elev- 
enth in descent from Aaron (1 Chr. xii. 28). 
When Adonijah, in David's old age, set up for 
king, Zadok was unmoved, and was employed by 
David to anoint Solomon (1 K. i.). And for this 
fidelity he was rewarded by Solomon (1 K. ii. 27, 


(2 Sam. xv. 35, 36, xix. II). The duties of the 
oifiee were divided. 
Zal'mon, Mount, a wooded eminence in the neigh- 
borhood of Shech- 
em (Judg. ix. 48). 
Dalmanutha has 
been supposed to 
be a corruption of 
Zalmuu'na, [Zbbah.] 
Zamzum'mims, the 
Ammonite name for 
the people who by 
others were called 
Rephaim (Deut. ii. 
20, only), described 
as originally a pow- 
erful nation of 
giants. It is con- 
jectured that the 
Zamzummim are 
identical with the 
Zaph'nath - paane'ah, 
a name given by 
Pharaoh to Joseph 
(Gen. xli. 45). 
Zar'ephath, the resi- 
dence of the prophet 
Elijah during the 
latter part of the 
drought (1 K. xvii. 
9, 10). Beyond that 
it was near Zidon, 
the Bible gives no clew to its position. In the 
N. T. Zarephath appears under the Greek form 
of Sarepta (Luke iv. 26, J. V.). 
Zar'hifes, The, a branch of Judah, descended from 
Zerah the son of Judah (Num. xxvi. 13, 20 ; Josh, 
vii. 17; 1 Chr. xxvii. 11, 13). 
Zar'than. 1. A place in the circle of Jordan (1 
K. vii. 46). 2. Named in the account of the 
passage of the Jordan (Josh. iii. 16), where the 
A. V. has Zaretan. 3. Zeredathah (2 Chr. iv. 
17) is substituted for Zarthan ; and this is per- 
haps identical with the Zererath of Judg. vii. 
Ze'bah and Zalmun'na, two "kings'* of Midian 
who commanded the great invasion of Palestine, 
and who finally fell by the hand of Gideon him- 
self (Judg viii. 5-21; Ps. lxxxiii. 11). 
Zeb'edee, a fisherman of Galilee, the father of the 
Apostles James the Great and John (Matt. iv. 
21), and the husband of Salome (Matt, xxvii. 


85). From this time we hear little of him. 
Zodak and Abiathar were of nearly equal dignity. 


56 ; Mark xv. 40). He probably lived at Beth- 

saida or neighborhood. 
Zebo'im. 1. One of the five cities of the circle of 

Joidan. It is mentioned in Gen. x. 19, xiv. 2, 

8 ; Deut. xxix. 23 ; and Hos. xi. 8, with Admah. 

2. The Valley of Zeboim, a ravine or gorge, 

apparently east of Michmash (1 Sam. xiii. 18). 
Zeou'dah, wife of Josiah and mother of king 

Jehoiakim (2 K. xxiii. 36). 
Ze'bul, chief (A. V. "ruler") of Shechem at the 

contest between Abimelech and the native Ca- 

naanites (Judg. ix. 28, 30, 36, 38, 41). 
Zeb'ulbnltt (Judg. xii. 11, 12). Applied only to 

Elon, the one judge produced by the tribe (Judg. 

xii. 11, 12) of Zebulun. 
Zeb'ulun {a habitation), the tenth of the sons of 


Jacob ; the sixth and last of Leah. His birth is 
recorded in Gen. xxx. 19, 20. Of the individual 
nothing is recorded. The list of Gen. xlvi. as- 
cribes to him three sons, founders of the chief 
families of the tribe at the time of the migration 
to Egypt. 


Zechari'ah. 1. Eleventh in order of the twelve 
minor prophets, called the son of Berechiah, and 
grandson of Iddo ; and in Ezra v. 1, vi. 14, the 
son of Iddo. Zechariah was priest as well as 
prophet. He entered upon his office young (Zech. 
ii. 4), and must have been born in Babylon, 
whence he returned with the first exiles under 
Zerubbabel and Jeshua. In the eighth month, in 
the second year of Darius, he first publicly dis- 
charged his office. In this he acted in concert 
with Haggai. Generally speaking, Zechariah's 



style is pure. The Book of Zechariah consists 
of three parts, chs. i.— viii., chs. ix.-xi , chs. xii.- 
xiv. The first of these is allowed by all to be the 
genuine work of Zechariah. The Section xii.- 
xiv. is entitled "the burden of the word of Jeho- 
vah for Israel." Many maintain that the later 
chapters, from the 9th to the 14th, were written 
by some other prophet. The prophecy closes 
with a grand and stirring picture. 2. Son of the 
high-priest Jehoiada, in the reign of Joash (2 
Chr. xxiv. 20), and the king's cousin. Afi< r 
Jehoiada, Zechariah probably succeeded to his 
office, and in attempting to check the reaction in 
favor of idolatry, he fell a victim to a conspiracy 


by the king, and was stoned in the court of the 
Temple. Probably the same as the "Zachariaa 

a, e, I, o, u, y , loBgj & e e, i, B, u, f, abort; care, far, list, fall, wlifcti tUis», veil, term; pique, Una; doue, Idr. da. wolf, food, fotMla 



?K>n of Barachias," slain between the Temple acd 
the altar (Matt, xxiii. 35). 
8£deki'ah. 1. The last king of Judah and Jerusa- 
lem, the son of Josiah. His original name, Mat- 
taniau, was changed to Zedekiah by Nebuchad- 
nezzar, when he carried off Jehoiachira and left 
him on the throne of Jerusalem. Zedekiah was 
but 21 year3 old when placed in charge of the 
kingdom (b. c. 697). His history is contained in 
2 K. xxiv. 17-xxv. 7, and in Jer. xxxix. 1-7, 
lii. 1-11, and in 2 Chr. xxxvi. 10, &c; and also 
in Jer., xxi., xxiv., xxvii., xxviii., xxix., xxxii., 
xxxiii., xxxiv., xxxvii., xxxviii., and Ez. 
xvi. 11-21. From these it is evident that 
Zedekiah was weak in will. He revolted 


prophets. His pedigree is traced to his fourth 
ancestor, Hezekiah (i. 1), supposed to be the 
celebrated king of that name. 2. The son of 
Maaseiah (Jer. xxi. 1). He succeeded Jehoiada 
(Jer. xxix. 25, 20), and was probably a ruler of 
the Temple. On the capture of Jerusalem he 
was slain at Riblah (Jer. lii. 24, 27; 2 K. xxv. 
18, 21). The Book of. The chief characterist- 
ics are unity and harmony, and the rapid altern 
ations of threats and promises. The tone is 
Messianic. The date is the reign of Josiah, from 
642 to 611 B. C. 




against Nebuchadnezzar and brought on 
Jerusalem an invasion of the Chaldeans. 
The city fell, and as the Chaldean army 
entered the king and his wives fled by the 
opposite gate. The king's party were 
overtaken and carried to Riblah. Nebu- 
chadnezzar ordered the sons of Zedekiah 
killed before him, and his own eyes to be 
thrust out (b. c. 586). He was then loaded 
with fetters, and taken to Babylon, where 
he died. 2. Son of Chenaanah, a prophet 
at the court of Ahab. He appears but 
once (1 K. xxii.; 2 Chr. xviii.). 3. The 
son of Maaseiah, a false prophet in Baby- 
lon (Jer. xxix. 21, 22). 

Zeeb, one of two 
"princes" of 
Midian (Judg. 
vii. 25, viii. 3 ; 
Ps. lxxxiii. 11). 
Zeeb and Oreb 
were slain in 
crossing the 
Jordan. Zeeb, 
the wolf, was 
brought to bay 
in a winepress. 
Ze'lah, a city 
which (Josh, 
xviii. 28) con- 
tained the fam- 
ily tomb of Kish, 
father of Saul 
Zelo', son of Hepher (Josh. xvii. 3). 
Zelophehad came out of Egypt with Moses, 
but died (Num. xiv. 35, xxvii. 3). On his death 
without male heirs, his five daughters came before 
Moses and Eleazar to claim the inheritance. The 
claim was admitted by divine direction (Num. 
xxvi. 33, xxvii. 1—11). 
Zelo'tes, (Zealot, N.R.) the epithet given to the 
Apostle Simon to distinguish him from Simon 
.Peter (Lukeyi. 15). 

Ze'nas, a believer, and preacher of the Gospel, 



by the Persian king governor of Judaea. On ar- 
riving at Jerusalem, Zerubbabel's great work w?,s 
the rebuilding of the Temple. After many hin- 
drances, the Temple was finished, in the sixth 
year of Darius, and dedicated with much pomp. 
The other works of Zerubbabel are the restora- 
tion of the courses of priests and Levites, the 
registering the returned captives (Neh. vii. 5), and 
the keeping of a Passover. Zerubbabel's apoc- 
ryphal history is told in 1 Esdr. iii.-vii. His 
exact parentage is a little obscure. He was the 
lineal descendant of Nathan the son of David. 

In the N. T. tlie name appears Zorobabel. 
Zerui'ah, the mother of Abishai, Joab, and 

Asahel. She was the daughter of Nahash. 

Of Zerniah's husband there is no mention. 
Zi'ba, a person who plays a part, with no 

credit to himself, in one of the episodes of 

David's history (2 Sam. ix. 2-12, xvi. 1-4, 

xix, 17, 29). 
Zib'ian, of Beersheba, and mother of King 

Joash (2 K. xii. 1; 2 Chr. xiv. 1 1. 
Zich'ri. 1. A descendant of Eliezer the son 

of Moses (1 Chr. xxvi. 25). 2. Fatherof 

Elishaphat, one of the conspirators with 





mentioned in Tit. iii. 13 with Apollos. He is 
further described as "the lawyer " 
Zephani'ali. 1. The ninth of the twelve minor 


Zeph'athah, The Valley of, in which Asa_ joined 
battle with Zerah the Ethiopian (2 Chr. xiv. 10). 

Ze'phon, Ziphiou, son of Gad (Num. xxvi. 15), 
and ancestor of the Zephonites. 

Ze'rah. 1. Less properly, Zarah, twin son, with 
Pharez, of Judah and Tamar (Gen. xxxviii. 30; 
1 Chr. ii. 6 ; Matt. i. 3). 2. The Ethiopian de- 
feated by Asa B. c. 941. Zerah is probably the 
Hebrew name of Usarken I., of the Egyptian 
xxiid dynasty, or Usarken II., his successor. 

Zerahi'an, a priest, son of TJzzi, and ancestor of 
Ezrathe-Scribe (1 Chr. vi. 6, 51; Ezr. vii. 4). 

Ze'red (Deut. ii. 13, 14), orZa'red (Num. xxi. 12), 
a brook or valley running into the Dead Sea near 
its S. E. corner. 

Zer'eda, the native place of Jeroboam (1 K. xi. 
26). Zereda was, according to the LXX., on 
Mount Ephraim. 

Ze'resh, the wife of Haman the Agagite (Esth. v. 
10, 14, vi. 13). 

Zeru'ah, the mother of Jeroboam the son of Nebat 

Zerub'babel (born at Babel, i. e. Babylon), the head 
of the tribe of Judah at the return from Baby- 
lonish Captivity in the first year of Cyrus. In) 
the first year of Cyrus, at Babylon he was the 
recognized prince of Judah. He was appointee^ 

Jehoiada (2 Chr. xxiii. 1). 3. An Eph- 
raimite hero in the invading army of Pekah 
(2 Chr. xxviii. 7). 
Zi'don, or Si'don (Gen. x. 15, 19; Josh. xi. 
8, xix. 28; Judg. i. 31, &c; Matt. xi. 21, 
22; Lukevi. 17, &c). An ancient wealthy 
city of Phoenicia, on the eastern coast of 
the Mediterranean, less than 20 miles north 
of Tyre. Its Hebrew name, Tsidon, signi- 
fies l; Fishery." This city is inferior in in- 
terest to its neighbor Tyre, though in early 
times more influential. Zidon was threat- 
ened by Joel (iii. 4) and Jeremiah (xxvii. 
3). One of its sources of gain was trade in 
slaves. The city was governed by kings 
(Jer. xxvii. 3, and xxv. 22), and at one 
period it was subject, in some sense, to 
Tyre. _ During 
the Persian dom- 
ination, Zidon 
attained its high- 
est prosperity. 
Its prosperity 
was cut short by 
revolt against 
Persia, which 
ended in the de- 
struction of the town (b. c. 351). Forty 
thousand persons perished. Sidon became 
again a flourishing town. It is about fifty miles 
from Nazareth. 
Zidd'nians, the inhabitants of Zidon. They op- 
pressed the Israelites at first (Judg. x. 12), and 
lived a luxurious, reckless life (Judg, xviii. 7 


They were skilful in hewing timber (1 K. v. 6 
and were employed for this purpose by Solomon. 
They worshipped Ashtoreth as their tutelary 
goddess (1 K. xi. 5, 33; 2 K. xxiii. 13), as wefl 


as the sun-god Baal, from whom their king waa 

named (1 K. xvi. 31). 
Zif (1 K. vi. 37). [Month.] 
Zik'lag, the residence and private property of 

t&rl, rede, pnsU; «, *, o, silent; 9 aa a; fb aa an; «, «h, as k; g as j, g aa in get; §aB»;jaagz;aaaln linger, link; «i» aa In ttiine. 



David. It was, at David's request, bestowed 
upon him by Achish king of Gath. He relin- 
quished it for Hebron (ii. 1). The situation of 
the town is difficult to del ermine. 

Zii'iaV. [Lamech.] 

Zil'pah, a Syrian given by Laban to his daughter 
Leah as an attendant (Gen. xxix. 24), and by 
Leah to Jacob as a concubine. She was the 
mother of Gad and Asher (Gen. xxx. 9-13, 
xxxv. 26, &c). 

Zim'ran, the eldest son of Keturah (Gen. xxv. 2 ; 

Zim'ii, 1. The son of Salu, slain by Phinehas 
(Num. xxv. 14). 2. Fifth sovereign of the sepa- 
rate kingdom of Israel, of which he occupied the 
throne for the brief period of seven days in the 
year b. c. 930 or 929. He gained the crown by 
the murder 
of king Elah. 
But the army 
their general, 
Omri, king. 
Zimri retreat- 
ed into the 
in nermost 
part of the 
late king's 
palace, set it 
on fire, and 
perished i n 
the ruins (1 
K. xvi. 9-20). 

Zin, the name 
given a por- 
tion of the 
desert tract 
between the 
Dead Sea, 
Ghor, Arabah, 
and the plat- 
eau of the 
Tih fi PL 

Zi'on. [Jerus- 

Ziph, two 
towns in Ju- 
dah. 1. In 
the south be- 
tween Ithnan 
and Telem, 
2. A town be- 
tween Carmel 
and Juttah 
(Josh. xv. 55). 
The place is 
by its connec- 
tion with David (1 Sam. xxiii. 14, 15, 24, xxvi. 
2). The name Zif is found about three miles S. 
of Hebron. 

Zi'phims, The, the inhabitants of Ziph (Ps. liv.), 
called also, 

Zi'phites, The (1 Sam. xxiii. 19 ; xxvi. 1). 

Zip'por, father of Balak king of Moab (Num. 
xxii. 2, 4, 10, 16, xxiii. 18 ; Josh. xxiv. 9; Judg. 
xi. 25). 

Zippo'rah, daughter of Reuel or Jethro, the priest 
of Midian, wife of Moses, and mother of his two 
sons Gershom and Eliezer (Ex. ii. 21, iv. 25, 
xviii. 2). 

Ziz, The Cliff of, the pass by which the Moabites, 
Ammonites, and Mehunim, made their way up 
from the Dead Sea to the wilderness of Judah 


near Tekoa (2 Chr. xx. 16 only ; comp. 20). It 
was the pass of Ain Jidy. 

Zi'za, son of Rehoboam by Maachah, the grand 
daughter of Absalom (2 Chr. xi. 20). 

Zo'an, an ancient city of Lower Egypt. It stood 
on the eastern bank of the Tanitic branch of the 
Nile. This city is mentioned in connection with 
the Plagues in such a manner as to leave no 
doubt that it is the city spoken of in the narrative 
in Exodus as that where Pharaoh dwelt. 

Zo'ar, one of the most ancient cities of Canaan. 
Its original name was Bela (Gen. xiv. 2, 8). It 
was in intimate connection with Sodom, Gomor- 
rah, Admah, and Zeboiim. Zoar was spared to 
afford shelter to Lot (xix. 22, 23, 30). It is 
mentioned in Deut. xxxiv. 3, and was known in 
the times of Isaiah (xv. 5) and Jeremiah (xlviii. 

bethbsaida TELL julias (On the east of the Jordan. Here Christ fed the multitude of five thousand). 

34) in the Bible. It was situated evidently very 
near to Sodom (Gen. xix. 23, 27, 28). 

Zo'ba, or Zo'bah, the name of a portion of Syria. 
It probably was eastward of Coele- Syria. We 
first hear of Zobah in the time of Saul (1 Sam. 
xiv. 47). Some forty years later we find Zobah 
under Hadadezer. He had wars with Toi (2 

" Sam. viii. 10). David (2 Sam. viii. 3) attacked 
Hadadezer and took chariots, horsemen and foot- 
men. The wealth of Zobah is very apparent. 
Later they were again in arms against David (2 
Sam. x. 9 ; 1 Chr. xix. 16). Zobah caused 
trouble to the Jewish kings. A man of Zobah, 
Rezon, son of Eliadah, proved a fierce adversary 
to Israel all through the reign of Solomon (1 K. 
xi. 23-25). Solomon also engaged in a war with 


Zobah itself (2 Chr. viii. 3). The name is found 
later in the Inscriptions of Assyria. 
Zo'har. One of the sons of Simeon (Gen. xlvi. 

10; Ex. vi. 15); called Zerah in 1 Chr. iv. 24. 
Zo'heleth, The Stone, "by En Rogel " (1 K. i. 9). 
In all likelihood not far from the well of the 
Zo'phai, son of Elkanah and ancestor of Samuel 

(1 Chr. vi. 26 [11]), called Zuph. 
Zo'phar, one of the three friends of Job (Job ii. 

11, xt. 1, xx. 1, xlii. 9). 
Zo'phim, The Field of, a spot on Pisgah, from which 
Balaam had his second view of the encampment 
of Israel (Num. xxiii. 14). 
Zo'rah (Josh. xix. 41), the residence of Manoah 
and the native place of Samson. It is mentioned 
amongst the places fortified by Rehoboam (2 

O , Chr. xi. 10). 


(Matt. i. 12, 

13 ; Lukeiii. 

27). [Zerub- 

BABEL. N. R.] 

Za'ar, father 
of Nethaneel, 
chief of the 
tribe of Is- 
sachar at 
the Exodus 
(Num. i. 8, 
ii. 5, vii. 18, 

Z&ph, The 
Land of. A 
district at 
which Saul 
and his ser- 
vant arrived 
after passing 
through those 
of Shalisha, 
of Shalim, 
and of the 
Ben j a mites 
(1 Sam. ix. 
5, only). It 
contained the 
city in which 
they encoun- 
tered Samuel 
(ver. 6), and 
that again 
was not far 
from the 
"tomb of 
Rachel.'_' It 
may be iden- 
t i fi e d with 

Soba, about 

miles west of Jerusalem. 
!uph, a Kohathite Levite, ancestor of Elkanah and 
Samuel (1 Sam. i. 1; 1 Chr. vi. 35). In 1 Chr. 
vi. 26 he is called Zophai. 

Zur. 1. Father of Cozbi (Num. xxv. 15), and one 
of the five princes of Midian slain by the Israel- 
ites when Balaam fell (Num. xxxi. 8). 2. Son 
of Jehiel the founder of Gibeon (1 Chr. viii. 30, 
ix. 35, 30). 

Zu'zims, The. An ancient people, who, lying in 
the path of Chedorlaomer and his allies, were at- 
tacked and overthrown by_ them (Gen. xiv. 5). 
The Zuzims perhaps inhabited the country of the 
Ammonites, & i , 


A. D :....Anno Domini=In the Year of Our Lord. 

Am Amos (O. T.). 

Ann Annals of Tacitus, a Eoman historian. 

Ant Antiquities. 

Ap. and Apoc Apocrypha. 

A. V Authorized Version of the Bible. 

Bar Baruch (Apoc). 

Cant Canticles or Song of Solomon (O. T.) 

cf. „ conferer = compare. 

ch. and chs chapter, and chapters. 

cir. or circ circa= about. 

comp compare. 

Ecclus Ecclesiasticus (Apoc). 

e. g exempli gratia = for example. 

Eng English or England. 

ep. and epp epistle and epistles. 

el seq and following (verse). 

f following, verse or page. 

ff. following, verses or pages. 

Gr Greek. 

Hist History. 

ib. or ibid ibidem = in the same place. 

I. c loco citato = at the place cited. 

II. cc locis citatis = at the places cited. 

Lin. or Linn Linnaeus, the naturalist. 

Lit Literal or literally. 

LXX The Seventy, i. e. the Septuagint. 

N. R> New Revision. 

p. and pp page and pages. 

Polyb Polybius, a Gr. historian, B.C. 205-123. 

sc scilicet = that is to say. 

sq. and seq sequens = following (verse). 

sqq or seqq sequentia = following (verses). 

8us History of Susanna (Apoc). 

Syn Synonymous. 

Tac Tacitus, a Eoman historian, A. D. 56-135, 

Tit ..'.'... Ep. to Titus (N. T.). 

Tob Tobit (Apoc). 

viz\j . 

Vulg Vulgate. 

g Denotes section or subdivision of ch. 

= Denotes equivalent to. 

) ddue, ldr, dg, Wf If, f tfbd, iotot J 

a, e, i, o, S, J, long; &, e, I, O, ft, f, abort; care, far, last, tail, wbat; there, veil, term; pique, 



Manners and Customs of the Ancients 


Jewish and Egyptian Antiquities, 

>236 K06;2 




THE COLISEUM. — The most wonderful building in Rome, to many minds, 
is the grand old Coliseum, still noble though in ruins-. The mind can hardly 
grasp the idea of its vastness ; for centuries, since it began to decay, materials 
have been quarried out of it for the erection of palaces and churches, without 
seeming to diminish aught of size ; it would appear to be imperishable, and thus 
to fulfil the proud boast of the ancient proverb. Its form is an oval, 620 feet in 
length, externally, by 513 feet in breadth; and its vertical height is 157 feet. 

Early Christianity is associated in a peculiarly affecting manner with Vespasian'? 
great building. Here, during the times of martyrdom, the cry arose, " Christiano.- 
ad leones," "fling the Christians to the lions," and it was obeyed with alacrity; 
one of the first victims was Ignatius, bishop of Antioch, during the reign of the 
Emperor Trajan. But this vast arena, so often drenched with the blood of martyrs, 
is now consecrated as a Church, though, sadly must it be confessed, much of 
superstition mingles in the devotions which are here offered. 

7 f "Z Q 


ARCH OF TITUS. — This celebrated structure, though far less impressive, 
architecturally, than the Coliseum, is little inferior in interest. It was erected by 
the Senate and the people of Rome in estimation of the services of Titus in con- 
quering the Jews. It is probable that the monument was completed after the 
death of Titus. It consists of a single arch of Grecian marble of exquisite pro- 
portions, with fluted columns on each side. The frieze, which gives it special in- 
terest and value, is on the right-hand side passing under the arch going towards 
the Coliseum. It represents the triumphal procession of captive Jews, the silver 

97K G4f> 

trumpets, the tables of shew-bread, and the golden candlestick, with its seven 
branches. The candlestick itself is said to have been thrown into the Tiber from 
the Milvina Bridge, on the occasion of the battle between Maxentius and Constan- 
tine. Should the proposal to turn the course of the Tiber be carried into effect, 
it is not impossible that this precious relic may yet be recovered. Amongst the 
many indignities inflicted upon the Jews in Rome, was this, that, on the accession 
of each new Pope, they were compelled to await him at the Arch of Titus, on his 
way to be installed at the Lateran, and present to him a copy of the Pentateuch. 




— I 








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1. .- «l.I)04«4004-()(; 

Year before the common Year of Christ, 4004. — 
Cycle of the Moon, 0007. 


-Julian Period, 0710. Cycle of the Sun, 0010.- 

Indiction, 0005. Creation from Tisri, 0001. 

-Dominical Letter, B, 

1 The creation of heaven and earth. 14 Of the sun, moon, and stars. 
26 Of man in the image of Sod- ;2.8 Also the appointment of food. 

IN the * beginning *God created the heaven and 
the earth. 

2 And the earth was without form, and void ; and 
darkness was upon the face of the deep: c and the 
Spirit of God moved upon the face of the waters. 

3 H d And God said, ' Let there be light : and there 
was lighto ^ | A 

4 And God saw the light, that it was good : and 
God divided fthe light from the darkness. 

5 And God called the light •'"Day, and the dark- 
ness he called Night: fand the evening and the 
morning were the first- day. 

6 IT And God said/ Let there be a f firmament in 
the midst of the waters : and let it divide the waters 
from the waters. 

7 And God made the firmament, ''and divided the 
waters which were under the firmament from the wa- 
ters which were' above the firmament : and it was so. 

8 And God called the firmament Heaven : and 
the evening and the morning were the second day. 

9 IT And God said, *Let the waters under the 
heaven be gathered together unto one place, and let 
the dry land appear : and it was so. 

10 And God called the dry land Earth; and the 
gathering together of the waters called he Seas : and 
God saw that it was-, good. 

11 And God said, Let the earth 'bring forth f grass, 
the herb yielding seed, and the fruit-tree yielding 
m fruit after his kind, whose seed is in itself, upon 
the earth: ; and it was so 

12 And the earth brought forth grass, and herb 
yielding seed after his kind, and the tree yielding 
fruit, whose seed was in itself, after his kind : and 
God saw that it was good. 


and the 



13 And 
third dayo 

14 UAnd God said, Let there be "lights in the 
firmament of the heaven, to divide fthe day from 
the night; and let them be for signs, and "for sea- 
sons, and for days, and years. 

15 And let them be for fights in the firmament of the 
heaven to give fight upon the earth : and it was so. 

16 And God ^ made two great lights; the greater 
light fto rule the day, and ? the lesser fight to rule 
the night: he made 'the stars also. 

17 And God set them in the firmament of the 
heaven to give light upon the earth, 




a John 1.1, 

Heb. 1. 10. 
6Ps. 8.3.A 
33. 6. & 89. 
11, 12. & 
102. 25. & 
136. 5. & 
146. 6. 
Isa. 44.24. 
Jer. 10. 12. 
& 51. 15. 
Zech. 12. 1. 
Acts 14. 15. 
& 17. 24. 
Heb. 11.3. 
Rev. 4. 11. 
& 10. 6. 
c Ps. 33. 6. 
Isa. 40. 13, 

d Ps. 33. 9. 
e 2 Cor. 4. 6. 
fHeb. 6e- 
iween Vie 
light and 
between tlie 
& 104. 20. 
fHeb. and 
the evening 
was, and 
the morn- 
ing was. 
g Job.37.18 
Ps. 136. 5. 
Jer. 10. 12. 
A 61. 16. 
fHeb. ex- 
h Prov.8.28 
iPs. 148.4. 
k Job 26. 
10. & 38. 8. 
Ps. 33. 7. & 
95. 5. & 104. 
9. & 136. 6. 
Prov. 8. 29. 
Jer. 5. 22. 
2 Pet. 3. 5. 
I Heb. 6. 7. 
fHeb. ten- 
der grass, 
m Luke 6. 

n Deut. 4. 

Ps. 74. 16.4- 
fHeb. be- 
tween the 
day and be- 
tween the 
o Ps. 74. 17. 
& 104. 19. 
p Ps. 136.7. 
8, 9. & 148. 

the ride of 
the day. 
q Ps. 8. 3. 
r Job 38. 7. 



s Jer.31.35. 

!' Or, creep- 

fHeb. soul. 
fHeb. let 
fowl fly. 
fHeb. face 
of the fir- 
mament of 
wch. 6.20. 

Ps. 104. 26. 
web.. 8. 17. 

«ch. 5. 1. 
&9. 6. 
Ps. 100. 3. 
Eccl. 7. 29. 
Acts 17. 20, 
28, 29. 
1 Cor. 11. 7. 
Eph. 4. 24. 
Col. 3. 10. - 
Jam. 3. 9. 
ych.9. 2. 
Ps. 8. 6. 
zl Cor.11.7. 
a ch. 5. 2. 
Mai. 2. 15. 
M«tt.l9. 4. 
Mark 10. 6. 
6ch.9. 1.7. 
Lev. 26. 9. 
128. 3, 4. 

fHeb. seed- 
ing seed. 

c ch. 9. 3. 

Job 36. 31. 
Ps. 104.14, 
15. & 125. 
25. & 146.7. 
Acts 14. 17. 
16. » 147.9. 
fJob 3S. 41. 
t Heb. a 
living sold. 
1 Tim. 4. 4. 

18 And to "rule over the day, and over the night, 
and to divide the light from the darkness : and God 
saw that it was good. 

19 And the evening and the morning were the 
fourth day. _ 49o*i 

20 UAnd God said, Let the waters bring forth 
abundantly the || moving creature that hatn f life, 
and f fowl that may fly above the earth in the f open 
firmament of heaven. 

21 And " God created great whales, and every living 
creature that moveth, which the waters brought forth 
abundantly after their kind, and every winged fowl 
after his kind : and God saw that it was good. 

22 And God blessed them, saying, w JBe fruitful 
and multiply, and fill the waters in the seas, and let 
fowl multiply in the earth. 

23 And the evening and the morning were the 
fifth day. 

24 ILAnd God said, Let the earth bring forth the 
living creature after his kind, cattle, and creeping 
thing, and beast of the earth after his kind : and it 
was so. 

25 And God made the beast of the earth after 
his kind, and cattle after their kind, and every thing 
that creepeth upon the earth after his kind : and 
God saw that it was good. 

26 IFAnd God said, * Let us make man in our image, 
after our likeness : and y let them have dominion over 
the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the air, and 
over the cattle, and over all the earth, and over every 
creeping thing that creepeth upon the earth. 

2 / So God created man in his own image, *in the 


him; "male and female 

4- i ' 
them, and God said unto 

image of God created 
created he them. 

28 And God blessed 
them, 'Be fruitful, and multiply, and replenish the 
earth, and subdue it: and have dominion over the 
fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the air, and over 
every living thing that f moveth upon the earth. 

29 UAnd God said, Behold, I have given you every 
herb f bearing seed, which is upon the face of all the 
earth, and every tree, in the which is the fruit of a 
tree yielding seed; c to you it shall be for meat. 

30 And to d every beast of the earth, and to every 
fowl of the air, and to every thing that creepeth 

upon the earth, wherein there is f nfe, / have given 
every green herb for meat : and it was so. 

31 And •'God saw every thing that he had made : 
and behold, it was very good. And the evening and 
the morning were the sixth day. 

The garden of Eden. 




1 The first sabbath. 4 The manner of the creation. 19,20 The naming of 
the creatures. 21 The making of woman, and institution of marriage. 

rpHUS the heavens and the earth were finished, 
sf*. .and " all the host of them. 

2 6 And on the seventh day God ended his work 
which he had made ; and he rested on the seventh 
day from all his work which he had made. 

y!and Grou '^blessed the seventh day, and sancti- 
fied it : becajnse^hat in it he had rested from all his 
work which pod f created and made. 

4 H d These are the generations of the heavens and 
of the earth when they were created, in the day that 
the, Lord God made the earth and the heavens, 
2 5a. And every "plant of the field before it was in the 
earth^ncbfvery herb of the field before it grew : for 
the Lord God had not •'"caused it to rain upon the 
earth, and there was not a man f to till the ground. 

6 But || there went up a mist from the earth, and 
watered the^ra|9^fqfe,f)oJ4 ne ground. 

7 And the Lord God formed man \of the Must 
of the ground, and 'breathed into his * nostrils the 
bpeath of life ; and 'man became a living soul. 

8 If And the Lord God planted "'a garden "east- 
ward in "Eden; and there p he put the man whom 
he had-fornied. 60'-* 4 

$ And out of the ground made the Lord God to 
grow 'every tree that is pleasant to the sight, and 
good for food ; r the tree of life also in the midst of the 
garden, -and the tree of knowledge of good and evil. 

10 IfAiid a river went out of Eden to water the 
garden : and from thence it was parted, and became 
mto four heads. 

11 The name of the first is Pison : that is it which 
compasseth "the whole land of Havilah, where there 

12*"And the gold of that land is good: ""there is 
bdellium, and the onyx-stone. 

13 And the name of the second river is Gihon : 
the same is it that compasseth the whole land of 
t Ethiopia. 

14 And the name of the third river is 'Hiddekel : 
at is it which goeth || toward, the east of Assyria, 
id the fourth river is Euphrates. 

15 If And the Lord God took lithe man, and ^put him 
into the garden of Eden, to dress it, and to keep it. 

16 And the Lord God commanded the man, saying, 
Of every tree of the garden f thou may est freely eat : 

17 z But of the tree of the knowledge of good and 
evil, a thou shalt not eat of it : for in the day that 
thou eatest thereof 4 f thou shalt surely die. 

18" IfAnd the Lord God said, It is not good that 
the man should be alone : C I will make him an help 
fmeet for him. 

19 "And out of the ground the Lord God formed 
every beast of the field, and* every fowl of the air, 
and -^brought them unto || Adam to see what he would 
call them; and whatsoever Adam called every living 
creature^ th#,^ was the name thereof. ' 

2IK And'Adam f gave names to all cattle, and to the 
fowl of the air, and to every beast of the field : but 
for. Adam. there wa^npt»fj)und an help meet for him. 

21 If And the Lord God caused a *deep sleep to 
fall upon Adam, and he slept ; and he took one of 
his ribs,, and closed up the flesh instead thereof: 

22 And the rib, which the Lord God had taken 
from man, fmade he a woman, and h brought her 
unto the man. 





aPs. 33. 6. 

6 Ex. 20.11. 
&31. 17. 
Deut. 5. 14. 
Heb. 4. 4. 

c Neh. 9.14. 
Isa. 58.13. 

created to 
deb.. 1.1. 
Ps. 90. 1, 2. 

ech. 1. 12. 
Ps. 104. 14. 

/Job 38.26, 

27, 28. 

gch. 3. 23. 

|| Or, a mist 

which went 

up from, 


f Iieb. dust 

of the 


h eh. 3. 19, 


Ps. 103. 14. 

Eccl. 12. 7. 

Isa. 64. 8. 

1 Cor.15.47. 
i Job 33. 4. 
Acts 17. 25. 
ich. 7.22. 
Isa. 2.22. 

1 1 Cor. 15. 

inch. 13.10. 
Isa. 51.3. 
Joel 2. 3. 
neb. 3.24. 
</eli. 4.16. 

2 Kings 19. 

p ver. 15. 
rch. 3. 22. 
Prov. 3. 18. 
& 11. 30. 
Rev. 2.7. & 
22. 2, 14. 

s ver. 17. 
u eh. 25. 18. 
w Num.11. 


x Dan.10.4. 
|| Or, cast- 
ward to As- 

||Or, Adam, 
y ver. 8. 

fHeb. eat- 
ing thou 
shalt eat. 
z ver. 9. 
a eh. 3.1,3, 
11, 17. 
fcch. 3.3,19. 
Rom. 6. 23. 
1 Cor.15.56. 
Jam. 1. 15. 
1 John 5.16 
fUeh. dy- 
ing thou 
shalt die. 
cch. 3. 12. 
1 Tim. 2.13. 
t Heb. as 
before him. 
e eh. 1. 20, 

/Ps. 8. 6. 
|| Or, the 

fHeb. call- 

q eh. 15. 12 
1 Sam. 26. 



h Prov. 18. 


Heb. 13. 4. 



t'ch. 29. 14. 
Judg. 9. 2. 
2 Sam. 5.1. 
& 19. 13. 
Eph. 5. 30. 
fHeb. Isha. 
fclCor. 11. 

fHeb. lsh. 
Jcb. 31. 15. 
Ps. 45. 10. 
Matt. 19. 5. 
Mark 10. 7. 
1 Cor. 6. 16. 
m eh. 3. 7, 
10, 11. 
n Ex.32.25. 
Isa. 47. 3. 
a Rev. 12.9. 
& 20. 2. 
6 Matt. 10. 

+ Heb. lea, 
because, dx. 

ceb.2. 17. 

d ver. 13. 
2 Cor. 11. 3. 

1 Tim. 2.14. 

ever. i. 

Acts 26. 18. 

t Heb. a 
g ver.12,17. 
h ver. 5. 
i cb. 2. 25. 
|| Or, tilings 
to gird 
I; Job 38. 1. 

Jer. 23. 24. 
Amos 9. 3. 
m ch. 2. 25. 
Ex. 3. 6. 
1 Jobn3.20 
n cb. 2. 18. 
Job 31. 33. 
over. 4. 
1 Tim. 2.14. 
p Ex.21.29, 

q Isa.65.25. 
Mic. 7. 17. 
r Matt. 3.7. 
k 13. 38. k 
23. 33. 
Jobn 8. 44. 
Acts 13. 10. 
1 Jobn 3. 8. 
s Ps.132.11. 
Isa. 7. 14. 
Mic. 5. 3. 
Matt. 1. 23, 

Luke 1.31, 
34, 35. 
Gal. 4. 4. 
t Rom. 16. 

Col. 2. 15. 
Heb. 2. 14. 
1 Jobn 5. 5. 
Rev. 12. 7, 

u Ps. 48. 6. 
Isa. 13. 8. 
k 21. 3. 
John 16. 21 
1 Tim. 2.15. 
wch. 4. 7. 
|| Or, sub- 
ject to thy 
x\ Cor. 11. 
3. k 14. 34. 
Eph. 5. 22, 
23, 24. 
1 Tim. 2.11, 

Tit. 2. 5. 
1 Pet. 3.1,5, 


z ver. 6. 
a ch. 2. 17. 
6 Eccl. 1.2, 

Isa. 24. 5, 6. 
Rom. 8. 20. 
cJob 5. 7. 
Eccl. 2. 23. 

11. Man's miserable fall. 

23 And Adam said, This is now 'bone of my 
bones, and flesh of my flesh: she shall be called 
f Woman, because she was k taken out of fman. 

24 ' Therefore shall a man leave his father and his 
mother, and shall cleave unto his wife : and they ^one flesh. 

25* wAmd they were both naked, the man and his 
wife, and were not "ashamed. 


1 The serpent deceiveth Eve. 6 Man's shameful fall. 16 The punishment of 
mankind. 22 Their casting out of paradise. 

NOW ° the serpent was ^more^-sub^ile than any beast 
of the field which the Lord God had made : and 
he said unto the woman, f Yea, hath God ) said, Ye 
shall not eat of every tree of the garden ? 

2 And the woman said unto the serpent, We may 
eat of the fruit of the trees of the garden : 

3 c But of ;.th$ $$$it of the tree which is in the midst 
of the gardenj God hath said, Ye shall not eat of it, 
neither, ishall ye touch it, lest ye die. 

4 "Arid the serpent said unto the woman, Ye shall 
not surely dm n 

5 For God doth know, that in the day ye eat 
thereof, then 'your eyes shall be opened ; and ye 
shall he as gods, knowing good and evil. 

15 xAiid when the woman saw that the tree was 
good for food, and that it was t pleasant to the eyes, 
and a tree to be desired to make one wise ; she took 
of the fruit thereof, 7 and did eat ; and gave also unto 
her husband with her, ■'•'and he did eat. 

7*1™ A the eyes of them both were opened, 'and 
they knew that they were naked : and they sewed 
fig^eayes together, and made themselves || aprons.^ 

8 And they heard A "thc voice of the Lord God 
talking in the garden in the t cool of the day : and 
Aclam aiTd.|i£${wife 'hid themselves from the presence 
of the Lord God amongst the trees of the garden. 

9 if And the LOrd God called unto Adam, and 
said unto him, Where art thou ? 

10 And he said, I heard thy voice in the garden: 
"' and I was afraid, because I was naked ; and I hid 
myself. r , 

11 And he said, Who told thee that thou wast 
naked ? Hast thou eaten of the tree whereof I com- 
manded thee, that thou shouldest not eat ? 

12 And the man said, "The woman whom thou 
avest to be with me, she gave me of the tree, and I 
id eat. ^ nc\ 8503 

13 And the Lord God said unfa the woman, What 
is this that thou hast done ? i: Arid the woman said, 
"Therjsexpent beguile^ jme^ and I did eat. 

14 If And the Lord God said / 'unto the serpent, 
Because thou hast done this, thou art cursed above 
all cattle, and above every beast of the field : upon 
thy belly shalt thou go, and q dust shalt thou eat all 
the dajs^f thy life : 

.5 And I will put enmity between thee and the 
woman, and between r thy seed and *her seed : 'it shall 
bruise thy head, and thou shalt bruise his heel. 

16 Unto the woman he said, I will greatly mul- 
tiply thy sorrow and thy conception ; "in sorrow thou 
shait bring forth children: ™and thy desire shall be 

to thy husband, and he shall a rule over thee. 

1 7 And unto Adam he said, y Because thou hast 
hearkened unto the voice of thy wife, z and hast eaten of 
the tree ° of which I commanded thee, saying, Thou 
shalt not eat of it : "cursed is the ground for thy sake; 

in sorrow shalt thou eat of it all the days of thy life ; 

; forth 



Cain slayeth Abel. 

18 d Thorns also and thistles shall it fhrim 
to thee; and e thou shalt eat the herb of the r 

19 ■> In the sweat of thy face shalt thou eat bread, till j <* j0 b 31.40. 
thou return unto the ground ; for out of it wast thou ta- tJ 
ken: *for.dusttheu«;$and ''unto dust shalt thou return. 

20 And Adam called his wife's name f II Eve, be- 
cause she was lh§ mother of all living. .^ n 

21 Unto AMain also and to his wife did the Lord 
God make.qqats of skins, and clothed them. 

22 m And the Lord God said, 'Behold, the man 
is become as one of us, to know good and evil : and 
now, lest he put forth his hand, *and take also of 
the tree of life, and eat; aneLdive for ever : 

23 Therefore the Lord God sent him forth from 
the garden of Eden, 'to till the ground from whence 
he wa^taken. 

24 So' he "drove out the man; and he placed m at 
the east of the garden of Eden " Cherub ims, and a 
flaming sword which turned every way, to keep 
the way of the tree of life. 


1 The birth, trade, and religion of Cain and Abel. 8 The murder of Abel. 

11 The curse of Cain. 

\ Nt) Adam knew Eve his wife; 


ceived, and; bare || Cain, and said, 

and she con- 
I have gotten 

a man from the Lord. 

2 And she again bare his brother f Abel: and Abel was 
fa keeper of sheep, but Cain was "a tiller of the ground. 

3 And fin process of time it came to pass, that 
Cain brougatj 6 of the fruit of the ground an offering 
unto tie Lord. 

4 And Abel, he also brought of c .the firstlin; 



his f flock, and of the fat thereof. And the 
had d respect unto Abel, and to his offering : 

5 But unto Cain, and to his offering, he had not 
respect: and Cain Was very wroth, e and his coun- 

tenanr^ -5410 9 7 6 2 

6 And the Lord said unto Cain, Why art thou 
wroth ? and why is thy countenance fallen ? 

7 If thou doest well, shalt thou not ||be accepted ? 
and if thou doest not well, sin lieth at the door: 
and ||tinto thee shall he his desire, and thou shalt 
rule over him. ^ q, 

8 And Cain talked with Abel his brother : and/it 
came to pass when (they were in the field, that Cam 
rose up against Abel his brother, and {slew him. 

9 IT And the Lord said unto Cain, s Where is 
Abel thy brother ? And he said, h I know not : Am 
I my brother's keeper ?. 

10 And he said, What hast thou done ? the voice of 
thy brother's fblood 'crieth unto me from the ground. 

11 And now art thou cursed from the earth, 
which hath opened her mouth to receive thy bro- 
ther's blood from thy hand. 

12 When thou tillest the ground, it shall not 
henceforth yield unto thee her strength : A fugitive 
and a -vagabond: shalt* thou be in the earth. 

13 'And €ain said unto the' "Lord, ||My punish- 
ment as* greater than I can bear. 

14 ^Behold, thou hast driven me out this day from 
the face of the earth; and 'from thy face shall I be 
hid ; and I shall be a fugitive and a vagabond in the 
earth; and it shall come to pass, m that every one 
that findeth me^haU slay me. 

15 And the Lord said unto him, Therefore who- 
soever slayeth Qain, r vengeance shall be taken on 
him "seven-fold. And ; the Lord "set a mark upon 
Cain, lest any finding him should kill him. 

|| That is, 
gotten, or, 
a feeder, 
a eh. 3. 23. 
& 9. 20. the 
b Num. 18. 
life Num. 18. 


Prov. 3. 9. 


sheep, or, 


d Heb.11.4. 

ech.31. 2. 

to bud, 

e Ps.104.14. 


2 Thess. 3. 


S^h- 2. 7. 


& 34. 15. 

Pa. 104. 29. 

Eccl. 3. 20. 

& 12. 7. 

Rom. 5.12. 

Heb. 9. 27. 



|| That is, 


iver. 5. 

Like Is. 19. 

12. & 47.12, 


Jer. 22. 23. 

k ch. 2. 9. 

Ich. 4. 2. & 


m ch. 2. 8. 

raPs. 104.4. 

Heb. 1. 7. 


II Or, 

have the ex- 
Heb. 11. 4. 
|| Or, subject 
unto thee. 
ch. 3. 16. 

about 3875 

f) Mat 23.35 
Jude 11. 
ffPs. 9. 12. 
AJohn 8.44. 

Rev. 6. 10. 

Or, Mine 
iniquity is 
than that 
it may be 
k Job 15.20 

IPs. 51. 11. 
mch. 9. 6. 
Num. 35. 
19, 21, 27. 

n Ps. 79.12. 
oEzek. 9.4, 

about S875. 

23. & 24. 20. 
Jer. 23.29. 
& 52. 3. 
about 3875 






II Or, J 
would slay 
a man in 
my wound, 
&c. J ! ) 
|| Or, in my 
sver. 15. 
tch. 5. 3. 
|| That is, 
or, put. 

u ch. 5. 6. 
|| Or, to call \ 
by the name 

w\ Kings 
Ps. 116. 17. 
Joel 2. 32. 
Zeph. 3. 9. 
1 Cor. 1. 2. 

a 1 Chron. 

Luke 3. 36. 
ich. 1 26. 
Eph. 4. 24. 
Col. 3. 10. 
c ch. 1. 27. 



d ch. 4. 25. 

e 1 Chron. 
1. 1, &c. 
/ch. 1. 28. 

gch. 3. 19. 

Heb. 9.27. 



+ Gr. 



Adam's genealogy unto Noah. 

16,'TfAnd Cain 'went out from the presence of 
the Lord, and dwelt in the land of Nod, on the east 
of Eden. 

17 And Gain knew his wife, and she conceived, 
and bare f Enoch: and he builded a city, q and. called 
the name of the city after the name of his son, Enoch. 

18 And unto Enoch was born Irad : and Irad 
begat Mehujael: and Mehujael begat Methusael: 
and Methusael begat f Lamech. 

19 TFAnd Lamech. tools unto him two wives : the 
name of the one was Adah, and the name of the other 
Zillah. >o 

20 And Adah bare Jabal: he was the father of 
such as dwell in tents, and of such as .have cattle. 

21 And his brother's name tvas Jubal: he was 
the r father of all such as handle the, harp and organ. 

22 And Zillah, she also bare Tubal-cain, an f in- 
structor of every artificer in brass and iron: and the 
sister of Tubal-cain tvas Naamah. 

■23 And Lamech said unto his wives, Adah and 
Zillah, Hear my voice, ye wives of Lamech, hearken 
unto my speech : for f[I have slain a man to 
wounding, and a young man ||to my hurt. 

24 s If Cain shall be avenged seven-fold, truly 
Lamech seventy apjckseven-fold. 

25 HAnd Adam knew his wife again, and she 
bare a son, and 'called his name f [fSeth: For God, 
sqi$\9he, hath appointed me another seed instead of 
Abel, whom Cain slew. 

26 And to Seth, "to him also there was born a 
son; and he called his name fEnos: then began 
men H^to call upon the name of the Lord. 


1 The genealogy, age, and death of the patriarchs from Adam unto Noah. 
24 The godliness and translation of Enoch. 

THIS:?s the "book of -the generations of Adam: 
Infhe day that God created man, in 'the like- 
ness of God made he him : 

2 c Male and female created he ; th.em ; and blessed 
them, and called their name Adam, in the day when 
they were created^ ^ 

s And Adam lived an hundred and thirty years, 
and begat a son in his own likeness, after his image ; 
and ^called his name Seth: .-.. 

4 "And the days of Adam after he had begotten 
Seth were eight hundred years: •'and he begat sons 
and daughters : j n 

5 Arid all the days that Adam lived were nine 
hundred and thirty years: *and he died. 

6 And Seth lived an hundred and five years, and 
''begat Enos: 

/ And Seth lived after he begat Enos eight hundred 
and seven years, and begabsons and daughters: 

8 And all the days of Seth were nine hundred 
and twelve years; and he died. 

9 TAnd Enos lived ninety years, and begat fCainan: 

10 And Enos lived after he begat Cainan eight hun- 
dred and fifteen years, and begat sons and daughters : 

11 And all the days of Enos were nine hundred 
and five, years; and he died. 

12 lIAnd Cainan lived seventy years, and begat 
tMahalaleel : . ,-, 

1 3 And Cainan lived after he begat Mahalaleel eight 
hundred and forty years,and begat sons and daughters: 

14 And all the days of Cainan were nine hundred 
and ten years ; and he died. 

15 IfAnd Mahalaleel lived sixty and five years, 

and begat f Jared : 



Man's wickedness causeth the flood. 

16" 'And Mahalaleel lived after he begat 
eight hundred and thirty years, and begat sons and 
daughters : 

17 And all the days of Mahalaleel were eight 
hundred ninety and five years; and he died. 

18 HAnd Jared lived an hundred sixty and two 
years, and ha begat ' Enoch : 

19 Mid Jared lived after he begat Enoch eight 
hundreqLyears, and begat sonsiand daughters : 

20 And all the days of Jared were nine hundred 
sixty and two* yeMs ; and he died. 

21 HAnd Enoch lived sixty and five years, and 
begat t Methuselah : \ o cvy 

22 And Enoch * walked witlrGbd after he begat 






23 And all the days of Enoch were three hundred 

Methuselah three hundred 
and daughters : 

And all the days 
sixty and five years : 

- 24 And ' Enoch walked with God, and he was not : 
for God took him. 

25 And Methuselah h^wdfaffi hundred eighty and 
seven years, and begat t Lainech : 

26 And Methuselah lived after he begat Laniec 1 
seven hundred eighty and two years, and begat sons 
and daughters : 

27 And all the days of Methuselah were nine hun- 
dred sixty and nine years; and he died. 

28 IF And Lainech lived an hundred eighty and 
two years, and begat a son : 

2y And he called his name fll Noah, saying, This 
same shall comfort us concerning our work and toil 
of our hands, because of the ground '" which the Lord 
hath cursedo i {{A 

30 And Lamech lived after he begat Noah five 
hundred ninety and five years, and begat sons and 
d^ughWs : 

31 And all the days of Lamech were seven hun- 
dred seventy and seven years : and he died. 

32 HAnd Noah was five hundredu^years old: and 
Noah begat " Shem, Ham, "and Japhetn. 


1 The wiokedness of the world, which provoked God's wrath, and caused 
'. ■ the flood. 14 T he order and form of the ark. 

\ ND it came to pass, " when men began to multiply 



on the face of the earth, and 
born unto them, 

2 That the sons of God saw the daughters of men 
that they were fair; and they Hook them wives of 
all which they chose. 

3 And the Lord said, f My Spirit shall not always 
strive with man, d for that he also is flesh: yet his 
days.shall i be an hundred and twenty years. 

4 "There were giants in the earth in those days; 
and also after that, when the sons of God came in 
.unto the daughters of men, and they bare children 
to them : the same became mighty men, which were 
of old, men of renown. 

5 HAnd God saw that the wickedness of man was 
great in the earth, and that || every "imagination of 
the thoughts of his heart was only evil tcontinually. 

6 And •'it repented the 'Lord that he had made 
man on, the earthy and it * grieved him at his heart. 

"7 And the Lord said, I will destroy man whom I 
have created from the face of the earth ; f both man 
and beast, and the creeping thing, and the fowls of 
the air; for it repentetn me that I have made them. 

8 But Noah A found grace in the eyes of the Lord. 

9 HThese are the generations of Noali : 'Noah' was 






i Jude 14. 


it ch. 6.9.4 
17. 1. & 24. 

2 Kings 20. 

Ps. 16. 8. & 
116. 9.4 
Mic. 6. 8. 
Mai. 2. 6. 
Heb. 11. 6. 



fGr. Noe. 
Luke 3. 36. 
Heb. 11. 7. 
1 Pet. 3.20. 
|] Tbat is, 
rest, or, 
mch. 3. 17. 
& 4. 11. 

nch. 6. 10. 

a ch. 1. 28. 

c Gal. 5. 10, 

1 Pet. 3. 19, 

|| Or, the 
whole ima- 
gination : 
The He- 
brew word 
not only 
the imagi- 
nation, but 
also Vie 
and desires 
e ch. 8. 21. 
Deut. 29.19 
Prov. 6. 18. 
every day. 

Num. 23. 

1. Sam. 15. 

2. Sam. 24. 

Mai. 3. 6. 
Jam. 1. 17. 
glsa. 63.10. 
Eph. 4. 30. 
from man 
unto beast. 
ft ch. 19. 19. 
Ex. 33. 12, 
13, 16, 17. 
Luke 1. 30. 
Acts. 7. 46. 

ich.7. 1. 

Rom. 1. 17. 
Heb. 11. 7. 

2 Pet. 2. 6. 




I! Or, 

fceh. 5. 22. 
I ch. 5. 32. 
mch. 7. 1. 
& 10. 9. & 
13. 13. 

Luke 1. 6. 
Rom. 2. 13. 
& 3. 19. 
nEzek. 8. 
17. & 28. 16. 
Ps. 14. 2. & 
53. 2, 3. 
Ezek. 7. 2, 

Amos 8. 2. 
1 Pet. 4. 7. 
over. 17. 
fOr, from 
the earth. 

r ver. 13. 
ch. 7. 4, 21, 
2 Pet. 2. 6. 

sch.7. 1,7, 

1 Pet. 3. 20. 

2 Pet. 2. 6. 
<ch.7. 8, 9. 
15, 16. 


wHeb. 11. 


See Ex. 40. 


zch. 7.5, 9, 


aver. 7,13. 
Heb. 11. 7. 

1 Pet. 3. 2(L 

2 Pet. 2. 5; 
6ch. 6. 9. 
Ps. 33. 18, 

Prov. 10. 9 
2 Pet. 2. 9 
c ver. 8. 
Lev. ch. 11. 
e ver. 12,17. 

fHeb. blot 


/ch. 6. 22. 


g ver. 1. 

The order and form of the ark. 

2 %^\ S 
§rfect in his generations, and No"an 

a just man, and #j 
* walked with God 

TO And Noah begat three sons, 'Shem, Ham, and 
Japheth. r^ ~ e >y 

11 The earth also was corrupt ""before God; and 
the-e^rth wasj" f filled with violence. 

12 And God "looked upon the earth, and behold, 
it was corrupt : for all flesh had corrupted his way 
upon t}ie eatth & Q n k o a 

13 And God said unto Noah, p The end of all flesh 
is come before me ; for the earth is filled with vio- 
lence through them : « and behold, I will destroy 
them || with the earth. 

14 IT Make ihee an ark of gopher-wood: f rooms 
shalt thou make in the ark, and shalt pitch it within 
and without with pitch. 

15 And this is the fashion which thou shalt make 
it of: The length of the ark shall be three hundred 
cubits, the breadth of it fifty cubits, and the height 
of it thirty cubits. 

16 A window shalt thou make to the ark, and in 
a cubit shalt thou finish it above ; and the door of 
the ark shalt thou set in the side thereof: with lower, 
secondhand third stories shalt thou make it. 

17 "'And behold, 1, even I, do bring a flood of 
waters upon the earth, to destroy all flesh, wherein 
is the breath of life, from under heaven : and every 
thing that is in the earth shall die. 

18 But with thee will I establish my covenant: 
and 'thou shalt come into the ark, thou, and thy sons, 
and thy wife, and thy sons' wives with thee. 

19 AM of every living thing of all flesh, 'two of 
every sort shalt thou bring into the ark, to keep them 
alive with thee : they shall be male and female. 

20 Of fowls after their kind, and of cattle after 
their kind, of every creeping thing of the earth after 
his kind ; two of every sort " shall come unto thee, 
to keep #*em alive. 

21 And take thou unto thee of all food that is 
eaten, and thou shalt gather it to thee ; and it shall 
be for food for thee, and for them. 

22 '"Thus did Noah; x according to all that God 
commanded him, so did he. 


1 Noah, with his family, and the living creatures, enter the ark. 17 The 
-beginning and continuance of the flood. 

ND the Lord said unto Noah, "Come thou and 
all thy house into the ark : for b thee have I seen 
righteous before me in this generation. 

2 Of every c clean beast thou shalt take to thee by 

f sevens, the male and his female : ''and of beasts that 

are not clean by two, the male and his female. 

"' 3 t}f fowls also of the air by sevens, the male and the 

female; to keep seed alive upon the face of all the earth. 

4 For yet seven days, and I will cause it to rain 
upon the earth e forty days and forty nights: and 
every living substance that I have made will I 
t destroy from off the face of the earth, j ~ a q 

5 /And Noah did according unto all that the Lord 
commanded him. 

6 And Noah was six hundred years old when the 
flood of waters was upon the earth. 

7 IT* And Noah went in, and his sons, and his 
wife, and his sons' wives with him, into the ark, 
because of the waters of the flood. 

8 6f clean beasts, and of beasts that are not clean, 
and of fowls, and of every thing that creepeth upoD 
the earth, 

A 1 

The world drowned. 

o O O , 


Noah goeth out of the ark. 

9 There went in two and two unto Noah into the 
ark, the male and the female, as God had commanded 

10 And it came to pass, || after seven days, that 
the waters: of the flood were upon the earth. 

11 If In the six hundredth year of Noah's life, in the 
second month, the seventeenth day of the month, the 
same day were all ''the fountains of the great deep 
broken up^ and H'the windows of heaven were opened. 

12 "Anil the rain was upon the earth forty days 
and forty nights. r* a n 

13 In the self-same day 'entered Noah, and Shem, 
and Ham, and Japheth, the sons of Noah, and Noah's 
wife, and the three wives of his sons with them, into 
the ark : 

14 m They, and every beast after his kind, and all 
the cattle after their kind, and every creeping thing 
that creepeth upon the earth after his kind, and 
every fowl after his kind, every bird of every f sort. 

15 And they " went in unto Noah into the ark, two 
and two of all flesh, wherein is the breath of life. 

16 And they that went in, went in male and female 
of all flesh, "as God had commanded him : and the 
Lord shut him in. 

17 M.nd the flood was forty days upon the earth : 
and the waters increased, and bare up the ark, and 
it was, lift up above the earth. 

18 And the waters prevailed, and were increased 
greatly upon the earth : 9 and the ark went upon the 
face of the waters. 

19 And the waters prevailed exceedingly upon 
the earth: r and all the high hills that were under 
the whole heaven were covered. 

20 Fifteen cubits upward did the waters prevail : 
and th&, mountains were covered. 

21 f And all flesh died that moved upon the earth,both 
of fowl, and of cattle, and of beast, and of every creep- 
ing thing that creepeth upon the earth, and every man: 

22 All in 'whose nostrils was fthe breath of life, 
of all that was in the dry land, died. 

23 And every living substance was destroyed 
which was upon the face of the ground, both man, 
and cattle, and the creeping things, and the fowl of 
the heaven; and they were destroyed from the 
earth ; and " Noah only remained alive, and they that 
were with: him in the ark. 

24 ''And the waters prevailed upon the earth an 
hundred and fifty days. 


1 The waters assuage. 4 The ark resteth on Ararat. 18 Noah goeth forth 
of the ark. 20 He buildeth an altar, and offereth sacrifice. 

AND God "remembered Noah/and every living 
thing, andcaiH 4he cattle that ivas with him in 
the ark : *and' God made a wind to pass over the 
earth, and the waters assuaged. 

2 c The fountains also of the deep, and the win- 
dows of heaven were stopped, and ''the rain from 
heaven Wfip)]?estrained. 

3 Ancf tne waters returned from off the earth 
f continually : and after the end e of the hundred and 
fifty days- the, waters were abated. 

4 If And the ark rested in the seventh month, on 
the seventeenth day of the month, upon the moun- 
tains of Ararat. 

5 And the waters f decreased continually, until the 
tenth month : in the tenth month, on the first day of 
the month, were the tops of the mountains seen. 







f ch. 6. 16. 

U Or, on Vie 



in going 


forth and 


h ch. 8. 2. 

Prov. 8. 28. 


^Ot, flood- 


ich. 1. 7. 
Ps. 78. 23. 

caused her 

fcver. 4. 17. 

to come. 

itver. 1, 7. 

ch. 6. 18. 

Heb. 11. 7. 

1 Pet. 3. 20. 

2 Pet. 2. 5. 

m ver. 2, 3, 


fHeb. wing 

rich. 6. 20. 


over. 2, 3. 

p ver. 4, 12. 

q Ps.104.26. 

gch. 7. 13. 



Jer. 3. 23. 

s ch.6.13,17 


ver. 4. 

Job 22. 16. 



2 Pet. 3. 6. 

ich. 2. 7. 

tHeb. the 
breath of 

the spirit 


of life. 


k Lev. ch. 


iLev. 1. 9. 


2 Cor. 2. 15. 

Eph. 5.2. 


fHeb asa-" 

2 Pet. 2. 5. 

vourofrest. ' 

A3. 6. 

mch. 3. 17. 

weh. 8. 3. 

& 6. 17. 

& eh. 8. 4. 

H Or, though. 


Bch. 6. 5. 

with ver. 

Job 14. 4.4 

11. of this 

15. 14. 


Ps. 51. 5. 

Jer. 17. 9. 


Rom. 1. 21. 

& 3. 23. 

och. 9.11, 



Ex. 2. 24. 


1 Sam.1.19. 

t Heb. As 

b Ex. 14.21. 

yet all the 
days of the 


q Jer. 33. 

ceh. 7. 11. 

20, 25. 

(ZJub 38.37 

ach. 1.28. 

ver. 7, 19. 

ch. 10. 32. 

f Heb. wj 

6 eh. 1. 28. 

going and 

Hos. 2. 18. 


c Dent. 12. 

ech. 7. 24. 

15. & 14. 3, 


Acts 10. 12, 


dch. 1. 29. 

e Rom. 14. 


14, 20. 

were in go- 


ing and de- 



Col. 2. 16. 


6 IJAnd it came to pass at the end of forty days, 
that Noah opened f the window of the ark which he 
had made: 

7 And he sent forth a raven, which went forth fto and 
fro, until the waters were dried up from off the earth. 

8 Also he sent forth a dove from him, to see if the 
waters were abated from off the face of the ground. 

9 But the dove found no rest for the sole of hei 
foot, and she returned unto him into the ark ; for 
the waters were on the face of the whole earth. Then 
he put forth his hand, and took her, and f pulled her 
in unto him into the ark. 

10 And he stayed yet other seven days ; and again 
he sent -forth the dove out of the ark. 

11 And the dove came into him in the evening, 
and lo, in her mouth was an olive-leaf pluckt off. 
So Noah knew that the waters were abated from off' 
the earth. 

12 And he stayed yet other seven days, and sent 
forth the dove ; which returned not again unto him 
any more. 

13 "If And it came to pass in the six hundredth and 
first year, in the first month, the first day of the 
month, the waters were dried up from off the earth : 
and ' Noah removed the covering of the ark, and 
looked,, and behold, the face of the ground was dry. 

14 And in the second month, on the seven and 
twentieth, day of the month, was the earth dried. 

15 -IfAnd God spake unto Noah, saying, 
18 Go forth of the ark, *thou, and thy wife, and 

thy sons, and thy sons' wives with thee. 

17 Bring forth with thee h every living thing that is 
with thee, of all flesh, both of fowl, and of cattle, and 
of every creeping thing that creepeth upon the earth ; 
that they may breed abundantly in the earth, and 
'befriutful, and multiply upon the earth. 

18 And Noah went forth, and his sons, and his 
wife, and his sons' wives with him: 

19 Every beast, every creeping thing, and every 
fowl, and whatsoever creepeth upon the earth, after 
their % kinds, went forth out of the ark. 

20 TfAnd Noah builded an altar unto the Lord, 
and took of "every clean beast, and of every clean 
fowl, and offered -burnt-offerings on the altar. 

21 -And the Lord sihelled 'a t sweet savour ; and the 
Lord said in his heart, I will not again '"curse the ground 
any more for man's sake; || for the "imagination of 
man's heart is evil from his youth: "neither will I again 
smite any: more every thing living, as I have done. 

22 p f While the earth remaineth, seed-time and 
harvest, and cold and heat, and summer and winter, 
and ? day and night, shall not cease. 


1 God blesseth Noah. 4 Blood and murder are forbidden. 8 God's cove- 
nant, 13 signified by the rainbow. 18 Noah replenisheth the world, 21 is 
i~ drunken, and, mocked, of his son^ 25 cu^seth Canaan, 29 and dieth. 

Noah and his sons, and said 

plenish -the earth. 

2 *And the fear of you, and the dread of you, shall 
be upon every beast of the earth, and upon every 
fowl of the air, upon all that moveth upon the earth, 
and upon all the fishes of the sea; into your hand 
are they delivered. 

3 c Every moving thing that liveth shall be meat 
for you; even as 
e all things. 

AND God blessed Noah and his sons, and 
unto them, °Be fruitful, and multiply, and 

the d green herb have I given you 


God's covenant with Noah. 


Generations of Noah and his sons. 

4 -^But flesh with the life thereof, which is the 
blood thereof, shall ye not eat. 

5 And surely your blood of your lives will I re- 
quire : *at the hand of every beast will I require it, 
and * at the hand of man ; at the hand of every 'man's 
brother will I require the life of man. 

6 fc Whoso sheddeth man's blqotk rfey ; man shall his 
blood be shed : 'for in the image ©rwba made he man. 

7 And you, m be ye fruitful, and multiply; bring 
forth abundantly in the earth, and multiply therein. 

8 "HAnd God spake unto Noah, and to his sons 
with him, saying, 

9 And I, "behold, I establish "my covenant with 
yon, and with your seed after you; 

10 ■''And with every living creature that is with 
you, of the fowl, of the cattle, and of every beast of 
the earth with you, from all that go out of the ark, 
to every beast of the earth. 

11 And 9 I will establish my covenant with you; 
neither shall all flesh be cut off any more by the 
waters of a flood ; neither shall there any more be 
a flood to destroy the earth. 

1 2 And Gf od said, ' This is the token of the covenant 
which I make between me and you, and every living 
creature that is with you, for perpetual generations. 

13 I do set 'my bow in the cloud, and it shall be 
for a token of a covenant between me and the earth. 

14 And it shall come to pass, when 1 bring a cloud 
over the earth, that the bow shall be seen in the cloud: 

15 And "I will remember my covenant, which is 
between me and you, and every living creature of 
all flesh; and the waters shall no more become a 
flood to. destroy all flesh. 

16 And the bow shall be in the cloud ; and I will 
look upon it, thab J majy remember *" the everlasting 
covenant between God and every living creature of 
all- flesh that is ivpon the earth:-: . >, 

17 And God said unto Noah, This is the token of 
the covenant which I have established between me 
and all flesh that is upon the earth. 

18 IT And the sons of Noah that Went forth of the 
ark, were Shem, and Ham, and Japheth: 'and Ham 
is the father of f Canaan. 

19 y Yhese are the three sons of Noah': *and of 
them was the whole earth overspread. 

20 And Noah began to be "a husbandman, and he 
plantecLa vineyard : 

21 And he drank of the wine,* and was drunken; 
and-he<was uncovered within his tent. 

' '22 And Ham, the father of Canaan, saw the naked- 
ness of. his farther, and told his two brethren without. 

23 'And Shem and Japheth took a garment, and 
laid it upon both their shoulders, and went back- 
ward, and covered the nakedness of their father: 
and their faces were backward, and they saw not 
their father's gaake^dness. 

24 And Noah' awoke from his wine, and knew 
what his- younger son had done unto him. 

25 And he said, ''Cursed be Canaan: e a servant 
of. servants shall he be unto his brethren^ • j \0± 

20 And he said, ■''Blessed be the Lord God of 
Shem; and Canaan shall be || his servant. 

27 God shall [| enlarge Japheth/and he shall dwell in 
the tents of Shem ; and Canaan shall be his servant. 

28 HAnd Noah lived after the flood three hundred 
and fifty years. o a, 

29 And all the days of Noah were nine hundred 
and fifty years : and he died. 





11, 14. A 

19. 26. 


1 Sam. 14. 


Arts 16. 20, 


g Ex. 21.28. 

7ich. 4.9,10. 

Ps. 9. 12. 


k Ex. 21.12, 


Lev. 24.17. 


Rev. 18. 10. 

Zch. 1.27. 

mver. 1,19. 

A ch. 1. 28. 

Mch. 6. 18. 

olsa. 54.9. 


glsa. 54.9. 


sRev. 4. 3. 

« Ex. 28. 12 
Lev. 26.42, 

wch. 17.13, 


zch. 10. 6. 
t Heb. 
i/ch. 5. 32. 
*ch. 10.32. 
1 Chron. 1. 
4, Ac. 
ach. 3. 19, 
23. A 4. 2. 

c Ex. 20.12. 
Gal. 6. 1. 

dDeut. 27. 

1 Kings 9. 
|| Or, ser- 
vant to 
|| Or. 

oEph. 2.13, 
14. A 3, 6. 




ach. 9.1, 7. 

61 Chron. 
1. 5, Ac. 

|| Or, as 
some read 
it, Roda- 

25. 22. 
dl Chron. 
1. 8, Ac. 

about 2218. 

e.Ter. 16.16. 
Mic. 7. 2. 
/ch. 6. 11. 

g Mic. 5. 6. 
|| Or, he 
went out 
into As- 
|br. tiie 
streets of 
the city. 

h 1 Chron. 


rch. 13.12, 

14. 15, 17. 

A 15. 18— 


Num. 34. ; 


Josh. 12.7, 




fcl Chron. 
1. 17, Ac. 


I ch. 11.12. 

m 1 Chron. 

|| That is, 


( H fot:)The generations of Noah. 8 Nimrod the first monarch. 

1^0^'^hese are the generations of the sons of 
-L r Noah ; Shem, Ham, and Japheth : " and unto them 
were sons born after the flood. 

2 * The sons of Japheth ; Gomer, and Magog, and 
Madai, and Javan, and Tubal, and Meshech, and 
Tiras. \ i o< • » r» 

3 And the sons of Gomer; Ashkenaz, and Riphath, 
and logarmah. 

4 And the sons of Javan ; Elishah, and Tarshish, 
Kittim, and || Dodanim. 

5 By these were c the isles of the Gentiles divided 
in their lands ; every one after his tongue, after their 
families;, rim their nations^ j A 

6 IF 'And the sons of Ham; Cush, and Mizraim, 
and Phut, and Canaan. 

7 And the sons of Cush ; Seba, and Havilah, and 
Sabtah, and Raamah, and .- Sabtecha ; and the sons 
ofRaamah; Sheba, and Dedan. 

'""8' And Cush begat Nimrod: he began to be a 
mighty one in the earth. 

9 He was a mighty e hunter before the Lord: 
wherefore it is said, Even as Nimrod the mighty 
hunter before the Lord. 

1 ^And the beginning of his kingdom was fBabel,and 
Erech, and Accad, and Calneh, in the land of Shinar. 

11 Out of that land || went forth Asshur, and builded 
Nineveh, and || the city Rehoboth, and Calah, 

12 And Resen between Nineveh and Calah: the 
same is a great city. 

13 And Mizraim begat Ludim, and Anamim, and 
Lehabim, and Naphtuhim, 

14 And Pathrusim, and Casluhim, (''out of whom 
came Philistim,) and Caphtorim. 

1-5 HAnd Canaan begat f Sidon his first-born, and 
Heth, - t . no 

l(j And the Jebusite, and the Amorite, and the 

o , 


17 And the Hivite, and the Arkite, and the Sinite, 
'A 84 'JVn-d the Arvadite, and the Zemarite, and the 
Hamathite : and afterward were the families of the 
Canaanites spread abroad. 

19 And the border of the Canaanites was from 
Sidon, as thou comest to Gerar, unto f Gaza; as thou 
goest unto Sodom and Gomorrah, and Admah, and 
Zeboim, even unto Lasha. 

20 These are the sons of Ham, after their fami- 
lies, after their tongues, in their countries, and in 
their nations. 9 q q / • 

21 IT Unto Shem also, the father of all the chil- 
dren of Eber, the brother of Japheth the elder, even 
to him were children bom. 

22 The ^children of Shem; Elam, and Asshur, 
and fArphaxad, and Lud, and Aram. 

23 And the children of Aram; Uz, and Hul, and 
Getherj-and Mash. 

24 And Arphaxad begat f Salah ; and Salah begat 
Eber. -:,;.-. 

25 "'And unto Eber were born two sons : the 
name of one was II Peleg, for in his days was the 
earth divided ; and his brother's name was Joktan. 

26 iVnd Joktan begat Almodad, and Sheleph, and 
Hazarmaveth, and Jerah, 

27 And Hadoram, and Uzal, and Diklah, 

28 And Obal, and Abimael, and Sheba, 

29 And Ophir, and Havilah, and Jobab: all these 
were the sons of Joktan. 


The building of Babel. 

30 And their dwelling was. from Mesha, as thou 
goest unto Sephar, a mount of the east. 

31 These are the sons of Shem, after their fainilies, 
after their tongues, in their lands, after their nations. 

32 "These are the families of the sons of Noah, after 
their generations, in their nations : "and by these were 
the nations divided in the earth after the flood. 


1 One language in the world. 3 The building of Babel. 5. The confusion 
of tongues. 

AND the whole earth was of one flanguage, and 
of one fspeech. 

2 And it 'came to pass, as they journeyed ||from 
the east, that they found a plain in the land of Stii- 
nar ; and they dwelt there. 

3 And f they said one to another, Go to, let us 
make brick, and fburn them thoroughly. And they 
had brick' for stone, ^,nd slime had they for mortar. 

4 And they said, GrO to, let us build us a city, and 
a tower, ° whose top may reach unto heaven ; and let 
us make us a name, lest we be scattered abroad upon 
the face; of the whole earth. 

5 6 And the Lord came down to see the city and 
the tower, which the childr@n-:of men budded. 

6 And the Lord "said, Behold, c the people is one, 
and they have all rf one language ; and this they begin 
to do : and now nothing will be restrained from them, 
which they have e imagined to do. 

7 Go to, •'let us go down, and there confound their 
language, that they may ^not understand one another's 
speech..;- - : ;_ 

8 So *the Lord scattered them abroad from thence 
•upon the face of all the earth: and they left off to 
build the city. * 

9 Therefore is the name of it called || Babel, k be- 
cause the Lord did there confound the language of 
all the earth : and from thence did the Lord scatter 
them abroad upon the face of all the earth. 

10 II 'These are the generations of Shem: Shem 
was an hundred years old, and begat Arphaxad two 
years after the flood : 

11 And Shem lived after he begat Arphaxad five 
hundred years, and begat sons and daughters. 

12 And. -Arphaxad lived five and thirty years," 1 and 
begat Salah : ft 2 '2 

13 And Arphaxad lived after he begat Salah four 
hundredand three years, and begat sons and daughters. 

14 And Salah lived -thirty years, and begat Eber: 

15 And Salah lived after he begat Eber four hun- 
dred and three years, and begat sons and daughters. 

16 "And Eber lived four and thirty years, and 
begat "Peleg: 

17 And Eber lived after he begat Peleg four hun- 
dred and thirty years, and begat sons and daughters. 

18 And Peleg fived thirty years, and begat Reu : 

19 And Peleg lived after he begat Reu two hun- 
dred and nine years, and begat sons and daughters. 

20 And Reu lived two and thirty years, and begat 
p Serug : 

21 And Reu lived after he begat Serug two hun- 
dred and seven years, and begat sons and daughters. 

22 And Serug Eved.thirty years, and begat Nahor: 

23 And Serug lived after he begat Nahor two 
hundred years, end begat sons and daughters. 

24 And Nahor lived nine and twenty years, and 
begat q Terah : q o n \ 

25 And Nahor lived after he begat Terah an hun- 
dred and nineteen years,and begat sons and daughters. 


about 2218. 

t Heb. Up. 



about 2247. 

|| Or, east- 
ward, as 
ch. 13. 11. 
2 Sam. 6.2. 

1 Chron.13. 

t Heb. a 
his neigh- 
burn them 
to a burn- 

och. 18. 21. 

cch. 9. 19. 
Acts. 17.26. 
dver. 1. 

ePs. 2. 1. 

feh. 1. 26. 
Ps. 2. 4. 

Acts 2. 4, 




Jer. 5. 15. 

1 Cor. 14. 2, 


h Luke 1. 


i ch. 10. 25, 


Ii That is, 


A- 1 Cor. 14. 


Jch. 10. 22. 
1 Chron. 1. 




n 1 Chron. 
o Called, 
Luke 3. 35, 









1 Chron. 1.' 


sch. 17.15. 
A 20. 12. 
tch. 22. 20. 

& 18. 11, 12. 
to ch. 12. 1. 

zNeb. 9.7. 
Acts 7. 4. 
3/ch.l0. 19 



ach. 15. 7. 
Neh. 9. 7. 
Isa. 41. 2. 
Acts. 7. 3. 
Heb. 11. 8. 

och. 17. 6. 
& 18. 18. 
Deut. 26. 5. 
cch. 24.35. 
dch. 28. 4. 
Gal. 3. 14. 
ech. 27.29. 
Ex. 23. 22. 
Num. 24. 9. 
/ch.18. 18. 
& 22. 18. 
& 26. 4. 
Ps. 72. 17. 
Acts. 3. 25. 
Gal. 3. 8. 


Ach. 11. 31. 

i Heb. 11. 9. 

t Deut. 11. 


Judg. 7. 1. 

I ch. 10. 18, 

19. & 13. 7. 

mch. 17. 1. 


& 17. 8. 

Ps. 105. 9, 


och. 13. 4. 

pch. 13. 4. 

t Heb. in 
going and 
q ch. 13. 3. 
rch. 26. 1. 
s Ps.105.13 


. 1. 

u ver. 14. 
ch. 26. 7. 

w ch. 20.11. 
& 26. 7. 
See ch.26.7. 

26 And 

Terah li\ 

God calleth Abram. 

' begat 

ved seventy years, and 
Abram, Nahor, and Haran. 

27 l[Now these are the generations of Terah : 
Terah begat Abram, Nahor, and Haran : and Haran 
begat Lot. 

28 And Haran died before his father Terah in the 
land of his nativity, in Ur of the Chaldees. 

29 And Abram and Nahor took them wives : the 
name of Abram's wife was s Sarai ; and the name of 
Nahor's wife 'Milcah, the daughter of Haran, the 
father of Mileah, and the father of Iscah. 

30 But "Sarai was barren; she had no child. 

31 And Terah ""took Abram Ihda-sjoa, and Lot' the 
son of Haran his son's son, and Sarai his daughter- 
in-law, his son Abram's wife ; and they went forth 
with them from x tlr of the Chaldees, to go into ^the 
land of Canaan ; and they came unto Haran, and 
dwelt there. 

32 And the days- of Terah were two hundred and 
five years : and Terah died in Haran. 


1 God calleth Abram, and blesseth him with the promise of Christ. 6 He 
...jaurneyeth through Canaan. 10 He is driven by a famine into Egypt. 

NOW the "Lord had said unto Abram, Get thee 
out of thy country, and from thy kindred, and 
from thy father's house, unto a land that I will shew 
thee : 

2 *And I will make of thee a great nation/ and I 
will bless thee, and make thy name great; d and thou 
shalt be a blessing : 

3 "And I will bless them that bless thee, and curse 
him that curseth thee : •'and in thee shall all families 
of the earth be blessed. 

4 So Abram departed, as the Lord had spoken unto 
him, and Lot went with him : and Abram was seventy 
and five years^old whendie departed out of Haran. 

5 And Abram took Sarai his wife, and Lot his 
brother's son, and all then substance that they had 
gathered, and e the souls that they had gotten A in 
Haran'; and they went forth to go into the land of 
Canaan ; and into the land of Canaan they came. 

6 If And Abram 'passed through the land unto the 
place of Sichem, *unto the plain of Moreh. And the 
Canaanite was then in .the land. 

"7 "And the Lord appeared unto Abram, and said, 
"Unto thy seed will Igive : this land: and there builded 
he an ° altar unto the Lord, who appeared unto him. 
8 And he removed from thence unto a mountain 
on the east of Beth-el, and pitched his tent, having 
Beth-el on the west, and Hai on the east : and there 
he builded an altar unto the Lord, and p called upon 
the name of' the Lord. 

"9 And Abram journeyed, f 9 going on still toward 
the souths 

10 HAnd there was r a famine in the land: and 
Abram went down into Egypt to sojourn there ; foj- 
the famine was 'grievous in the land. 

11 And it cp,me?t© pass, when he was, come near 
to enter into Egypt, that he said unto Sarai his wife, 
Behold now, I know that thou art "a fair woman to 
look upon : 

12 Therefore it shall come to pass, when the Egyp- 
tians shall see thee, that they shall say,This is his wife : 
and they w will kill me, but they will save thee alive. 

13 x Say, I pray thee, thou art my sister : that it 
may be well with me for thy sake ; and my soul shall 
live because of thee. 

, 1 ! 

Abram and Lot return from Egypt. , GrE NE SIS, XIII 

14 If And it came to pass, that when Abram was 
come into Egypt, the Egyptians y beheld the woman 
that she was very fair. 

15 The princes also of Pharaoh saw her, and com- 
mended her before Pharaoh : and the woman was 
'taken into Pharaoh's house. 

16 And he "entreated Abram well for her sake: and 
he had sheep, and oxen, and he-asses, and men-ser- 
vants, and maid-servants, and she^asses, and camels. 

17 And the Lord b plagued Pharaoh and his house 
with great plagues because o£;Sarai, Abram's wife; 

18 And Pharaoh called Abram, and said, c What 
is this that thou hast done unto me ? why didst thou 
not tell me that she was thy wife ? 

19 Why saidst thou, She is my sister ? so I might 
have taken her to me to wife : now therefore behold 
thy wife, take her, and go thy way. 

20 ''And Pharaoh commanded his men concerning 
him : and they sent him away, and his wife, and all 
that he had. 


1 Abram and Lot return out of Egypt. 14 God reneweth the promise to 



18 Me removeth to Mebron, and there buildeth an altar. 
2 \Z O ~ | Q 

Abram went up out of Egypt, he, and his 
wife, and all that he had, and Lot with him, 
"into the south.* 

2 *And Abram was very rich in cattle, in silver, 

3 And he went on his journeys r from the south 
even to Beth-el, unto the place wh^-£ his tept^had 
been at the beginning, between Beth*-el and Hai ; 

4 Unto the place of the altar^which he had made 
there at thej^nsWjand there Abram e caUed on the 
nam43 ; o£ thei^E^^ Q 4 

tPTTA^id nbi also, which went with Abram, had 
flocks, and herds, and tents. 

j 6 And •''the land was not able to bear them, that 
they might dwell together : for their substance was 
great, so that they could not dwell together. 

7 And there was e a, strife between the herdnicn 
of Abram's cattle and the herelinen of Lot's cattle: 
A and the Canaanite and the Penzzite dwelled then 

in the land.54 _ 1494 49*35 

8 And Abram said unto Lot, 'Let there be no strife, 
I pray thee, between me and thee, and between my 
herdmen and thy herdmen ; for we be fbre &|t}i$k (,. 

9 k Is not the whole land before thee ? oepkrale 
thyself, I pray thee, from me: 'if thou wilt take the 
left hand, then I will go to the right; or if thou 
depart to the/ jig ht hand, then I will go to the left. 

10 An|TL ; ©i lifted up his eyes, and. beheld all '"the 
plain of 'Jordan, that it was well watered every 
where, before the Lord "destroyed Sodorn and Go : 
morrah,' > ez>eft as the garden of the ' Lord, like the 

' land of Egypt, as thou comestunto ; 'Zoar. 

11 Then Lot chose him all the plain of Jordan; 
and Lot journeyed east : and they separated them- 
selves the one from the other. 

nofAl Abram dwelled in the land of Canaan, and 
* Loir* dwelled hvthefcities of the plain, and r pitched 
his tent toward Sodom.- \ s: 5 

13 But the men of , Sodom "were wicked, and 'sin- 
ners before the Lord exceedingly. k< 

14 IfAnd the Lord said nmto Abram, after that 
Lot u was separated from him", Lift up now thine eyes, 
and look from the place where thou art, '"northward, 
and southward, and eastward, and westward : 




about 1920. 

ych.39. 7. 
Matt. 5. 28. 

z ch. 20. 2. 
ach. 20. 14. 

6 ch. 20. 18. 

1 Chron.16. 


Ps. 105. 14. 

Heb. 13. 4. 

cch. 20. 9. 

& 26. 10. 

d Frov.21.1 

about 1918. 

ach. 12. 9. 

b ch. 24.35. 
Ps. 112. 3. 
Prov. 10.22 

cch. 12. 8,9. 

rich. 12.7,8. 

/ch. 36.' 

^cli. 26.20. 

/ich. 12. 6. 

il Cor. 6.7. 

f Heb. men 
bretliren : 
See ch. 11. 
27, 31. 
Ex. 2. 13. 
Ps. 133. 1. 
Acts 7. 26. 
fcch. 20. 15. 
& 34. 10. 

7. Rom. 12. 

; Beb.l2.14. 
Am. 3.17. 
mch. 19.17. 
Deut. 34. 3. 
Ps. 107. 34. 
n ch. 19. 24, 

och. 2. 10. 
Isa. 51. 3. 
pch. 14. 2, 

8. &. 19. 22. 

about 1917 

gch.19. 29. 
rch. 14.12. 
& 19. 1. 
2 Pet. 2.7,8. 
sch. 18.20. 
2 Pet. 2.7,8. 
(ch. 6. 11. 

uver. 11. 

w ch. 28.14. 


about 1917. 

xch. 12. 7. 
k 15. 18. & 
17.8. &24. 
7. & 26. 4. 
Deut. 34. 4. 
Acts 7. 5. 
y 2 Chron. 
Ps. 37. 22, 
29. & 112.2. 
zch. 15. 5. 
& 22. 17. & 
26. 4. & 28. 
14. & 32. 12. 
Ex. 32. 13. 
Deut, 1. 10. 
1 Kings 4. , 


Isa. 48. 19. 
Jer. 33. 22. 
Rom. 4. 16, 
17, 18. 
Heb. 11.12. 
a ch. 14. 13. 
& 37. 14. 

ach. 10. 10. 

& 11. 2. 


c Deut. 29. 


dch. 19.22. 

about 1913 

e Deut. 3.17 
Josh 3. 16. 
Ps. 107.34. 
/ch. 9. 26. 
och. 15. 20. 
Deut 3. 11. 
& 13. 12. 
k Deut, 2. 
|| Or, the 
I Deut. 2. 
12, 22. 
|| Or, the 
plain of 
ch. 21. 21. , 
Num. li t 
16. &13.3. 
m 2 Chron. 

The battle of the kings. 

15 For all the land which thou seest, *to thee 
will I give it, and y to thy seed for ever. 

16 And S I will make thy seed as the dust of the 
earth : so that if a man can number the dust of the 
earth, tf/^^shall thy seed also be numbered. 

17 Arise, walk through the land in the length of it 
ands4%ihei breadth of it ; for I will give it unto thee. 

18 Then. Abrahi removed his tent, and came and 
"dwelt in the tplain of Mamre,* which is in Hebron, 
and built there an altar unto the Lord. ' 


1 The battle of the kings. 12 Lot is taken prisoner. 18 Melchizedek blesseth 
j-. Abram. 20 Abram giveth him tithe. f) | Q/ 

1^1) it came to pass, in the days of Amraphel 
king °of Shinar, Arioeh king of Ellasar, Chedor- 
laomer- king of 6 Elam, and Tidal king of nations; 

2 ir flM these made war with Bera king of Sodom, 
and with Birsha king of Gomorrah, Shinab king of 
A-dinah, and Shemeber king of Zeboiim, and the 
king of Bela, which is d Zoar. 

<V |3j All these were joined together in the vale of 
Siddim, "which is the salt sea. 

4 Twelve years •'they served Chedorlaomer, and 
in the. thirteenth year they rebelled. . q * »- ; 

5 And in the fourteenth year came Chedorlaomer, 
and the kings that were jwith him, and smote g the 

Lajm,rand 'the Zuzims 
lilaveh Kiriathaim, 


och. 19.17, 


a ch. 12. 5. 


sch. 13.18. 

t ver. 24. 

u ch. 13. 8. 

|| Or. led 
|| Or, in- 
w ch. 15. 3. 
& 17.12.27. 
Eccl. 2. 7. 
x Deut.34.1 
Judg. 18. 
v Isa.41.2,3 


a Judg. 11. 


1 Sam.18.6. 

b Heb. 7. 1. 

c 2 Sam.18. 


Rephahns A in Ashteroth Karj 
in Ham,* and the Emims in 111 

6 'And the 'Horites in their mount Seir, unto 
II El-paran, which is by the wilderness. 

7 And they returned, and came to En-mishpat, 
which is Kadesh, and smote all the country of the 
Amalekites, and also the Amorites, that dwelt m hi 
Hazezon-tamar. 090^ 

8 And there went out the king of JSodom, and the 
king of Gomorrah, and the king of Admah, and the 
king or Zeboiim, and the king of Bela, (the same is 
Zotir ;) and liny joined battle with them in the vale 
of Siddim ; 

9 With Chedorlaomer the king of Elam, and with 
Tidal king of nations, and Amraphel king of^Shinar, 
and Arioeh king of Ellasar; four kings with five. 

10 And the vale of Siddim was full of " slime-pits ; 
and the kings of Sodom and Gomorrah fled, and fell 
there : and they that remained fled "te'the mountain. 

11 And they took ^all the goods of Sodom and Go- 
morrah, and all then victuals, and went their way. 

12 And they took Lot, Abram's ? brother's son, 
r who, dwelt in Sodom, and his goods, and departed. 

13 IFAnd there came one that nad escaped, and told 
Abram the Hebrew; for s he dwelt in the plain of 
Mamre the Amorite, brother of Eshcol, and brother 
of Aner: 'and these, were confederate with Abram. 

14 And when Abram heard that "his brother was 
taken captive, he || armed his || trained servants, ""born 
in his own house, three hundred and eighteen, and 
pursued them x unto Dan. 

15 And he divided himself against them, he and 
his servants, by night, and y smote them, and pursued 
them unto Hobah, which is on the left hand of Da- 

,16 And he brought back ? all the goods, and also 
brought again his brother Lot, and his goods, and 
the women also, and the people. 

17 lAhd the king of Sodom "went out to meet 
iiinV' (after his return from the slaughter of Chedor- 
laomer, and'pf >.the kings that were with him,) at the 
valley of Shaveh, which is the c king's dale. 


ram, Give 

God's promise to Abram. 

Ic 1 1 \j *y *-? o r\ *\ i p 

18 And d Melchizedek king of Salem brought forth 
bread [anil wine: and he was e the priest of-ahe most 
high God, 

19 And he blessed him, and said, Blessed be Abram 
of the most high God, e possessor of heaven and earth : 

20 And ''blessed be the most high God, which hath 
delivered thine enemies into thy hand. And he 
gave him tithes ' of alL-j £ q o *\ 

21 And the king of Sodom said unto A 
me the f persons, and take the goods to -thyself. 

22 And. Abram said to the king of Sodom, I* have 
lifted up my hand unto the "Lord, the most high God, 
'the possessor of heaven and earth, 

23 That' nS I will not take from a thread even to a 
shoe-latchet, and that I will not take any thing that 
is thine, lest thou shouldest say, I have made Abram 
rich: 70 ^yl 

24 Save only that which the young men have eaten, 
and the£§rtion of the men? which went with me, Aner, 
Eshcol^ aTicl 'Mamre ; let them take their portion. 


1 God encourageth Abram, 4 promiseth him a son, and a multiplying of 
his seed. 6 Abram is Justified by faith. 7 Canaan is promised, and 
confirmed by a vision. 

\ FTER th^se things the word of the Lord came 


Hagar fleeth from Sarii. 

'in a vision, saying, 6 Fear not, 
'shield, and thy exceeding d great 

•xJL un to Abram 
Abram : I am thy 
reward. JLO^ 5 

2 And Abram said, Lord God, what wilt thou 
give me, e seeing I go childless, and the steward of 
my house is .this-Ehezer of Damascus ? 

3 And Abram said, Behold, to me thou hast given 
no seed : and lo, -^ one born in my house is mine heir. 

4 And behold, the word of the' Lord came unto him, 
saying, This shall not be thine heir ; but he that s shall 
come forth out of thine own bowels shall be thine heir. 

5 And he brought him forth abroad, and said, 
Look now toward heaven, and h tell the 'stars, if thou 
be able to number them : and he said unto him, k So 
shall thy seed be. 

6 And he 'believed in the Lord; and he ""counted 
it to him for righteousness. o- - 

7 And he said unto him, I am the Lord that 
"brought thee out of e tlr of the Chaldees, ^to give 
thee this land to inherit it. 

8 And he said. Lord God, q whereby shall I know 
that I shall inherit it ? qq f o 

9 And he said unto him, Take me a heifer of 
three years old, and a she-goat of three years old, 
and a ram of three years old, and a turtle-dove, and 
a young pigeon. 

10 And Tie took unto him all these, and r divided 
them in the midst, and laid each piece one against 
another: but f the birds divided he not. 

11 And when the fowls came down upon the car- 
casses, Abram drove them away. 

12 And when the sun was going down, 'a deep 
sleep fell upon Abram ; and lo, a norror of great 
darkness fell upon him. r \ 

13 And he said unto Abram, Know of a surety 
"that thy seed shall be a stranger in a land that is 
not theirs, and shall serve them; and "they shall 
afflict them four hundred years ; 

14 And also that nation whom they shall serve, 
*will I judge: and afterward y shall they come out 
with great substance. 

15 And *thou shalt go "to thy fathers in peace; 
*thou shalt be buried in a good old age. 

2 G 

about 1913. 

d Heb. 7.1. 
Heb. 5. 6. 
/Mic. 6. 6. 
Acts 16. 17. 
Ruth 3. 10. 
2 Sam. 2. 5. 
g ver. 22. 
i Heb. 7. 4. 


■k Ex. 6. 8. 
ban. 12. 7. 
Rev. 10.5,6. 

I ver. 19. 
ch. 21. 33. 

m So Esther 
9. 15, 16. 

n ver. 13. 

Acts 10. 10, 

6ch.26. 24. 
Dan. 10.12. 
Luke 1. 13, 

c Ps. 3. 3. & 
5. 12. &. 84. 

11. & 91. 4. 
& 119.114. 
d Vs. 16. 5. 
& 58. 11. 
e Acts 7. 5. 
/ch. 14. 14. 
g 2 Sam. 7. 

12. & 16. 11. 

ft Ps. 147. 4. 

ijer. 33.22. 

ten. 22. 17. 

Ex. 32. 13. 


& 10. 22. 

1 Chron.27. 


Rom. 4. 18. 

Heb. 11.12. 

See ch. 13. 


I Rom. 4. 3, 


Gal. 3. 6. 

Jam. 2. 23. 


nch. 12. 1. 





Rom. 4. 13. 


13, 14. 



1 Sam.14.9, 

2 Kings 20. 

Luke 1.18. 
r Jer. 34. 
s Lev. 1.17. 
t Gen. 2. 21. 
Job. 4. 13. 

u Ex.12.40. 
Acts 7. 6. 
w Ex. 1.11. 
Ps. 105. 25. 

x Ex. 6. 6. 
Deut. 6. 22. 
y Ex.12.36. 
Ps. 105. 37. 
z Job 5. 28. 
ch. 25. 8. 

about 1913. 

c Ex. 12.40. 

dl Kings 

21. 26. 

e Dan. 8.23. 



fHeb. a 

lamp of 




gch. 24. 7. 

hch. 12. 7. 

& 13. 15. & 


Ex. 23. 31. 

Num. 34.3. 


11. 24. & 34. 


Josh. 1. 4. 

1 Kings 4. 

2 Chron. 9. 

Neh. 9. 8. 
Ps. 105. 11. 
Isa. 27.12. 

a ch. 15.2.3. 

6ch. 21. 9. 

c Gal. 4. 24. 

dch. 30. 3. 

ech. 20.18. 

& 30. 2. .■ 

1 Sam. 1. 5* 


/Soch. 30. 


+ Heb. be 

builded by 


g ch. 3. 17. 


ftch. 12. 5. 


il Sam. 6. 


1 Sam. 24. 

1 Pet. 3. 7. 
m Job 2. 6. 
Ps. 106. 41, 

Jer. 38. 5. 
that which 
is good in 
thine eyes. 
fHeb. af- 
flicted her. 
n Ex. 2.15. 
och.25. 18. 
p Ex.15.22. 

q Tit. 2. 9. 
1 Pet. 2. 18. 
& 21. 18. & 
25. 12. 

sch.17. 19. 
Matt. 1.21. 
Luke 1.13, 

|| That is, 
Gdd shall 
ich. 21. 20. 


& 25. 11. 
|| That is, 
the well of 
him that 
liveth and 
seeth me. 
2 Num. 13. 

a Gal. 4. 22. 
6 ver. 11. 


16 But c in the fourth generation they shall eome 
hither again: for the iniquity d of the Amor.tes 'is 
not yet full. 

17 And it came to pass, that when the sun went 
down, and it was dark, behold a smoking furnace, and 
fa burning lamp that -/passed between those pieces. 

18 In that same day the Lord * made a covenant 
with Abram, saying, h Unto thy seed have I given 
this land, from the river of Egypt unto the great 
river, the river Euphrates : 

19. The Kenites, and the Kenizzites, and the 
Kadmonites, JO 'J I 

20 And the Hittites, and the Perizzites, and the 

21 And the Amorites, and the Canaanites, and 
the Girgashites, and the Jebusites. 


' ^'1' 'j^afai'being^beirren gtueth Hagar to Abram. 15 Ishmael is born. 

NOW Sarai, Abram's wife, "bare him no children : 
and she had an handmaid, *an Egyptian, whose 
name was c Hagar. •;* i *yri 

2 d And Sarai said unto Abram, Behold now, the 
Lord "hath restrained me from bearing: I pray J thee 
go in unto my maid ; ; it may be that 1 may fob tain 
children by her. And Abram * hearkened to the 
voiee of Sarai. ; i j_ j_ 

3 And Sarai, Abram's wife, took Hagar her maid 
the Egyptian, after Abram A had dwelt ten years in 
the land of Canaan, and gave her to her husband 
Abram to be his wife. 

4 TTAnd he went in unto Hagar, and she con- 
ceived : and when she saw that she had conceived, 
her mistress was ' despised in. her eyes. 

5 And Sarai said unto Abram, My wrong be upon 
thee: I have given my maid into thy bosom; and 
when she saw that she had conceived, 1 was despised 
in her eyes:- . * the Lord judge between me and thee. 

6 'But Abram said unto Sarai, m Behold, thy maid 
is in thy,h|in4; do to her fas it pleaseth thee. And 
when Sarai f dealt hardly with her, "she fled from 
her face. 

7 HAnd the Angel of the Lord found her by a 
fountain of water in the wilderness, "by the fountain 
in the way to p Shur. o q a 

8 And he said, Hagar, Sarai's maid, whence 
earnest thou ? and whither wilt thou go ? And she 
said, I flee from the face of my mistress Sarai. -- 

9 And the angel of the Lord said unto her, Return 
toothy mistress, and 'submit thyself under her hands. 

10 And the angel of the Lord said unto her, r I 
will multiply thy seed exceedingly, that it shall not 
be numbered for multitude. 

11 And the Angel of theXoRD said unto her, Be- 
hold, thou art with child, and shalt bear a son, 'and 
shalt call his name II Ishmael; because the Lord 
hath-heard thy affliction. 

12 'And he will be a wild man; his hand will be 
against every man, and every man's hand against him; 
" and he shall dwell in the presence of all his brethren. 

13 And she called the name of the Lord that 
spake unto her, Thou God seest me : for she said, 
Have I also here looked after him x that seeth- me? 

14 Wherefore the well was called y ||Beer-lahai- 
roi; behold, it- is ^between Kadesh and Bered. 

15 IFAnd "Hagar bare Abram a son; and Abram 
called his son's name, which Hagar bare, 4 Ishmael. 

16 And Abram was fourscore and six years old, 
when Hagar bare Ishmael to Abram. 




Circumcision is instituted. 


GrJliNJi/blb, XV 11. Abraham entertaineth three Angels. 


21 But (my covenant will I establish with Is 

1 God reneiceth the covenant. 10 Circumcision is instituted. 16 Isaac is 
0> K ■* /promised. 23 Ab/akam and Ishmael are circumcised. 

when. Abrain was ninety years old 
Lofeb "appeared to-. Abram, and 

nine/Ahfe 1 


'kings shall come 

unto him, *I am the Almighty God; c walk before 
me,, and be thou || d perfect. 

2 And I will make my covenant between me and 
thee, and e wiH multiply thee exceedingly.,^ ~ 

3 And Abram ^fell on his face : and God talked 
with him, saying, * 

4 As for me, behold, my covenant is with thee, 
and tkj$4f&alt be ^a father of fmany nations. 

5 Neither shall thy name any more- be called 
Abram; but h thy name shall be || Abraham: 'for a 
father of many nations have I made thee. 

6 And I will make thee exceedingly fruitful, and 
I will make * nations of thee; and " 
out of thee. 

7 And I will m establish my covenant between 
me and thee, and thy seed after thee, in their 

rations, for an everlasting covenant; "to be a 
lUnto thee, and to "thy seed after thee. 

8 And 'I will give unto thee, and to thy seed 
after thee, the lan^ + ? wherein thou art a stranger, 
all the land of iCahaanj for- an everlasting possession ; 
and r I will be then- God. 

9 If And God said unto Abraham, Thou shalt 
keep my covenant therefore, thou, and thy seed 
after thee, in their generations. 

10 This is my covenant, which ye shall keep, 
between me and you, and thy seed after thee; 
'Every man-child among you shall be circumcised. 

11 And ye shall circumcise the flesh of your 
foreskin; and it shall be 'a token of the covenant 
betwixt me and you. 

12 And fhe that is eight days old "shall be cir- 
cumcised among you, every man-child in your gene- 
rations, he that is born in the house, or bought with 
money of any stranger, which is not of thy seed. 

13 He that is born in thy house, and he that is 
bought with thy money, must needs be circumcised : 
and my covenant shall be in your flesh for an ever- 
lastings covenant. 

14 And the uncircumcised man-child, whose 
flesh of his foreskin is not circumcised, that soul 
w shall be cut off from his people ; he hath broken 
my covenant.oo^Q 587 ^Q& '""BfiK 

15 IfAnd God said unto Abraham, As for Sarai 
thy wife, thou shalt not call her name Sarai, but 
II Sarah shall her name be. 

16 And I will bless her, x and give thee a son also 
of her : yea, I will bless her, and fshe shall be a 
mother^ of nations ; kings of people shall be of her. 

17 Then Abraham fell upon his face, z and laughed, 
and said in his heart, Shall a child be born unto him 
that is an hundred years old ? and shall Sarah, that 
is ninety, years- old, bear ? 41 3l9 

18 And Abraham said unto God, that Ishmael 
might liyp before thee ! 

19 And God said, "Sarah thy wife shall bear thee 
a son indeed ; and thou shalt call his name Isaac : 
and I will establish my covenant with him for an 
everlasting covenant^ and with his seed after^ina* o 

20 And as for rshmael, I have heard thee : 'Behold, 
I have blessed him, and will make him fruitful, and 
6 will multiply him exceedingly: c twelve princes 
shall he beget, ''and I 




a ch. 12. 1. 

b ch. 28. 3. 
& 35. 11. 
Ex. 6. 3. 
cch. 5. 22. 
&48. 15. 

I Kings. 2. 
4. & 8. 25. 

II Or, up- 
right, or, 
dch. 6. 9.. 
Job 1. 1. 
Matt. 5. 48. 
e ch. 12. 2. 
& 13. 16. 
& 22. 17. 
/ver. 17. 
g Rom. 4. 
11, 12, 16. 
Gal. 3. 29. 
of nations. 
ftNeh.9. 7. 
I That is, 
Father of a 
great mul- 
i Rom.4.17. 
I ver. 16. 
ch. 35. 11. 
n eh. 26. 24. 
& 28. 13. 
Heb. 11.16. 
o Rom. 9. 8. 
p eh. 12.7. 
& 13. 15. 
of thy so- 
<?ch. 23.4. 
& 28. 4. 
r Ex. 6. 7. 
Lev. 26. 12. 
18. 429. 13. 
s Acts. 7.8. 
t Acts 7. 8. 
Rom. 4.11. 
fHeb. a 
son of 
eight days, 
u Lev. 12.3. 
Luke 2. 21. 
John 7. 22. 
Phil. 3. 5. 

w Ex. 4. 24. 

i| That is, 

f Heb. she 
Gal. 4. 31. 
1 Pet. 3. 6. 
zch. 18. 12. 
& 21. 6. 

& 21. 2. 

Gal. 4. 28. 

/ch. 18. 19. 




ech. 21. 2. 

& 14. 13. 

b Heb.13.2. 

cch. 19. 1. 
1 Pet. 4. 9. 

d ch. 19. 2. 
& 43. 24. 
cJudg. 6. 
18. & 13. 15. 
t Heb.stay. 
/Jud. 19.5. 
Ps. 104. 15. 
g ch. 19. 8. 
& 33. 10. 
you have 

cch. 25. 12, 

will make him a great nation. I dch.zi.i8. 


ft eh. 19. 5. 

ich.24. 67. 
k ver. 14. 


21. & 21. 2. 
Rom. 9. 9. 

n ch. 17. 17. 
Rom. 4. 19. 
Heb. 11.11, 
pch. 17.17. 


rl Pet. 3.6. 

sJer. 32.17. 
Zech. 8. 6. 
Matt. 3. 9. 
&19. 26. 
Luke 1.37. 
tch. 17.21. 
ver. 10. 
2 Kings 4. 


which "Sarah shall bear unto thee at this set time 

in< the anext year. 2,3 H Q 

122' And he left a off talking with him, and God 

went up from Abraham . 1. 6 7 G 

23 ''lAnd Abraham took Ishmael his son, and all 
that were born in his house, and all that were 
beughtwith his money, every male among the men 
of Abraham's house ; and circumcised the rflesh of 
their foreskin, in the self-same day, as^GFoa 'had 
said unto him./; o o 

24 And Abraham was ninety years old and nine, 
when he was- circumcised in the flesh of his foreskin. 

25 And Ishmael his son was thirteen years old, 
when -he -was circumcised in the flesh of his foreskin. 

26 'In the-TSQlfirsame day was Abraham circum- 
cised, andTshniael his son; 

27 And •'all the men of his house, born in the 
house, and bought with money of the stranger, 
were circumcised with him. 


Abraham entertaineth three angels. 17 The destruction of Sodom it 
revealed to Abraham. 

AND the Lord appeared unto him in the "plains 
of Mamte : and he sat in the tent-door in the 
heat of the day ; 

2 & And he lifted up his eyes and looked, and lo, 
three men stood by him: c and when he saw them, 
he ran to meet them from the tent door, and bowed 
himself toward the ground, 

3 And said, My~Lord3f now I have found favourin 
thy sight, pass not away,Ipray thee,from thy servant: 

4 Let f/ a little water, 1 pray you, be fetched, and 
wash your feet, and rest yourselves under the tree : 

5 And 6 1 will fetch a morsel of bread, and f^'com-, 
fort ye your hearts ; after that ye shall pass] ganp 
s for therefore -fare ye come to your servant. And 
they said, So do, as thou hast said. a k 

6 And Abraham hastened into the tent unto Sarah, 
and said, fMake teady quickly three measures of 
fine meal, knead -it, and make cakes upon the hearth. 

7 And Abraham ran unto the herd, and fetched 
a calf tender and good, and gave it unto a young 
man; land he hasted to dress it. 

8 And A he took butter, and milk, and the calf 
which he had dressed, and set it before them ; and 
he stood by them under the tree, and they did eat. 

9 IfAnd they said unto him, Where is Sarah'* thy 
wife? And he said, Behold, 'in the tent. 

10 And he said, I fc will certainly return^to 
thee 'according to the time ; of life ;, and lo, m Sarah 
thy wife shall have a son. And Sarah heard it in 
the rten&dw, which rwas beMad him. 

11 Now "Abraham and Sarah "were old and; well 
stricken in age; and it ceased to be witV Sarah 
"after the manner ^of -women. 

12 Therefore "Sarali > laughed within herself, say^ 
ing, 'After I am waxed old shall I have pleasure, 
my r lord being -old also ? o J 3 o .- \ o 

13 And the Loni> said unto Abraham, Wherefore 
did Sarah laugh, saying, Shall I of a surety bear a 
child, which am old ? 43 <) 1 

14 *Is any thing too hard for the Lord I e Atthe 
time appointed I will return unto thee, according 
to4he~time of* life, and Sarah shall have a son. 

15 Then Sarah denied, saying, I laughed not; 
for she was afraid. And he said, Nay ; but thou 
didst laugh. 


Abraham inter cedeth for Sodom. 


The Sodomites stricken bli/bi 

up from thence, and 
Abraham went with 

16 HAnd the men rose 
(ooked toward Sodom: and 
them "to bring them on the way. 

17 And the Lord said, w Shall I hide from Abra- 
ham that thing which I do ; 

18 Seeing that Abraham shall surely become a 
great and mighty nation, and all the nations of the 
earth shall be x blessed in him? 

19 For I know him, ^that he will command his 
children and his household after him, and they shall 
keep the way of the Lord, to do justice and judg- 
ment; that the Lord may bring upon Abraham that 
which he hath spoken of him. 

20 And the Lord said, Because 'the cry of Sodom 
and Gomorrah is great, and because their sin is 
very grievous, 

21 " I will go down now, and see whether they 
have done altogether according to the cry of it, 
which is- come unto me; and if not, *I will know. 

22 And the men turned their faces from thence, 
'and went toward Sodom: but Abraham d stood yet 
before the Lord. ■ c o o 

23 IT And Abraham 'drew near, and said, -/"Wilt 
thou also destroy the righteous with the wicked ? 

24 * Peradventure there be fifty righteous within 
the city : wilt thou also destroy and ' not spare the 
place for the fifty righteous that are therein? 

25 That be far from thee to do after this manner, 
to slay the righteous with the wicked; and Hhat the 
righteous should be as the wicked, that be far from 
thee : * Shall not the Judge of all the earth, do right ? 

26 And the Lord said, *If I find in Sodom fifty 
righteous within the city, then I will spare all the 
place for their sake sg t) r; 3 ( 

27 And Abraham answered and said, 'Behold 
now, I have taken upon me to speak unto the Lord, 
which am> m but dust and ashes : 

28 Peradventure there shall lack five of the fifty 
righteous : wilt thou destroy all the city for lack of 
five ? And he said, If I find there forty and five, I 
will not destroy it. 

29 And he. spake unto him yet again, and said, 
Peradventure there shall be forty found there. 
And he said, I, will not do it for forty's sake. 09 s q 

30 And he said unto him, Oh, let not the Lord 
be angry, and I will speak: Peradventure there 
shall thirty be found there. And he said, I will 
not do it if I find thirty there. 

31 And he said, Behold now, I have taken upon 
me to speak unto the Lord: Peradventure there 
shall be twenty found there. And he said, I will 
not destroy it for twenty's sake. 

32 And he said, "Oh, let not the Lord be angry, 
and I will speak yet but this once: Peradventure 
ten shall be found there. "And he said, I will not 
destroy it for ten's-sake. 

33 And the Lord went his way, as soon as he 
had left communing with Abraham : and Abraham 
returned unto his place. 


1 Lot entertaineth two angels. 4 The vicious Sodomites are stricken with 
blindness. 24 Sodom and Gomorrah are destroyed. 26 Lot's wife is 
made a pillar of salt. 31 T he incestuous origin of Moab and Ammon. 

AND there "came two angels to Sodom at even 
and Lot sat in the gate of Sodom; and 6 Lot 
seeing them, rose up to meet them; and he bowed 
himself with his face toward the ground; 







wRorn. 15. 



d eh. 18.4. 

3 John 6. 

« See Luke 

mjPs. 25.14. 


Amos 3. 7. 



zch. 12. 3. 

& 22. 18. 

Acts 3. 25. 

Gal. 3. 8. 


10. & 6. 7. 


Eph. 6. 4. 

^Isa.3. 9. 

zch. 4. 10. 

& 19. 13. 

Jam. 5. 4. 

h Judg. 19. 


i ch. 4. 1. 

acb. 11. 6. 

Rom. 1.24, 
Jude 7. 

Ex. 3. 8. 

k Judg. 19. 



& 13. 3. 


1 See Judg. 




ech.19. 1. 

d ver. 1. 


wi See cb. 

/Num. 16. 



2 Sam. 24. 


gJer. 6.1. 

n 2 Pet. 2. 


o Ex. 2. 14. 

ft Job 8. 20. 


i Job 8. 3. 

&34. 17. 

Ps. 58. 1. 

& 94. 2. 

Rom. 3. 6. 


k Jer. 5. 1. 

2 Kings 6. 



Acts 13. 11. 

1 Lukel8.1. 

m ch. 3. 19. 

Job 4. 19. 

Eccl. 12.7. 

tfch. 7. 1. 

1 Cor. 15. 

2 Pet. 2.7.9. 

47, 48. 

2. Cor. 5. 1. 


s 1 Chron. 

21. 15. 


u Num. 16. 

21, 45. 

x Ex. 9.21. 


& 24. 11. 

y Num. 16. 


Rev. 18. 4. 

t Heb. are 


|j Or, pun- 


n Judg. 6. 

a Luke 18. 



Rom. 9. 15, 

o Jam.5.16. 


c 1 Kings 


d ver. 26. 

Matt. 24. 

16, 17, 18. 

Luke 9. 62. 

Phil. 3. 13, 







1 pray you, 
all night, and 

he said, Behold now, my lords, 'turn in, 
into your servant's house, and tarry 
"wash your feet, and ye shall rise up 
early^and go on your ways. And they said, e Nay; ' 
but we will abide in the street all night. 

3 And he pressed upon them greatly; and they 
turned in unto him, and entered into his house ; ^and 
he made them a feast, and did bake unleavened 
bread, and they did eat. 

4 IfBut before they lay down, the men of the city, 
even the men of Sodom, compassed the house round, 
both old and young, all the people from every quarter : 

5 ^And they called unto Lot, and said unto him. 
Where are the men which came in to thee this night f 
ft bring them out unto us, that we 'may know them. 

6 And *Lot went out at the door unto them, and 
shut the door after him, 

7 And said, I pray you, brethren, do not so 

8 'Behold now, I have two daughters which have 
not known man; let me, I pray you, bring them 
out unto you, and do ye to them as is good in your 
eyes: only unto these men do nothing; m for there- 
fore came they under tfee, shadow of my roof. 

'" 9 And they said, Stand back. And they said 
again, This one fellow "came in to sojourn, 'and he 
will needs be a judge : now will we deal worse with 
thee than with them. And they pressed sore upon 
the man, eveii Lot, and came near to break the dooi 

10 But the men put forth their hand, and pulled 
Lot into the house to them, and shut to the door. 

11 And they smote the men ^that were at the door 
of the house with blindness, both small and great ; 
so that they wearied themselves to find the door. 

12 IF Ahd the men said unto Lot, Hast thou here 
any besides? son-in-law, and thy sons, and thy 
daughters, and whatsoever thou hast in the city, 
9 bring them out of this place : 

13 For we will destroy this place, because the 
r cry "of them is waxen great before the face of ths 
Lord; and 'the Lord hath sent us to destroy it. 

14 And Lot went out, and spake unto his sons- 
in-law, 'which married his daughters, and said, "Up, 
get you out of this place ; for the Lord will destroj 
this city: ^but he seemed as one that mocked unto 
his sons-in-law. 

15 IT And when; the morning arose, then the 
angels hastened Lot/ saying, ^ Arise, take thy wife, 
and thy two daughters which f are here, lest thou 
be consumed in the || iniquity of the city. 

16 And while he fingered, the men laid hold 
upon his hand, and upon the hand of his wife, and 
upon the hand of his two daughters; "the Lorj 
being merciful unto him; *and they brought him 
forth, and set him without the city. 

17' If And it came to pass, when they had brougbJ 
them forth abroad, that he said, 'Escape for thy life , 
d look not behind thee, neither stay thou in all the 
plain : escape to the mountain, lest thou be consumed 

18 And Lot said unto them, Oh, e not so, my Lord > 

19 Behold now, thy servant hath found grace^iE, 
thy sight, and thou hast magnified thy mercy, whicl 
thou hast showed unto me in saving my life: and I 
cannot escape to the mountain, lest some evil take 
me, and I die: 

20 Behold now, this city is near to flee vwto 
and it is a little one: Oh, let me escape thither! 
(is it not a little one ?) and my soul shall five. 

Sodom and Gomorrah destroyed. 

And he said unto him, See, ^1 have accepted 
fthee concerning this thing also, that I will not 
overthrow this city, for the which thou hast spoken. 

22 Haste thee, escape thither ; for g I cannot do 
any thing till thou be come thither. Therefore A the 
name of the city was called || Zoar. 

23 IT The sun was f risen upon the earth when 
Lot entered into Zoar. 

24 Then 'the Lord rained upon Sodom and; upon 
Gomorrah brimstone and fire from the Lord out of 

25 And he overthrew those cities, and all the 
plain, and all the inhabitants of the cities, and Hhat 
which grew upon the ground. 

26 II But his wife looked back from behind him, 
and she became 'a pillar of salt. 

27 TTAhd Abraham gat up early in the morning 
to the place where m he stood before the Lord; 

28 And he looked toward Sodom and Gomorrah, 
and toward all the land of the plain, and beheld, 
and, lo, "the smoke of the country went up as the 
smoke of a furnace. 

29 IT And it came to pass,. when r God' destroyed 
the cities of the plain, that God "remembered Abra- 
ham, and sent Lot out of the midst of the overthrow, 
when he overthrew the cities in the which Lot dwelt. 

30 IFAndLot went up out of Zoar, and p dwelt 
in the mountain, and his two daughters with him ; 
for he feared to dwell in Zoar : and he dwelt in a 
cave, he and his two daughters. 

31 And the first-born said unto the younger, Our 
father is old, and there is not a man in the earth 'to 
come in unto us after the manner of all the earth : 

32 Come, let us make our father drink wine, and 
we will he with him, that we r may preserve seed 
of our father. 

33 And they made their father drink wine that 
night : and the first-born went in, and lay with her 
father ; and he perceived not when she lay down, 
nor when she arose. 

34 And it came to pass on the morrow, that the 
first-born said unto the younger, Behold, I lay yester- 
night with my father : let us make him drink wine 
this night also; and go thou in, and lie with him, 
that we may preserve seed of our father. 

35 And they made their father drink wine that 
night also: and the younger arose, and lay with 
him; and he perceived not when she lay down, nor 
when she arose. 

36 Thus were both the daughters of Lot with child 
by their father. 

37 And the first-born bare a son, and called his 
name Moab : 'the same is the father of the Mbaibites 
onto this day. 

38 And the younger, ;she also bare a son, and 
called his name Ben-ammi: 'the same is the father 
of the children of Ammoh unto this day. 


-1 Abraham Oerar. 2 He denieth his wife, and loseth her. 

A ND Abraham journeyed from "thence toward 
•XjL the south country, and dweLbd between *Ka- 
' desh and Shur,und c sojourned in Gerar. 

2 And Abraham said of Sarah his wife, d She is 
my sister: and Abimelech, king of Gerar sent, and 
"took Sarah. 

3 But •/'God dame to Abimelech ^in a dream by 
night, and said to him, h Behold, thou art but a dead 

- < i 



rci ~X} 


IS, 3 






about 1898. 



Pb. 145. 19. 

married to 

fHeb. thy 

an hus- 




ich.18. 23. 


ver. 18. 

Ex. 32. 10. 

k 2 Kings 



Mark 6. 5. 

2 Cor. 1.12. 


|| Or, sim- 

& 14. 2. 

plicity, or, 

|| That is, 



rer. 20. 


Ich. 31. 7. 


& 35. 5. 

i Deut. 29. 

Ex. 34. 24. 


1 Sam. 25. 

Isa. 13. 19. 


Jer. 20. 16. 


& 50. 40. 

Lev. 6. 2. 

Ezek. 16. 

Ps. 51. 4. 

49, 50. 

nl Sam .7.5. 

Hos. 11. 8. 

2 Kings 5. 

Amos 4. 11. 


Zeph. 2. 9. 

Job 42. 8. 

Luke 17.29 

Jam. 5. 14, 

2 Pet. 2. 6. 


Jude 7. 

Uohn 5.16 

itch. 14. 3. 

och. 2. 17. 

Ps. 107. 34. 

pNum. 16. 

1 Luke 17. 

32, 33. 


m ch. 18.22. 

m Rev. 18.9. 


Ex.32. 21. 

Josh. 7. 25. 

och. 8. 1. 
& 18. 23. 

rcb. 34.7. 

p ver.17,19. 

sch. 42.18. 

Ps. 36. 1. 

Prov. 16.6. 

t ch. 12. 12. 

& 26. 7. 

u See ch.ll. 


q ch. 16.2,4. 

ch. 38. 8, 9. 

Deut. 25.5. 

x ch. 12. 1, 

9, 11, &c. 

Heb. 11. 8. 

r Mark 12. 




och. 13.9. 

t Heb. as 

is good in 

thine eyes. 

b ver. 5. 

cch. 26.11. 

deb. 24. 65. 

e Job 42. 9, 


/ch. 12. 17. 



s Deut. 2. 9. 

a 1 Sam. 2/ 




& 18. 10,14. 

Gal. 4.23, 


c Acts 7.8. 

Gal. 4. 22. 

Heb. 11. 11. 

about 1898. 


ach. 18. 1. 



cch. 26.6. 

/Acts 7. 8. 



& 26. 7. 




iPs. 126.2. 


Isa. 54. 1. 

g Job 33.15 

Gal. 4. 27. 

h yer. 7. 


X. Abimelech reproved by God, 

man, for the woman which thou hast taken ; for she 
is fa man's wife. 

4- But Abimelech had not come near her: and he 
said, Lord, 'wilt thou slay also a righteous nation? 

5 Said he not unto me, She is my sister? and 
she, even she herself said, He is my brother: *in 
the || integrity of my heart and innocency of my 
•hands have I done this. 

6 And God said unto him in a dream, Yea, I 
know that thou didst this in the integrity of thy 
heart; for 'I also withheld thee from sinning" 1 against 
m^Kr4baeefore suffered I thee not to touch her. 

7 'Isbw therefore restore the man his wife; "for he 
is a prophet, and he shall pray for thee, and thou 
shalt five: and if thou restore her not, "know thou 
that thou shalt surely; di% thou, ^and all that are thine. 

8 Therefore Abimelech rose early in the morn- 
ing, and called all his servants, and told all these 
things in their ears : and the men were sore afraid. 

9 Then Abimelech called Abraham, and said unto 
him, What hast thou done unto us ? and what have 

offended thee, 'that thou hast brought on me and 
on my kingdom a great sin ? thou hast done deeds 
unto, me r that'Qught not to be done> 3 

10 And Abimelech said unto Abraham, What 
sawest thou, that thou hast done this thing ? 

1 1 And Abraham said, Because I thought, Surely 
'the fear of God 'is not in this place; and 'they will 
slay me for my wife's sake. 

12 And yet indeed "she is my sister; she is the 
daughter of my father, but not the daughter of my 
mother; and she became my wife. ,4 nn ( 

13 And it came to pass, when *Gf da caused me 
to wander from my father's house, that I said unto- 
her, This is thy kindness which thou shalt shew 
unto me; at every place whither we shall come, 
y say of me, He is my brother. 

14 And Abimelech Hook sheep, and oxen, and 
men-servants, and women-servants,.' and gave them 
unto Abraham, and restored him Sarah his wife. 

15 And Abimelech said, Behold, "my land is be- 
fore thee : dwell f where it pleaseth thee. 

16 And unto Sarah he said, Behold, I have given 
4 thy brother a thousand pieces of silver : c behold, he 
is to thee d a covering of the eyes, unto all that are with 
thee, and with all other : thus she* was reprgyeoL 

17 If So Abraham c prayed unto God v ana God 
healed Abimelech, and his wife, and his maid-ser- 
vants ; and they bare children. 

18 For the Lord •'"had fast closed up all the wombe 
of the house of Abimelech, because of Sarah Abra-. 
" am's wife. 


1 Isaac is born. 4 He is circumcised. 9 Hagar and Ishmael are can 



NT) the Lord" visited Sajrah as he had said, and 
. the Lord did unto Sarah *as he had spoken. 

2 For' Sarah 'conceived, and bare Abraham a son 
in his old age, rf at the set time of which God had 
spoken to him. , M , 

3 And Abraham called the name of his son that 
was born unto him, whom Sarah bare to him, ^ Isaac. 

4 And Abraham ^circumcised his son Isaac, being 
eightidays okl^asrGod had commanded him. 

5 And^ Abraham was an hundred years old, when 
hi& son Isaac was born unto him. 

6 IF And Sarah said, 'God hath made me to laugh;, 
so that all that hear *wLU laugh with me. 

Jiagar and isnmael cast forth. 


Abraham tempted to offer Isaac 


about 1897. 

Ich. 18. 11, 

m ch. 16. 1. 

neb.. 16. 15. 

about 1892. 

p Gal. 4. 30 
See ch. 25. 



s ver. 18. 
ch. 16. 10. 
& 17. 20. 

t John 8.35, 

7 Andbshe said, Who would have said unto Abra- 
ham, that Sarah should have given children suck ? 

for 1 have born him a son in his old age. 

8 A6& ; .the child grew, and was weaned: and 
Abraham made a great feast the same day that 
Isaac was weaned. 

9 HAnd Sarah saw the son of Hagar m the Egyp- 
tian, "which she had born unto Abraham, 'mocking. 

10 Wherefore she said unto Abraham, p Cast out 
this bond-woman and her son : for the son of this; bond- 
woman shall not be heir with my son, even with Isaac. 

11 And the thing was very grievous in Abraham's 
sight 9 because of his son. 

12 HAnd Gfod said unto Abraham, Let it not be 
grievous in thy sight, because of the lad, and be- 
cause of thy bond-woman; in all that_ Sarah hath 
said unto thee, hearken unto her voice; for r in 
Isaac shall thy seed be called. 

13 And also of the son of the bond-woman will 
I make 'a nation, because he is thy seed. 

14 And Abraham rose up early in the morning, 
and took bread, and a bottle of water, and gave it 
unto Hagar, putting it on her shoulder, and the 
child, ana 'sent her away: and she ■ departed, and 
wandered in the wilderness of Beer-sheba. 

15 And the water was spent in the bottle, and 
she cast the child under one of the shrubs. 

16 And she went, and sat her down over against 
him, a good way off, as it were a bow-shot : for she 
said, Let me not see the death of the child. And she 
sat over against him, and lift up her voice, and wept. 

17 And "God heard the voice of the lad; and the 
angel of God called to Hagar out of heaven, and 
said unto her, What aileth thee, Hagar ? Fear not; 
for God hath heard the voice of the lad where he is. 

18 Arise, lift up the lad, and hold him in thine 
hand ; for w l will make him a great nation. 

19 And ^God opened her eyes, and she saw akN™*- 22 - 
well of water; and she went, and filled the bottle |s^2ki, 
with water; and gave fee tad drink. 

20 And God ^was with the lad; and he grew, and 
dwelt in the Wilderness, * and became an archer. 

21 And he dwelt in the wilderness of Paran : and 
his mother °took him a wife out of the land of Egypt. 

22 IT And it came to pass at that time, that 
'Abimelech and Phichol the chief captain of his 
host spake unto Abraham, saying, c God is with thee 
in all that thou doest: . 

23 Now therefore d swear unto me here by God 
f that thou wilt not deal falsely with me, nor with my 
son, nor with my son's son: bid according to the kind- 
ness that I have done unto thee, thou shalt do unto 
me, and to the land wherein thou hast sojourned. 

24 And Abraham said, I will swearf ; 

25 And Abraham reproved Abimelech because 
of a well of water, which Abimelech's servants e had 
violently taken away. 

26 And Abimelech said, I wot not who hath done 
this thing : neither didst thou tell me, neither yet 
heard I of it, but to-day. 

27 And Abraham took sheep and oxen, and gave 
them unto Abimelech; and both of them -/"made a 
covenant. 4 Q T i A '^ Q 

28 And Abraham set seven ewe-lambs of the flock 
by themselves. c- 

29 And Abimelech said unto Abraham, *What 
mean these seven ewe-lambs, which thou hast set 
by themselves? 

u Ex. 3. 7. 

w ver 13. 

Luke 24. 
z ch. 16.12. 

ach. 24. 4. 

tch. 20. 2. 

& 26. 26. 

1 I 


1 Sam. 24. 


t Heb. if 

thou shall 

lie unto me. 

e Seech. 26. 
15, 18, 20, 


g ch. 33. 8. 


h oh. 31. 48, 

|| That is, 
the oath. 
about 1891. 

|| Or, free. 

ich. 4. 26. 

I Deut. 33. 


Isa. 40. 28. 


1 Tim. 1.17. 

Jos. Ant. 

a 1. Cor. 10. 


Heb. 11.17. 

Jam. 1. 12. 

1 Pet. 1. 7. 


Behold me. 


c 2 Chron. 


d John 19. 

Behold me: 

I Or, kid. 

30 And he said, For these seven ewe-lambs shall? 
thou take of my hand, that h they may be a witness 
unto me/ that I have digged this well. 

31 Wherefore he 'called that place || Beer-sheb&, 
because there they sware both of them. 

32 Thus they made a covenant at Beer-sheba ," 
then Abimelech rose up, and Phichol the chief cap. 
tain of his; host, and they returned into the land 
of the Philistines; 



Jam. 2. 21. 

/I Sam. 15. 

Mic. 6. 7, 8. 
g ch. 26. 5. 
Jam. 2. 22. 

|| That is, 
The Lord 
will see, or, 

33 II And Abraham planted a || grove in 
sheba, and * called there on the name of the 
'the everlasting God. 

34 And Abraham sojourned in the Philistine 
land many days. 


1 Abraham is tempted to offer Isaac. 3 He giveth proof of his faith ax£ 

AND it came to pass after these things, that°Godi 
did tempt Abraham, and said unto him, Abra- 
ham: and he said, ^Behold, here I am. 

2 And he said, Take now thy son, * thine only %<m 
Isaac,: whom thou lovest, and get thee c into the lane 
of Mof iah ; and offer him there for a burnt-offering 
upon one of the mountains which I will tell thee of, 

3 ITAnd Abraham rose up early in the morning., 
and saddled his ass, and took two of his young men 
with him, and Isaac his son, and clave the wood fox 1 
the burnt-offering, and rose up, and went unto fch@ 
pla$e, of. which God had told him. 

4- Then on the third day Abraham lifted up hm 
eyes* and saw the place afar off. 

5 And Abraham said unto his young men, Abid& 
ye here with the ass ; and I and the lad will go yon- 
der and worship, and come again to you. 

6 And Abraham took the- wood of the burnV 
offering, and d laid it upon Isaac his son; and ha 
took the fire in his hand, and a knife; and they went 
both of them together. ; > ■ 

7 And Isaac spake unto Abraham his father, ani 
said, My father-: and he said, f Here am I, my son.. 
And he said, Behold the fire and the wood : but 
where is the (j lamb for a burnt-offering ? 

8 And Abraham said, My son. Goo will provide 
himself a lamb for a burnt offering : so they wees 
both of them together. 

9 And they came to :the place which God hal 
told him of; and Abraham built an altar there, an ! 
laid the wood in order, and bound Isaac his son, 
and 'laid him on the altar upon the wood. 

10 And Abraham stretched forth his hand, and 
took- the knife to slay his son. 

11 And the angel of the Lobd called unto him 
out of heaven, and said, Abraham, Abraham : 
he said, Here ami. < - 1 y < 

12 And he said, -'"Lay not thine hand upon 
lad, neither do thou any thing unto him: for *now 
I know that thou fearest God, seeing thou hast net 
withheld thy son, thine only son from me. 

13 And Abraham lifted up his eyes, and looked, 
and behold behind himc a ram caught in a thicket 
by his horns : and Abraham went and took the rar y 
and offered him up for a burnt>offering in the ste&'t 
of his son. 

14 And Abraham called the name of that pko 
|| Jehovah-jireh : as - it is said to this day, In tha 
mount of the Lord it shall be seen. 

15 11 And the angel of the Lord called unto Abra- 
ham out of heaven the second time, 


Sarah's age and death. 



Abraham purchaseth Machpelah. 

f^Vmid said, ~ h By myself have I sworn, saith the 
Lord, for because thou hast done this thing, and 
Last not withheld thy son, thine only son: 

1/ That in blessing I will bless thee, and in multi- 
plying I will multiply thy seed 'as the stars of the hea- 
ven, *and as the sand which is upon the sea-fshore; 
and .'thy seed shall possess m the gate of his enemies ; 

18 "And in thy seed shall all the nations of the 
earth be blessed; ■* because thou hast obeyed my voice. 

19 So Abraham returned unto his young men, 
and they rose up and went together to ^Beer-sheba; 
and Abraham dwelt at Beer-sheba. 

20 IF And it 1 came ,to pass afters these -things, that 
it was told Abraham, saying,'~'Behold, 7 Milcah, she 
hath also born children unto thy brother Nahor; 

21 r Huz his first born, and T>uz his brother, and 
Kemuel the father s of Aram, 

'22 And Chesed, and Hazo, and Pildash, and 
Jidlaph, and Bethuel. 

23 And ' Bethuel begat u Rebekah : these eight 
JV^ilcah did bear to Nahbr, Abraham's brother. 

24 And his concubine, whose name was Reumah, 
she bare also Tebah, and Graham, and Thahash, 
and MWcnan. 


O Pi \ lT^ e a 9 c an ^ d eai h of Sarah. 3 The purchase of Machpelah. 

A ND Sarah was an hundred and seven and twenty 
■t\. years old : these were the years of the life of 

2 And Sarah died in a Kirjath-arba ; the - same is 
* Hebron in the land, of Canaan: and Abraham came 
to mourn for Sarah, and to weep for her. 

3 TAnd Abraham stood up from before his dead, 
and spake unto the sons of Heth, saying, 

4 C I am a stranger and a sojourner with you: 
d give me a possession of a burymg-place with you, 
that I may bury my dead out of my sight. 

5 And the children of Heth answered Abraham, 
saying, unto him, 

6 Hear us, my lord : thou art f e a mighty prince 
among us : in the choice of our sepulchres bury thy 
dead ; none of us shall withhold from thee his sepul- 
chre, but that thou mayest bury thy dead. 

7 And Abraham stood up, and bowed himself to 
the people of the land, even to the children of Heth. 

8 And he communed with them, saying, If it be 
your mind that I should bury my dead out of my 
sight ; hear me, and entreat for me to Ephron the 
son of Zohar, -j o 

9 That he may give me the cave of Machpelah, 
which he hath, which is in the end of his field ; for 
t as much money as it is worth he shall give it me 
forra possession of a burying-place amongst you. 

TO And Ephron dwelt among the children of 
Heth. And Ephron the Hittite answered Abraham 
in the f audience of the children of Heth, even of 
all that; J w§nt in at the gate of his city, saying, 

IT-'* Nay, my lord, hear me : the field give I thee, 
and the cave that is therein, I give it thee ; in the 
presence of the sons of my people give I it thee : 
bury thy deae). a o c» 

12 And Abraham bowed down himself before the 
people of the land. 1679 

1 3 And he spake unto Ephron in the audience of the 
people of the land, saying, But if thou wilt give it, I 
pray thee, hear me : I will give thee money for the 
field ; take it of me, and I will bury my dead there. 

* 22 



ft Ps. 105. 9. 
Luke 1. 73. 
Heb. 6. 13, 

i ch. 15. 5. 
Jer. 33. 22. 
tHeb. lip. 
I ch. 24. 60. 
roMic.l. 9. 
n ch. 12. 3. 
& 18. 18. 
& 26. 4. 
Acts 3. 25. 
Gal. 3. 8, 9, 
16, 18. 
o ver. 3, 10. 
ch. 26. 5. 
pch. 21.31. 


r Job 1. 1. 

s Job 32. 2. 

teh. 24.15. 
u Called, 
Rom. 9. 10. 


a Josh. 14. 

ocb. 13. 18. 
ver. 19. 

cch. 17. 8. 
1 Chron. 
29. 15. 
Ps. 105. 12. 
Heb. 11. 9, 
(ZActs 7. 5. 

tHeb. a 
prince of 

e ch. 13. 2. 
& 14. 14. 
& 24. 35. 



t Heb. ears 



Ruth 4. 4. 


2 Sam. 24. 





h Ex.30.15. 

i Jer. 32. 9. 

32. & 50. 13. 
Acts 7. 16. 

I See Ruth 
Jer. 32. 10, 


a ch. 18.11. 
& 21. 5. 
fHeb. gone 
into days. 
fcch.13. 2. 
ver. 35. 
Ps. 112. 3. 
cch. 15. 2. 
d rer. 10. 
ech.47. 29r 
1 Chron.29. 

Lam. 5. 6. 
Deut. 6. 13. 
Josh. 2. 12. 
gch. 26.35. 
& 27. 46. 
k 28. 2. 
Ex. 34. 16. 
Deut. 7. 3. 
h ch. 28. 2. 
i ch. 12. 1. 


/ ch. 12. 7. 
& 13. 15. 
& 15. 18. 
& 17. 8. 
Ex. 32. 13. 
Deut. 1. 8. 
& 34. 4. 
Acts 7. 5. 
m Ex.23.20 
23. & 33. 2. 
Heb. 1. 14. 
n Josh. 2. 
17, 20. 

ver. 2. 

|| Or, and. 
pch. 27.43. 
tHeb. that 
go forth. 
9 Ex. 2. 16. 

1 Sam.9.11. 
r ver. 27. 
ch. 26. 24. 
& 28. 13. 

& 32. 9. 
Ex. 3. 6, 15. 

14 And Ephron answered Abraham, saying unto 

15 My lord, hearken unto me : the land is worth 
four hundred h shekels of silver ; what is that betwixt 
me -and thee 1 dWJ) therefore thy dead.? t ok 

16 And Abraham hearkened unto Ephron; and 
Abraham ' weighed to Ephron the silver which he 
had named in the audience of the sons of Heth, four 
hundred shekels of silver, current money with the 
merchant. 299Q 

17 'IT And Hhe field of Ep$i$i£i which was in 
Machpelah, which was before Mamre, the field, and 
the cave which was therein, and all the trees that 
were in the field, that were in all the borders round 
about, were made sure 

18 Unto Abraham for a-, possession in the pre- 
sence of the children of Heth, before all that went 
in at the gate of his city; 

19 And after this, Abraham buried Sarah- his -wife 
in the cave of the field of Machpelah before Mamre : 
the same is Hebron in the land of Canaan. 

20 And the field, and the ■■- cave that is therein, 
'were made sure unto Abraham for a possession of a 
burying-place by the sons of TTem;'' 


1 Abraham sweareth hk servant; 12 his prayer ; 14 his sign. 15 Rebekah 
meeteth him, 18 and fulfilleth his sign. 84 The servant sheweth his mes- 
sage. 50 Laban and Bethuel approve it. 58 Rebekah consenteth to go. 

1 9 5 ' 



ND Abraham "wasr old, and fwell stricken 
and the LoRD-*-had blessed Abraham 

all things. if>q 

2 And Abraham said f unto his eldest servant of 
his house, that d ruled over all that he had, 'Put, I 
pray thee, thy hand under my thigh : S7f» 9 
■ 3 And I will makevthee ^swear by the IiOrd, the 
God of heaven, and the God of the earth, that *thou 
shalt not; take a wife unto my son of the daughters 
of the Ca'naanites, among whom I dwell : 

4 A But thou shalt go 'unto my country -- and, to 
my kindred, and take a wife unto my sonaT^asaqt; 

5 And the servant said unto him, Peraaventure 
the woman will not be willing to follow me unto this 
land : must I needs bring thy son again unto the 
land from whence thou earnest? "307 

6 And Abraham said unto him, Beware thou 
that thou bring not, my son thither again. 

7 IT The Lord God of heaven, which Hook me 
from my father's house, and from the land of my 
kindred, and which spake unto me, and that sware 
unto me, saying, 'Unto thy seed will I give this 
land; m he shall send his angel before thee, and thou 
shalt:; take a wife unto my son from thence. 

8 And if the woman will not be willing to follow' 
thee, then "thou shalt be clear from this my oathj 
only bring not my son thither again. 

9 And the servant put his hand under the thigit 
of Abraham his master, and sware to him concerning 
that matter. 

10 IT And the servant took ten camels, of the 
camels of his master, and departed ; " || for all the 
goods of his master were in his hand : and he-arose, 
and went; to Mesopotamia, unto p the -city of Nahor. 

11 And he made his camels to kneel down with- 
out the city by a well of water at the time of the 
evening, even the time fthat women go out to draw 

water* q j 5 4 Hi) 

12 And he said, r O Lord God of my master 

Abraham's servant journey eth. 

Abraham, I pray thee, 'send me good speed this 
day, and- shew kindness unto my master Abraham. 

13 Behold, f I stand here by the well of water; 
and "the daughters of the men of the city come 
out to draw water : 

14 And let it come to pass, that the damsel to 
whom I shall say, Let down thy pitcher, I pray 
thee, that I may drink ; and she shall say, Drink, 
and I will give thy camels drink also : let the same 
be she that thou hast ' appointed for thy servant 
Isaac; and ^thereby shall I know that thou hast 
shewed kindness unto my master. 

15 H And it came to pass, before he had done speak- 
ing, that, behold, Rebekah came out, who was born 
to Bethuel, son of x Milcah, the wife of JNTahor, Abra- 
ham's brother, with her pitcher upon her shoulder. 

16 And the damsel y zoas-\very fair to look upon, 
a virgin, neither had any man known her : and 
she went down to the well, and filled her pitcher, 
and came up. 

17 And the servant ran to meet her, and said, Let 
me, I pray thee, drink a little water of thy pitcher. 

18 z And ' she said, Drink, my lord : and she 
hasted, and let down her pitcher upon her hand, 
and gave him drink. 

19 And when she had done giving him drink, 
she said, I will draw water for thy camels also, 
until they have done drinking. 

20 And she hasted, and emptied her pitcher 
into the trough, and ran again unto the well to 
draw water, and drew for all his camels. 

21 And the man wondering at her held his 
peace, to wit whether fl the Lord had made his jour- 
ney prosperous or not. 

22 And it came to pass, as the camels had done 
that the man took 


He is entertained by Laban. 




of half a shekel weight, and two bracelets for her 
hands of ten shekels weight of gold ; 

23 And said, Whose daughter art thou ? tell me, 
I pray thee : is there room in thy father's house 
for us to lodge in? 

24 And she said unto him, C I am the daughter 
of Bethuel the son of Milcah, which she bare unto 

25 She said moreover unto him, We have both 
straw and provender enough, and room to lodge in. 

26 And the man d bowed down his head, and 
worshipped the Lord. 

27 And he said, e Blessed he the Lord God of my 
master Abraham, who hath not left destitute my 
master of J his mercy and his truth: 1 being in the 
way, the'LoRD *led me to the house of my master's 

28 And the damsel ran, and told them of her 
mother's house: these things. 

29 IF And- Rebekah. had- a brother, and his name 
was A Laban : and Laban ran out unto the man, unto 
the well. A Qy 

30 And it came to pass, when he saw the ear-ring 
and bracelets upon his sister's hands, and when he 
heard the words of Rebekah his sister, saying, Thus 
spake the man unto me ; that he came unto the man ; 
and, behold, he stood ;by the camels at the well. 

31 And he said, Come in, 'thou blessed of the 
Lord ; wherefore standest thou without ? for I have 
prepared the house, and room for the camels. 

32 IT And the man came into the house : and he 
ungirded his camels, and *gave straw and provender 




Ps. 37. 5. 
t ver. 43. 
uch. 29. 9. 
Ex. 2. 16. 

wSee Judg 
6. 17, 37. 
1 Sam. 6.7. 
&20. 7. 

x ch. 11.29. 
&22. 23. 

ych. 26. 7. 
t Heb. good 
of counter 

z 1 Pet. 3.8. 

4 4. 9. 

a Ter.12.56. 

Isa. 3. 19, 
Ezek. 16. 
11, 12. 
1 Pet. 3. 3. 
i| Or, jewel 
for the 

d ver. 52. 
Ex. 4. 31. 

e Ex. 18. 10. 
Ruth 4. 14. 

1 Sam. 25. 

2 Sam. 18. 

Luke 1. 68 
fch. 32.10 
Ps. 98. 3. 
gvex. 48. 

h ch. 29. 5. 

ich26. 29. 
Judg. 17.2. 
Ruth 3. 10. 
Pe. 115. 16. 

Judg. 19.21 



I Job 23.12. 
John 4. 34. 
Eph. 6. 5, 

m ver. 1. 
ch. 13. 2. 

& 25. 5. 

p ver. 3. 

q ver. 4. 

sver. 7. 
tch. 17. 1. 

y ver.l5,&c 
z\ Sam. 1. 

a Ezek. 16. 
11, 12. 

6 ver. 26. 

d ch. 47.29. 
Josh. 2. 14. 

/ch. 31.24 
g ch. 20.15 

h Ter. 26. 

for the camels, and water to wash his feet, and the 
men's feet that were with him. 

33 And there was set meat before him to eat : 
but he said, ' I will not eat until I have told mine 
errand. And he said, Speak on. 

34 And he said, I am Abraham's servant. 

35 And the Lord m hath blessed my master greatly; 
and he is become great : and he hath given him 
flocks, and herds, and silver, and gold, and men- 
servants, and maid-servants, and camels, and asses. 

36 And Sarah rhy master's wife "bare a son to 
my master when she was old : and "unto him hath 
he given all that he hath. 

37 And my master ^made me swear, saying, 
Thou shalt not take a wife to my son of the daugh- 
ters of the Canaanites, in whose land I dwell : 

38 y But thou shalt go unto my father's house, 
and to my kindred, and take a wife unto my, -son* 

39 r And I said unto my master, Perad venture 
the woman will not follow me. q ,>| u 

40 'And he said unto me, The Lord, 'before whom 
I walk, will send his angel with thee, and prosper 
thy way ; and thou shalt take a wife for my son 
of my- kindred, and of my father's house : 

41 "Then shalt thou be clear from this my oath, 
when thou comest to my kindred ; and if they give 
not thee -one, thou shalt be clear from my oath. 

42 And I came this day unto the well, and said, 
w O Lord" God of my master Abraham, if now thou 
do prosper my way which I go : 

43 x Behold, I stand by the well of water ; and 
it shall come to pass, that when the virgin cometh 
forth to draw water, and I say to her, Give me, 1 
pray thee, a little water of thy pitcher to drink ; 

44 And she say to me, Both drink thou, and I 
will also draw for; thy camels : let the same be the 
woman whom theTL'ORD hath appointed out for my 
master's son. 

45 y And before I had done ~ speaking in mine 
heart, behold, Rebekah came forth with her pitcher 
on her shoulder; and she went down unto the 
well, and drew water : and I said unto her, Let me 
drink, I pray thee. 

46 And she made haste, and let down her pitcher 
from her shoulder, and said, Drink, and I will give 
thy camels drink also : so I drank, and she made 
the camels drink also. 

47 And I asked her, and said, Whose daughter 
G^thou? And she --said, the daughter of Bethuel. 
Nahor's son, whom tMltcan bare unto him : and 1 
"put the ear-ring upon her face, and the bracelets 
upon her hands. 

48 6 And I bowed down my head, and worshipped 
the Lord, and blessed the Lord God of my master 
Abraham, which had led me in the right way to 
take c my master's brother's daughter unto his son. 

49 And now if ye will d deal kindly and truly 
with my master, tell me : and if not, tell me ; thct 
I may turn tg the right hand, or to the left. 

50 Then Laban and Bethuel answered and said. 
e The thing proceedeth from the 'Lord': we cannot 
•'"speak unto thee bad or good. 

51 Behold, Rebekah e is before thee, take her, 
and go, and let her be thy master's son's wife, as 
the Lord hath spoken. 

52 And it came to pass, that, when Abraham's 
servant heard their words, he h worshipped the Lord, 
bowing himself to the earth 


Of Abraham's servant and Rebekah. GENESIS, XX Y. 

53 And the servant brought forth f 'jewels of sil- 
ver, and jewels of gold, and raiment, and gave them 
to iSebekah : he gave also to her brother and to her 
mother * precious things. 

"54 'And they did eat and drink, he and the men 
that were with him, and tarried all niejht \ and they 
rose up in the morning, and he said, 'Send me away 
unto my master. ^J-l 4 

55 And her brother and her mother said, Let the 
damsel abide with us || a few days, af the least ten; 
after that she shall go. 

56 And he said unto them, Hinder me not, seeing 
the "Lord hath prospered my way; send me away, 
that I may go to my master. 

57 And they said, We will call the damsel, and 
enquire at her mouth. 

08 And they called Rebekah, and said unto her, 
Wilt thou go with this man ? And she said, I will 

go. 4 ,3637 

59 And they sent away Rebekah their sister, and 
'"her nurse, and Abraham s servant, and his men. 

60 And they blessed Rebekah, and said unto her, 
Thou art our sister, be thou "the mother of thousands 
of millions, and "let thy seed possess the gate of those 
which hate them. 

61 IfAnd Rebekah arose, and her damsels, and they 
rode upon the camels^ and followed the man : and 
the servant took Rebekah, and went his way. 

62 And Isaac came from the way of the ^well 
Lahai-roi ; for he dwelt in the south country. 

63 And Isaac went out || 9 to meditate in the field 
at the even-tide : and he lifted up his eyes, and saw, 
and, behold, the camels were coming. 

64 And Rebekah lifted up her eyes, and when 
she saw Isaac, r she lighted on the camel./, 

65 For she had said unto the servant^ Wtiat inan 
is this that walketh in the field to meet us? And 
the servant had said, It is my master : therefore she 
took a vail and covered herself. 

66 And the servant told Isaac all things that he 
had done. 202j3 

67 And Isaac .brought her into his mother Sarah's 
tent, and took ftebekah, and she became his wife; 
and he loved her : and Isaac '* was comforted after 
his mother's death. 


% The sons of Abraham by Keturah. 7 His age, and death. 12 The gene- 
rations of Ishmael. 21 Isaac prayeth for Rebekah, being barren. 24 The 
• birth of Esau and Jacab., 29 £sau selleth his birthright. 

rfTEEN again Abraham took a wife, and her name 
J- was Keturah. 

2 And "she bare him Zimran, and Jokshan, and 
Medan, and? Mdran, and Isbtbalft and Shuah. 

3 And Jokshan begat' Sit §ba', and Deaa^i g&tpd 
the sons of\3>edah were Asshuriin, and Letusbim, 
and Leummim. £>J}TJ 

4 And the sons of Midian; Ephah, 
and Haffoch, and Abidah, and Eldaah. 
were the ehildr^n of Keturah. 

• IfAnd "Abraham gave all that he had unto 

6'JBut unto the -sons of the concubines, which 
Abraham had, Abraham gave gifts, and c sent them 
away from Isaac his son, while he yet lived, east- 
ward, unto d the east country. 16^9 

7 And these are the days of the years of Abraham's 
life which he lived, an hundred threescore and fif- 
teen years. 



i Ex. 3. 22. 
& 11. 2. 
& 12. 35. 
k 2 Chron. 
Ezra 1. 6. 
I ver. 56, 
& 59. 

|! Or, a full 
year, or,ten 
Judg. 14.8. 

to ch. 35. 8. 

n ch. 17.16. 
och. 22.17. 

p ch. 16.14. 
& 25. 11. 

Or, to 
q Josh.l. 8. 
Ps. 1. 2. 
& 77. 12. 
& 119. 15. 
& 143. 5. 
r Josh. 15. 

sch. 38.12. 

and Epner, 
All these 

about 1853. 

a 1 Chron. 




6 ch. 24.36 

c ch. 21.14. 

d Judg. 6.3 

& 49. 29. 
/ch. 35.29. 
& 49. 33. 
g ch. 35.29. 
& 50. 13. 

h ch. 23.16,, 

i ch. 49. 3f . 

k ch. 16.14. 
& 24. 62. 

Zch. 16. 15. 

about 1809. 
m 1 Chron. 

II Or, 
1 Chron. 

n ch.17. 20. 

o ver. 8. 

p 1 Sam. 

Ps. 78. 64. 
q ch. 16.12. 

r Matt. 1.2. 



u 1 Chron. 
2 Chron. 
33. 13. 
Ezra. 8. 23. 
w Rom. 9. 

x 1 Sam. 9. 
9. & 10. 22. 
y eh. 17.16. 
Si 24. 60. 

z 2 Sam. 8. 


a ch. 27.29. 

Mai. 1. 3. 

Rom. 9.12, 

b ch. 27.11, 
16, 23. 

e Hos. 12.3. 

d ch. 27.36. 


e ch. 27. 3, 

/Job 1.1,8 
&2. 3. 
Ps. 37. 37. 
g Heb.11.9. 
was in his 
h ch. 1'i .19, 
25, 31. 
i ch.27.6. 


with that 
red, with 
that red 

J || That ts, 

I red. 


sons of Ish- 
rations : 
far, and 

Jacob and Esau's birth. 

Then Abraham gave up the ghost, and ' died in 
a good old age, an old man, and full of year $ ; and 
•^ was gathered to his people. ? r 

&•' Arid ^his sons Isaac and Ishmael buried -him in 
the cave c of Machnelah, in the field of»Ephron the 
son of Zoharthe Iiittite, which is before Mainre; 

10 A The field which Abraham purchased of the 
sons of Heth : 'there was Abraham buried, and Sarah 
his wife* 

11 If And it "came to pass after the death of Abra- 
ham, that God blessed- his son Isaac ; and Isaac 
dwelt by the *well Labai-roi. ozvy f\ 

12 If Now these are the generations of Ishmael, 
Abraham's son, 'whom Hagar the Egyptian, Sarah's 
handmaid, bare unto Abraham : 

13 And "'these are the names of the 
mael, by their names,; aspcordin^ -to their genera 
the firstborn of Ishmael, Nebajoth ; and I^eaa 
Adbeel, and Mibsam, aj\> ^Q°9 

14 And Mishma^ and Dumah, and Massa, 

15 II Hadar, and Tema, Jetur, Naphish, and Ke- 
demah : '^ p >7'0 

16 These are the sons of Ishinael, and these are 
their names, by their towns, and by their castles ; 
"twelve princes according to their nations^ k^-i 

17 And these are the years of the life of ishmael, 
an hundred and thirty and seven years : and he "gave 
up the ghost and died ; and was gathered unto his 
people, n ^ qj n, »-> 

18 p And they dwelt fromllavilah unto Shur, that 
is before Egypt, as thou goest toward Assyria : dnJ 
he tdied 9 m the presence of all his brethren. 

19 IT And these are -the generations of Isaac, 
Abraham's son : r Abraham begat Isaac : 

\ 20" And Isaac was forty years old when he took 
Rebekah to wife, J the daughter of Bethuel the -Sy- 
rian of Padan-aram, 'the sister to Laban the Syrian. 

21 And Isaac entreated the %qw> for his wife, 
because she was barren: "and the Lord was entreat- 
ed of him, and '"Rebekah his wife conceived. 

22 And the children struggled together^ within 
her ; and she said, If it bp S0j:why am I thus ? * And 
she went to inquire of the Lord. 

23 And the Lord said unto her, y Two nations are 
in thy womb, and two manner of people shall be 
separated from thy bowels: and x the one people shall 
be stronger than the other people; and "the elder 
shall serve the younger. 

24 itAnd when her days to be delivered wers 
fulfilled, behold, there were twins in her womb. 

25 And the first came out red, * all over like an 
hairy garment : and they called his name Esau. 

26 And after that, came his brother out, and c his 
hand took hold on Esau's heel; and d his name was 
called Jacob : and Isaac was threescore years old 
when she bare them. 

27 And the boys grew : and Esau was e a cunning 
hunter, a man of the field; and Jacob was J a. plain 
man, 8 dwelling- in tents^i * *y rr 

28 And Isaae loved Esau, because f he did h eat 
of /^venison : ' but Rebekah loved Jacob. 

29 If And Jacob sod pottage : and Esau came from 
the field, and he was faint : v 

30 And Esau said to Jacob, Feed me, I pray thee, 
f with that same red pottage ; for I am faint : there- 
fore .was his name called J Edom. 

31 And Jacob said, Sell me this day thy birth- 

3 d Sojourn in this land, and e I will be with thee, 
and -^ will bless thee ; for unto thee, and unto thy seed, 
?I will give all these countries, and- Twill perform 
Hhe oath which I sware unto Abraham thy father; 

4 And 'I will make thy seed to multiply as the 
stars of heaven, and will give unto thy seed all these 
countries; fc and in thy seed shall all the nations of 
the earth be blessed •# n q p» 

5 'Because that Abraham obeyed my voice, and 
kept my charge, my commandments, my statutes, 
and my laws. n o o 

6 IT And Isaac dwelt in Gerar: 

7 And the men of the place asked him of his wife; 
and m he said, She is my sister : for "he feared to say, 
/She is my wife ; lest, said he, the men of the place 
should kill me for Rebekah; because she "was fair to 
took upon. 

8 And it came to pass, when he had been there a 
long time, that Abimelech king of the Philistines 
looked out at a window, and saw, and, behold, Isaac 
was sporting with- Rebekah his wife. 

9 And Abimelech called Isaac, and said, Behold, 
of a surety she ,i»._ thy wife : and how saidst thou, 
She is my sister"? And Isaac said unto him, Because 
I said, Lest I die for her. 

10 And Abimelech ' said, What is this thou hast 
done unto us ? one of the people might lightly have 
lien with thy wife, and Mliou shouldest have brought 
guiltiness upon us. 

11 And Abimelech charged all his people, saying, 
He that q toucheth this man or his wife shall surely 
be put to death. - 

12 Then Isaac sowed in that land, and f received 
in the same year 'an hundred-fold: and the Lord 
'blessed' him: 

13 And the man 'waxed great, and t went forward, 
and grew until he became very great: 

14 For he had possession oi flocks, and possession 
of herdsf and great store of || servants : and the 
PhihstiSes "envied him. 

15 For all the wells "which km father's servants 
had digged in the days of Abraham his father, the 
Philistines had stopped them, and filled them with 
earth. <->-... 

16 And Abimelech said unto Isaac, Go from us : 
for *thou art much mightier than we. 

17 HAnd Isaac departed thence, and pitched his 
lent in the valley of Gerar, and dwelt there. 

18 And Isaac digged again the wells of water, 
which they had digged in the days of Abraham his 

about 1805. 

going to die 
k Heb. 12. 

Isa. 22. 13. 

about 1804. 
a ch. 12.10. 

och. 20. 2. 

c ch. 12. 1. 

rfch. 20. 1. 
Ps. 39. 12. 
Heb. 11.9. 
/ch. 12.1. 
^ch. 13.15. 
& 15. 18. 
Ps. 105. 9. 
i ch. 15. 5. 
& 22. 17. 
Arch. 12. 3. 
& 22. 18. 

I ch. 22. 16, 

ra ch.12.13. 
& 20. 2, 13. 
n Proy. 29. 
och. 24.16. 

pch. 20. 9. 

9 Ps 105.15 

r Mat. 13.8. 
Mark 4. 8. 
sver 3. 
ch. 24. 1,35. 
Job 42. 12. 
Ps. 112. 3. 
II Or, 

Eccl. 4. 4. 
inch. 21.30. 

i Ex. 1.9. 



Isaac soj ourneth at Gerar. GENESIS, XXYI. 

32 And Esau said, Behold, I am f at the point to 
die : and what profit shall this birthright do to me ? 

33 And Jacob said, Swear to me this day; and 
he sware-unto him: and *he sold his birthright unto 
Jacob. : 11 75 

34 Then Jacob gave Esau bread and pottage of 
lentiles; and 'he did eat and drink, and rose up, and 
went his way : thus Esau despised his birthright. 


1 Isaac because of famine goeth to Gerar 26 Abimelech' 's covenant with 
i_ „ _ him at Beer-sheba. 

AND there was a famine in the land, beside "the 
first famine that was in the days of Abraham. 
And Isaac went unto * Abimelech king of the Philis- 
tines unto Gerar. -■ ! , c .,- 

2 And the Lord- appeared unto him, and said. Go 
Jiot down into Egypt; dwell in c the land which I 
©hall tell thee of 

ych. 21.31 

sch. 21.25 

|| That is, 

H That is, 

|| That is, 

a ch. 17. 6. 
& 28. 3. 
& 41. 52. 
Ex. 1. 7. 

6ch. 17. 7. 
& 24. 12. 
& 28. 13. 
Ex. 3. 6. 
Acts 7. 32. 
och. 15. 1. 
d ver. 3. 4. 
ech. 12. 7. 
& 13. 18. 

gch. 21.22. 

ftJudg. 11. 


iver. 16. 

tHeb. - 

Seeing we- 
Jtch. 21. 
22, 23. 

If thou 
shalt, <£c. 

Ps. 115. 15. 

n ch. 21.31. 

II That is, 
an oath. 
och. 21.31. 
|| That is, 
the well of 
the oath. 


pch. 36. 2. 

och. 27.46. 
k 28. 1, 8. 
of spirit. 

1 Sam. 3. 2. 

6 Ptot.27.1 

Jam. 4. 14. 



Abimelech 's covenant with him. 

father; for the Philistines had stopped them after 
the death of Abraham: ^and he called their names 
after the names by which his father had called them. 

19 And Isaac's servants digged in the valley, and 
found there a well of t springing water. 

20And the herdmen of Gerar "did strive with 
Isaac's herdmen, saying, the water is ours : and he 
called the name of the well || Esek ; because they 
strove with him. 

21 And they digged another well, and strove for 
that also: and he called the name of it " 

22 And he removed from thence, 
another Avell; and for that- they strove 
called the name of it HRehoboth; and 

II Sitnah. 
and digged 
not: and he 
he said, For 

now the Lord hath made room for us, and we shall 
°be fruitful in the land. 

23 And he went up from thence to Beer-sheba. 

24 And the Lord appeared unto him the same 
night, and said, b I am the God of Abraham thy father : 
c fear not, for d I am with thee, and will bless thee, and 
multiply thy seed for my servant Abraham's sake. 

25 And he e builded an altar there, and-' called upon 
the name of the Lord, and pitched his tent there: 
and there Isaac's servants digged a well. 

26 11 Then Abimelech went to him from Gerar, 
and Ahuzzath one of his friends, *and Phichol the 
chief captain of his army. 

27 And Isaac said unto them, Wherefore come ye 
to me, seeing A ye hate me, and have 'sent me away 
from you? 

28 And they said, fWe saw certainly that the 
Lord A 'was with thee : and we said, Let there be now 
an oath betwixt us, even betwixt us and thee, and 
let us make a covenant with thee; 

29 f That thou wilt do us no hurt, as we have not 
touched thee, and as we have done unto thee nothing 
but good, and have sent thee away in peace : 'thou 
art how the blessed of the Lord. 

30 m And he made them a feast, and they did eat 
and drink. 

31 And they rose up betimes in the morning, and 
"sware one to another: and Isaac sent them away, 
and they departed from him in peace. 

32 And it came to pass the same day, that Isaac's 
servants came, and told him concerning the well 
which they had digged, and said unto him, We have 
found water. . J i 

33 And he called- it jl Shebah : "therefore the name 
of the city is || Beer-sheba unto this day. 

34 11^ And Esau was forty years, old when he took 
to wife Judith the daughter of Beeri the Hittite', and 
Bashemath the daughter of Elon the Hittite : 

35 -Which 'were fa grief of mind unto Isaac and 
to Rebekah. 


1 Isaac sendeth Esau for venison. 6 Rebekah instructeth Jacob to obtain 
the blessing. 34 Esau complaineth, and by importunity obtaineth a blessing 

AND it came to pass, that when Isaac was old \ 
and "his eyeswere dim, so that he could not 
see, he called Esau his eldest son, and. said unto 
him, My son : and he said unto him, Behold, here 
am I. 

2 And he said, Behold now, I am old, I "know 
not the day of my death : 

3 'Now therefore take, I pray thee, thy weapons, 

thy quiver and thy bow, and go out to the field, and 

f take me some venison ; 




Isaac sendeth Esau for venison 

4 And make me savoury meat, such as I love, 
and bring it to me, that I may eat; that my soul 
rf may bless thee -before I die. 

5 And Rebekah heard when Isaac spake to Esau 
his son. And Esau~went to the field to hunt for 
venison, and to bring it. \_7 A \ 

6 If And .Itebekan spake unto Jacob her son, 
saying, Behold, I heard thy father speak unto Esau 
thy .brother, saying, 

T Bring' me vemson, and make me savoury .-meat, 
that 1 may eat, and bless thee before the 1 "* Lord 
before, my death. 

8 Now therefore, my son, e obey my voice accord- 
ing. to that which I command thee. 

9 Go now to the flock, and fetch me from thence 
two good kids of the goats ; and I will make them 
^ savoury meat for thy father, such as he loveth : 

10 And thou shalt bring it to thy father, that he 
may eat, and that he %iay bless thee before his death. 

, 11 And Jacob said to Rebekah his mother, Be- 
hold, h Esau my brother is a hairy man, and 1 aw a 
smooth man: 

12 My father perad venture will 'feel me, and ] 
shall seem to him as a deceiver; and I shall 
*a curse upon me, and not a blessing. 

13 And his mother said unto him, 'Upon me be 
thy curse, my son : only obey my voice, and go 
fetch me them. 

14 And he went, and fetched, and brought them 
to his mother: and his mother '"made savoury meat, 
such as Jtxis father loved. 

15 And Rebekah took f" goodly raiment of her 
eldest son Esau, which were with her in the house, 
and put them upon Jacob her younger son: 

26 And she put the skins of the kids of the goats 
upon his hands, and upon the smooth of his neck: 

17 And she gave the savoury meat and the bread, 
which she had prepared,into the hand of her son' Jacob/ 

18 TTAnd he came unto his father, and said, My fa- 
ther : and he said, ; Here am I ; who art thou, my^on^ 

19 And Jacob said unto his father, I am Esau 
thy first-born; I have done according as thou 
badest me : arise, I pray thee, sit and eat of my 
venison, "that, thy soul may bless me. 

20 And Isaac said unto his son, How is it that 
thou hast found' it so quioklyymy son f And he said, 
Because the Lord thy God brought it fto^me. 

21' And Isaac said unto "Jacob, Come near, I pray 
thee, that I fi may feel thee, my son, whether thou 
be my very son Esau or not. 

22 And Jacob went near unto Isaac his. father; 
and he felt him, and said, The voice w Jacob's voice, 
but the. .hands are the hands of Esau. 

23 And he discerned him not, because ? his hands 
were hairy, as his brother Esatfs hands : so he 
blessed him. >f qo 1j684L 

-24 And he said, Art thou my very son Esau? 
And he said, I dm. 

25 And he said, Bring it near to me, and I will 
eat of my son's venison, r that my soul may bless 
thee. And he brought it near to him, and he did 
eat : and he brought him wine, and he drank. - 

26 And his father Isaac said unto him 
and kiss me 


near now, 

,, my son. 
he came near, and kissed him: 

27 And he came near, and kissed him: and he 
smelled the smell of his raiment, and blessed him, 
and said, See, 'the smell of my son is as the smell 
of a field which the Lord hath blessed : 


about 1760. 

dyer. 27. 
ch. 48. 9,15. 
& 49. 28. 

« ver. 13. 

fxer. 4. 

g ver. 4. 


itch. 9.25. 
I ch. 43. 9. 

1 Sam. 25. 

2 Sam.14.9. 

m ver. 4, 9. 

re ver. 27. 

o ver. 4. 


before Trie. 

p ver. 12. 

2 ver. 16. 



u Deut. 33. 
13, 28. 
luch. 45.18. 
x Deut. 33. 

y ch. 9. 25. 
& 25. 23. 
z ch. 49. 8. 
ach.12. 3. 
Num.24. 9. 

b ver. 4. 

bled with a 
great tremr 


cch. 28.3,4. 


ech. 25.26. 
|| That is, a 
/ch. 25.33. 

g Fulfilled. 
ver. 29. 
h ver. 28. 
|| Or, sup- 


1; ver. 28. 
Heb. 11.20. 
|| Or, of the 
I ch. 25. 23. 
Obad. 18, 
19, 20. 
m 2 KiDgs 


o ch. 50. 3, 


p Obad. 10. 

gPs. 64. 5. 


s ch. 26. 35. 
t ch. 24. 3. 

Q 3&0 

Jacob obtaineth a blessing. 

28 Therefore 'God give thee of "the dew of heaven, 
and "'the fatness of the earth, and Aplenty of com 
and wme^>q 

29 v Let 'people serve thee, and nations bow down 
to thee : be lord over thy brethren, and *let thy moth- 
er's sons bow down to thee : "cursed be every one that 
curseth thee, and blessed be he that blessethHthee. 

30 IT And it came to pass, as soon- as Isaac had 
made an end of blessing Jacob, and Jacob was yet 
scare© gone out from the presence of Isaac his father, 
that Esau his brother came in from his hunting. 

31 AAd he also had made savoury meat, and 
brought it unto his father, and said unto his father, 
Let my father arise, and *eat of his son's venison, 
that thy soul may bless me. 

32 And Isaac his father said unto him, 4 3Vhj$ptf 
thou? And he said, I am thy son, thy first^bbWEsau. 

83 And Isaac f trembled very exceedingly, and 
said, Who ? where is he that hath f taken venison, 
and brought it me, and I have eaten of all before 
thou earnest, and have blessed him? yea, c and he 
shall be blessed, jfiftj.. 

34 And when Esau heard the words of his father, 
d he cried with a great an$, exceeding bitter cry, and 
said unto his father, Bless me, even me also, O my 
father ! 

35 And he said, Thy brother came with subtilty, 
and hath taken away thy blessing. 

36 And he said, e Is not he rightly named || Jacob? 
for he hath supplanted me these two times : -^he 
took away my birth-right; and, behold, now he. hath 
taken away my blessing. And he said',' Hast 'thou 
not reserved a blessing for me? 

37 And Isaac answered and said unto Esau, 

* Behold, I have made him thy lord, and all his 
brethren have I given to him for servants; and 

* with corn and wine have I || sustained him : and 
what shall I do now unto thee, my son? 

38 And Esau said unto his father, Hast thou but 
one blessing, my father ? bless me, even me also, O my 
fatherl And Esau lifted up his voice, 'and wept. 

39 And Isaac his father answered, and said unto 
himy Behold, '■'thy dwelling shall be lithe fatness of 
the earth, and of the dew of heaven from above ; 

40 And by thy sword shalt thou live, and 'shalt 
serve thy brother; and m it shall come to pass when 
thou shalt have the dominion, that thou shalt break 
his yoke from off thy neck. 

41 If And Esau ''hated Jacob because of the bless- 
ing wherewith his . father blessed him : and Esau said 
in his heart, "The days of mourning for myj fether 
are at hand; p then will I slay my brother Jacob. 

42 And these words of Esau her elder sonr^ere 
told to Rebekah: and she sent and called Jacob 
her younger ^son, and said unto him, f J Bdhold, thy 
brothef Esau, as touching thee, doth 9 comfort him- 
sell 9 -pumosin(jf to kill thee. 

43 Now therefore, ,my son, obey my voice; and 
arise, flee thou to Laban my brother r to" Haran; 

44 And tarry with him a few days, until thy 
brother's fury turn away ; 

45 Until thy brother s anger turn away from thee, 
and he forget that which thou hast done to him : 
then I will send, and fetch thee from thence : why 
should I be deprived also of you both in one day? 

46 And Rebekah said to Isaac, .'I am weary of 
my life because of the daughters- of He th : 'if Jacob 
take a wife of the daughters of Heth, such as these 


The vision of Jacob* s ladder, 

which are of the daughters of the land, what good 
shall my life do me ? 


1 Isaac blesseth Jacob, and sendatk him to Padan-aram. 12 The vision of 
Jaeob's ladder. 18 The stone of Beth-el. 20 Jaeob's vow. 
O rr_i A O 

AND Isaac called Jacob, and "blessed him, and 
charged him, and said unto him, * Thou shalt 
not take a wife of the daughters of Canaan. 

2 c Arise, goto d Padan-aram, to the house of e Bethuel 
thy mother's father; and take thee a wife from thence 
of the daughters .of -^Laban thy mother's brother. 

3 *And God Almighty bless thee, and make thee 
fruitful, and multiply thee, that thou mayest be fa 
multitude of people ; 

4 And give thee Hhe blessing of Abraham, to 
thee, and to thy seed with thee; that thou mayest 
inherit the -land f' wherein thou art a stranger, 
which God gave unto Abraham. 

5 And Isaac sent away Jacob : and he went to 
Padan-aram unto. Laban, sqn of ; BethueLthe Syrian, 
the brother of Rebekah, Jacob's and Esau's mqther. 

6 IFWhen "Esau saw that' Isaac had blessed Jacob, 
and sent him away